Within the nasal cavity erectile dysfunction treatment melbourne cheap malegra dxt 130mg online, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone forms the upper portion of the nasal septum erectile dysfunction vacuum therapy malegra dxt 130 mg. On the interior of the skull erectile dysfunction drugs new order malegra dxt 130 mg online, the ethmoid bone forms a small area at the midline in the floor of the anterior cranial fossa ure 19 erectile dysfunction treatment in vijayawada buy malegra dxt on line amex. This portion of the ethmoid bone consists of two parts, the crista galli and cribriform plates. The crista galli (“rooster’s comb or crest”) is a small upward bony projection located at the midline. It functions as an anterior attachment point for one of the covering layers of the brain. To either side of the crista galli is the cribriform plate, a small, flattened area with numerous small openings termed olfactory foramina. Small nerve branches from the olfactory areas of the nasal cavity pass through these openings to enter the brain. Facial Bones the anterior skull consists of the facial bones and provides the bony support for the eyes and structures of the face. The facial bones of the skull form the upper and lower jaws, the nose, nasal cavity and nasal septum, and the orbit. Although classified with the brain-case bones, the ethmoid bone also contributes to the nasal cavity and orbit and the sphenoid and frontal bones make up part of the orbit. Additionally, the supraorbital foramen provides passage for a sensory nerve to the skin of the forehead ure 19. The orbit is the bony socket that houses the eyeball and contains the muscles that move the eyeball and the upper eyelid. On the anterior maxilla, just below the orbit, is the infraorbital foramen, which is the point of exit for a sensory nerve that supplies the nose, upper lip, and anterior cheek. On the inferior skull, the maxillary bone can be seen joining together at the midline to form the anterior three-quarters of the hard palate that forms the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity, separating the oral and nasal cavities ure 19. The palatine bone is one of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that contribute small areas to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and the medial wall of each orbit ure 19. The plates from the right and left palatine bones join together at the midline to form the posterior quarter of the hard palate. Thus, the palatine bones are best seen in an inferior view of the skull and hard palate ure 19. Each of the paired zygomatic bones forms much of the lateral wall of the orbit and the lateral-inferior margins of the anterior orbital opening ure 19. The short temporal process of the zygomatic bone projects posteriorly, where it forms the anterior portion of the zygomatic arch ures 19. In a lateral view of the skull, the large, rounded brain case and the upper and lower jaws are separated by the bridge of bone known as the zygomatic arch. The zygomatic arch is the bony arch on the side of skull that spans from the area of the cheek to just above the ear canal. It is formed by the junction of two bony processes: a short anterior component, the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and a longer posterior portion, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, extending forward from the temporal bone. Thus the temporal process (anteriorly) and the zygomatic process (posteriorly) join together, like the two ends of a drawbridge, to form the zygomatic arch. One of the major muscles that pull the mandible upward during biting and chewing arises from the zygomatic arch. Each lacrimal bone is a small, rectangular bone that forms the anterior, medial wall of the orbit ures 19. The lacrimal fluid (tears of the eye) drains at the medial corner of the eye, which extends downward to open into the nasal cavity. In the nasal cavity, the lacrimal fluid normally drains posteriorly, but with an increased flow of tears due to crying or eye irritation, some fluid will also drain anteriorly, thus causing a runny nose. The unpaired vomer is triangular-shaped bone that forms the posterior-inferior part of the nasal septum ure 19. In an anterior view of the skull, the vomer can be seen articulating to the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, which forms the superior portion of the nasal septum. At the time of birth, the mandible consists of paired right and left bones, but these fuse together during the first year to form the single U-shaped mandible of the adult skull. Each side of the mandible consists of a horizontal body and posteriorly, a vertically oriented ramus of the mandible (ramus = “branch”). The more anterior projection is the flattened coronoid process of the mandible, which provides attachment for one of the biting muscles. The posterior projection is the mandibular condyle, also known as the condylar process of the mandible, which is topped by the oval shaped condyle. The mandiblular condyle articulates (joins) with the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone. Together these articulations form the temporomandibular joint, which allows for opening and closing of the mouth. Additionally, the outside margin of the mandible, where the body and ramus come together is called the angle of the mandible. Located on each side of the anterior-lateral mandible, the mental foramen is an opening that allows passage of a sensory nerve supplying a chin. Sutures of the Skull A suture is an immobile fibrous joint between adjacent bones of the skull. The narrow gap between the bones is filled with dense, fibrous connective tissue that unites the bones. The long sutures located between the bones of the brain case are not straight, but instead follow irregular, tightly twisting paths. These twisting lines serve to tightly interlock the adjacent bones, thus adding strength to the skull for brain protection ures 19. The two suture lines seen on the top of the skull are the coronal and sagittal sutures. The coronal suture runs from side to side across the skull, within the coronal plane of section. The sagittal suture extends posteriorly from the coronal suture, running along the midline at the top of the skull in the sagittal plane of section to unite the right and left parietal bones. On the posterior skull, the sagittal suture terminates by joining the lambdoid suture. The lambdoid suture extends downward and laterally to either side away from its junction with the sagittal suture. The lambdoid suture joins the occipital bone to the right and left parietal and temporal bones. This suture is named for its upside down "V" shape, which resembles the capital letter version of the Greek letter lambda. Fetal Skull As the brain case bones grow in the fetal skull, they remain separated from each other by large areas of dense connective tissue, each of which is called a fontanelle ure 19. The fontanelles are the soft spots on an infant’s head and they are important during birth because these areas allow the skull to change shape as it squeezes through the birth canal. After birth, the fontanelles allow for continued growth and expansion of the skull as the brain enlarges. The largest fontanelle that most people are familiar with is the anterior fontanelle, at the junction of the frontal and parietal bones. Additionally, there are posterior, mastoid, and sphenoid fontanelles, which decrease in size and disappear by age 2. However, the skull bones remain separated from each other at the sutures, which contain dense fibrous connective tissue that unites the adjacent bones. The connective tissue of the sutures allows for continued growth of the skull bones as the brain enlarges during childhood growth. The second mechanism for bone development in the skull produces the facial bones and floor of the brain case. A hyaline cartilage model of the future bone is produced and as this cartilage model grows, it is gradually converted into bone. This is a slow process and the cartilage is not completely converted to bone until the skull achieves its full adult size. At birth, the brain case and orbits of the skull are disproportionally large compared to the bones of the jaws and lower face. This reflects the relative underdevelopment of the maxilla and mandible, which lack teeth, and the small sizes of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. During early childhood, the mastoid process enlarges, the two halves of the mandible and frontal bone fuse together to form single bones, and the paranasal sinuses enlarge. These changes all contribute to the rapid growth and enlargement of the face during childhood.
A brief review of these approaches Logs are similar to impotence tcm trusted 130mg malegra dxt diaries but provide a record of provides some insight into the current constellation participation in specific types of physical activity of strengths and weaknesses on which epidemio rather than in all activites (King et al top erectile dysfunction pills 130mg malegra dxt free shipping. But as with Measures Based on Self-Report diaries impotence vacuum pumps order malegra dxt from india, they can be inconvenient for the participant impotence effects on relationships buy 130 mg malegra dxt otc, Physical activity is a complex set of behaviors most and their use may itself influence the participant’s commonly assessed in epidemiologic studies by ask behavior. Assessment procedures and their potential use in epidemiologic research Use in Low Low large Low Low subject subject Likely to Accep Socially Measurement Applicable scale $ time time effort influence table to accep Activity tool age groups studies cost cost cost cost behavior persons table specific Surveying Task specific diary adult, elderly yes yes yes no no yes Note that most tests that are applicable for adults can be used in adolescents as well. Few tests can be applied to the pediatric age groups; among infants, only direct calorimetry, accelerometers, heart rate monitoring, and stabilometers can be used with accuracy. Recall surveys are less likely to influence behav activity or more general estimates of usual or typical ior and generally require less effort by the respon participation. The recall survey is the method used dent than either diaries or logs, although some for the national and state-based information systems participants have trouble remembering details of providing data for Chapter 5 of this report. Recall surveys of physical activity generally comprehensive form of physical activity recall survey have been used for time frames of from 1 week to a —generally requires specific detail for time frames of lifetime (Kriska et al. If can ascertain either precise details about physical the time frame is long enough, the quantitative history 30 Historical Background, Terminology, Evolution of Recommendations, and Measurement can adequately represent year-round physical activ associated with specific activities, a summary estimate ity. For example, the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physi of caloric output can be obtained from such observa cal Activity Questionnaire and the Tecumseh tion. An important subtype of this approach is the questionnaire obtained information on the average classification of work based on the amount of physical frequency and duration of participation for a specific activity it requires. These approaches can be labor list of physical activities performed over the previous intensive (hence prohibitively expensive for large year (Montoye and Taylor 1984; Taylor et al. Heart tive to other people’s in general or to that of a rate is typically used to estimate daily energy expen similar age and sex group. A best represent participation in vigorous physical major disadvantage of heart rate monitoring is the activity (Washburn, Adams, Haile 1987; Caspersen need to calibrate the heart rate–energy expenditure and Pollard 1988; Jacobs et al. Another limitation is that this approach is that persons reporting the same the relationship between heart rate and energy ex rating may have different actual physical activity penditure is variable for low-intensity physical ac profiles (Washburn, Adams, Haile 1987; Caspersen tivities. Heart rate alone may not be a suitable surrogate for determining the Measures Based on Direct Monitoring level of physical activity, given that other factors, the major alternative to surveys is to directly mea such as psychological stress or changes in body sure physical activity through behavioral observa temperature, can significantly influence heart rate tion, mechanical or electronic devices, or throughout the day. Such ap A variety of sensors have been developed to proaches eliminate the problems of poor memory measure physical activity by detecting motion. Pe and biased self-reporting but are themselves lim dometers, perhaps the earliest motion sensors, were ited by high cost and the burden on participants designed to count steps and thus measure the dis and staff. However, not all pedometers used primarily in small-scale studies, though they are reliable enough for estimating physical activity in have been used recently in some large-scale studies either laboratory or field research (Kashiwazaki et al. Electronic Behavioral observation is the straightforward motion sensors tend to perform better than their process of watching and recording what a person mechanical counterparts (Wong et al. Their output has 31 Physical Activity and Health been significantly correlated with energy expendi Measuring Intensity of Physical Activity ture assessed with indirect calorimetry in controlled Common terms used to characterize the intensity laboratory conditions using graded treadmill exer of physical activity include light or low, moderate cise (Balogun, Amusa, Onyewadume 1988; Haskell or mild, hard or vigorous, and very hard or strenu et al. For example, the intensity pre controlled setting (Klesges and Klesges 1987; Rogers scribed for aerobic exercise training usually is ex et al. Because has shown reasonable correlation with physical ac heart rate during aerobic exercise is highly associ tivity records completed over a year (Richardson et ated with the increase in oxygen uptake, the per al. Exercise intensity rate and motion sensor output versus oxygen uptake can also be expressed in absolute terms, such as a for various activities can accurately estimate the specific type of activity with an assigned intensity energy expended from physical activity (Haskell et (for example, walking at 4 miles per hour or jogging al. Both methods are too expensive and complicated the process of aging illustrates an important for use in large-scale studies. Another physiologic relationship between absolute and specific mea measurement, the use of doubly labeled water, offers sures. As people age, their maximal oxygen uptake researchers special opportunities to assess energy ex decreases. By using two stable isotopes (H2 O and 2 lute intensity) therefore requires a greater percent H 18O) measured every few days or weeks in the urine, 2 age of their maximal oxygen uptake (a relative researchers can calculate the rate of carbon dioxide intensity). According to their body old, moderate for a 60-year-old, and vigorous for an weight, study participants drink a specified amount of 80-year-old. A mass spectrometer is used to track Most exercise training studies have used relative the amount of unmetabolized isotope in the urine. On the other hand, observational studies relat little effort on the part of participants, two disadvan ing physical activity to morbidity or mortality usually tages are its relatively high cost and its inability to report absolute intensity or total amount of physical distinguish between types of activities performed. The activity estimated from composite measures that in technique has been proven accurate when compared clude intensity, frequency, and duration. Recent public health guidelines and research physiologic equivalents can be estimated. This type reports have used absolute intensity to define ap of subjective scale furnishes a convenient way to propriate levels of physical activity, but the term monitor performance. In contrast, area is the assessment of physical fitness, since it Healthy People 2000 objective 1. One solution to respiratory fitness), muscular fitness, and body this inconsistency in terminology is to create con composition. However, other factors influence cardio and a classification of moderate intensity. This quently used to test the cardiorespiratory fitness procedure requires relatively expensive equipment, of children, of young adults, or of groups that have highly trained technicians, and time and coopera occupation-related physical fitness requirements, tion from the participant, all of which usually limit such as military and emergency service personnel. The advantage is that large require much skill—such as walking or running on a numbers of participants can be tested rapidly at low motor-driven treadmill, cycling on a stationary bi cost. However, to obtain an accurate evaluation, cycle ergometer, or climbing steps—oxygen uptake participants must be willing to exert themselves can be quite accurately estimated from the rate of and know how to set a proper pace. Such procedures require an accurately cali strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and bal brated exercise device, careful adherence to a spe ance, agility, and coordination. Muscular strength cific protocol, and good cooperation by the can be measured during performance of either static participant. Because muscular strength is specific to the exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and perfor muscle group, the testing of one group does not mance, in secondary prevention trials for patients provide accurate information about the strength of after hospitalization for myocardial infarction, and other muscle groups (Clarke 1973). Standard fitness imposes a burden on both the participant tests have included the bench press, leg extension, and the examiner. The heaviest submaximal exercise testing protocols have been weight a person can lift only one time through the developed. Both assumptions not distinguish between muscular endurance and are adequately met when a standardized protocol is muscular strength. In some strength, which include sit-ups, push-ups, bent-arm cases, no extrapolation to maximal values is per hangs, and pull-ups, must be properly administered formed, and an individual’s cardiorespiratory fit and may not discriminate well in some populations ness is expressed as the heart rate at a set workload. Few laboratory tests of muscular cific submaximal heart rate (workload at a heart endurance have been developed, and such tests usu rate of 120 beats/minute). Because it is specific to the joint being Data now suggest that the distribution of body tested, no one measure provides a satisfactory index fat, especially accumulation in the abdominal area, of an individual’s overall flexibility (Harris 1969). These new balance, agility, and coordination have included procedures have substantial potential to provide various balance stands. In the laboratory, computer Validity of Measurements based technology is now being used to evaluate Health behaviors are difficult to measure, and this is balance measured on an electronic force platform or certainly true for the behavior of physical activity. Of to analyze a videotape recording of the participant particular concern is how well self-reported physical walking (Lehmann et al. Agility or coordina activity accurately represents a person’s habitual tion are measured most frequently by using a field activity status. Factors that interfere with obtaining test, such as an agility walk or run (Cureton 1947). In the absence of a true criterion measure, Body Composition cardiorespiratory fitness has often been used as a In most population-based studies that have provided validation standard for physical activity surveys. Al information on the relationship between physical though habitual physical activity is a major determi activity and morbidity or mortality, body composi nant of cardiorespiratory fitness, other factors, such as tion has been estimated by measuring body height genetic inheritance, also play a role. Therefore, a and weight and calculating body mass index (weight/ perfect correlation between physical activity report 2 height). The preferred method for determining ing and cardiorespiratory fitness would not be ex amount of body fat and lean body mass in exercise pected. Correlation of two survey instruments with physiologic measures of caloric exchange Study Sample Physiologic test Correlation coefficient Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire Taylor et al. Moreover, they suggest that a more study of predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness precise measure of physical activity would likely yield among adults (Blair et al. Thus, although subgroups, self-reported physical activity was the measurement of physical activity by currently avail principal contributor to the predictive models that able methods may be far from ideal, it has provided a also included weight, resting heart rate, and current means to investigate and demonstrate important health smoking. Recommendations from experts agree that for better health, physical activity should be per the assertion that frequent participation in physical formed regularly.
Kidney shape varies from bean to erectile dysfunction just before penetration purchase malegra dxt 130 mg visa elliptical but the outline 12 Gastric mucosa is always smooth erectile dysfunction treatment supplements order malegra dxt from india. This is caused by the uid iliac veins and the aorta divides to erectile dysfunction drugs and high blood pressure buy cheap malegra dxt online form the left and right lining the lumen being in contact with the wall while gas is in internal and external arteries erectile dysfunction at age 64 purchase malegra dxt now. In the dog radiographed for this lm, very little abdominal 30Iliopubic or iliopectineal eminence intraperitoneal fat was present. This resulted in poor soft 31 Femoral bodies tissue contrast and has made the gas-lled gastrointestinal shadows most obvious. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 315 Dog – Abdomen Figure 447 Ventrodorsal projection of abdomen. Beagle dog 2 years old, entire female (same dog as in all projections of abdomen of the female). An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 317 Dog – Abdomen (448 continued. Unfortunately the fat layer is too 24 Descending colon thin to distinguish clearly between the two muscle layers in 25 Rectum this female dog. Although the dorsoventral projection is not routinely 1 Diaphragmatic shadow used as a standard abdominal projection, comparison 1(a) Cupola of the ventrodorsal and dorsoventral projections, in 29th. Also note the shape of the 5 Skin margin pelvis in the dorsoventral projection, as opposed to the usual appearance in the ventrodorsal projection. Apart from this bowel See (8) in ventrodorsal projection of abdomen of female, shadow jejunum and ileum can not be differentiat Figure 448, for additional details. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 323 Dog – Abdomen Figure 453 Left lateral recumbent projection of abdomen. See (9) in left lateral recumbent 17 Transverse colon projection abdomen of female, Figure 445, for more details. No other part of the gastric shadow is seen in Figures 464–469 and 471–475, for left kidney in this dog. For more details see (26) in left 13 Position of pylorus; sphincter at entrance of duodenum. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 327 Dog – Abdomen Figure 456 Left lateral recumbent projection of abdomen. For more details see (26) in left lateral recumbent projection of abdomen of female, 2C aecal shadow Figure 445. When distended with urine a 4 Descending colon distinct soft tissue shadow can be seen but when empty the urinary bladder lies almost entirely within the 5 Rectum pelvis. See (18) in left lateral recumbent pro 15 Soft tissue shadow of prostatic gland jection of abdomen of female, Figure 445, for more details. See (24) in left lateral recumbent projection 19 Ischiatic tuberosity of abdomen of female, Figure 445, for more kidney 20 Femoral bodies details. Figure 459 Line drawing of photograph representing radiographic positioning for Figure 458. For a routine survey radiograph of the abdomen, a right lateral See (9) in left lateral recumbent projection of abdomen of recumbency is often preferred by many radiographers/radio female, Figure 445, for aditional information. The most important factor is being consistent with 11 Ventral extremity of spleen one’s radiographic approach and hence radiographic appraisal and interpretation. Radiography of both lateral recumbencies is very important 8C alcied costal cartilages for all gastric region analysis. See ventrodorsal and dorsoventral projections line draw ing, Figures 464–469 and 471–475, for the left kidney 16 Caecal shadow. See (26), left lateral recumbent pro 18 Transverse colon jection of abdomen of female, Figure 445, for more details. The different appearances are due to the shifting spondylosis, is present on the ventral aspect of the cranial lumenal gas contrast. See (24) in left lateral recumbent projection 26 Os penis of abdomen of female, Figure 445, for more kidney details. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 333 Dog – Abdomen Figure 462 Right lateral recumbent projection of abdomen. Beagle dog 7 years old, entire male (same dog as in all projections of abdomen of the male). For a routine survey radiograph of the abdomen, a right lateral See ventrodorsal and dorsoventral projections line drawing, recumbency is often preferred by many radiographers/radio Figures 464–469 and 471–475, for the left kidney shadow in logists. See (18) in left lateral recumbent pro jection of abdomen of female, Figure 445, for more details. See (24) in left lateral recumbent projection 21(a) Roof of urethral sulcus of abdomen of female, Figure 445, for additional kidney 22 Preputial shadow information. Beagle dog 7 years old, entire male (same dog as in all pro jections of abdomen of the male). An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 337 Dog – Abdomen (466 continued. This layer usually serves to separate the the right kidney is not visible in this lm due to insuffi m. These muscles 20(a) Transverse process attach to the last two ribs and the medial aspect of the last 21 7th. No other gastric part is can be seen clearly in the caudally centred projection, clearly visible. In this latter lm the shadow may be 13(a) Lesser curvature mistaken as an abnormal vertebral bony opacity rather 13(b)Greater curvature than a superimposed soft tissue opacity. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 339 Dog – Abdomen Figure 468 Ventrodorsal projection of abdomen caudally centred. Note the 4 Caecal shadow relatively caudal position of the kidney in this dog extending from mid 2nd. The right kidney is not visible in this lm due to insuffi 8R ectum cient perirenal fat contrast. The caudal pole of this kidney is seen in both lateral recumbencies, line drawings Figures 9Jejunum and ileum. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 341 Dog – Abdomen (469 continued. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 343 Dog – Abdomen Figure 471 Dorsoventral projection of abdomen. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 345 Dog – Abdomen (472 continued. The caudal pole is seen in both lateral recumbencies line drawings Figures 454/457 and 460/463, extending to 16 Ascending colon cranial 3rd. This kidney is not seen spondylosis, is present in the left lateral aspect of the in either lateral recumbency line drawing, Figures cranial endplate. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 347 Dog – Abdomen Figure 474 Dorsoventral projection of abdomen. The caudal pole is seen in both lateral recumben 23 Soft tissue shadows of hindlimb muscles 350 An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat Dog – Abdomen Figure 476 Line drawing of photograph representing radiographic positioning for Figure 477. An Atlas of Interpretative Radiographic Anatomy of the Dog and Cat 351 Dog – Abdomen Figure 477 Lateral recumbent projection of urethra with hyperexion of hindlegs. It is surrounded 4Extent of the external anal sphincter muscle by the bulbus glandis and pars longa glandis. Ends in cartilaginous tip attached by a 5 Rectum ligament to the corona of the glans penis. The urethra, surrounded by corpus spongiosum penis, 7Ischiatic tuberosity runs in this groove. Attaches to the brous tissues of the corpora 9 Popliteal fabella cavernosa penis. The radiograph shows the economical use of space for the gut viscera in this type of abdomen. The lack of fat contrast makes differentiation of soft tissue structures more difficult but in this type of abdomen left kidney shadow can sometimes be seen to cause ‘ventral displacement’ of the descending colon. When seen in this type of breed, the colonic position is due to the long, shallow abdomen and not to disease. Such a ventral deviation may be linked to displace ment by an abnormal organ, especially a neoplastic left kidney. In this case the shadows dorsal to the colon are within normal radiographic limits and both kidneys are visible. The large amount of abdominal fat in this dog has enhanced contrast making identication of soft tissue shadows easier.
These criteria of normalcy must b considered in asceraining the cause of painful states and the factors demanding corecton erectile dysfunction washington dc buy malegra dxt 130 mg on-line. Signifi cant deviations from physiologic static spinal curves can cause dis comfor and disability erectile dysfunction pump ratings order generic malegra dxt online. There are many factors that infuence adult posture erectile dysfunction doctor kolkata order generic malegra dxt on-line, but there are three factors that supersede all others in their prevalence and fre quency erectile dysfunction 19 year old male order malegra dxt online pills. Such abnormalities may be congenitl or acquired, may be skeletal, muscular, or neurologic, and may be static or progressive. Postural defects can ocur as the result of neuromuscular diseases, such as cerebral palsy, parkinsonism, and hemiplegia. The influence on the postural structures from diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and poliomyelitis, and fom peripheral nere injuries needs no elaboration. More insidious in its influence and admittedly more controversial in its acceptance is (3) the posture of habit and taining. Postural influences attributable to a familial or hereditary origin and postural deviations established by the external influences of neuromuscular, artcular, or bony pathology can usually be established by correct histor, complete physical examination, and specific lab oratory and roentgen-ray studies. Many diseases poray a spcific diagnostic picture that reveals the diagnosis at a glance. The influence 2 of some diseases on psture may be less clearly defned, but frther study of the efect of disease on psture can produce additional diag nostic tools. The effect of habit or taining on psture presents a study that has its own sbare of contoversy and diference of opinion. Postural taining in childhood by parental contol or taining by educators in our schools has a profound infuence in laying the groundwork of ultmate adult posture. Posture is to a large degee habit and from taining and repti ton can become a subconscious habit. The subconscious habit of pos ture is manifested not only in statc posture but to a large degree in kinetc patters. Repetition of faulty acton can result in faulty kinetic fncton and repated faulty posture patters can become ingrained. The ordinar upright posture with arms hanging loosely at the side or claspd in font or behind is universal. One quarer of the human race habitually take, weight of its feet by crouching in a deep squat at rest or at work (. Chairs, stools, and benches were in use in Egypt and Mesopotamia 50years ago, but the Chinese used chairs only as recently a 200years ago. The Islamic soieties of the Middle East and North Afica have retured to sittng on the floor "for cultural prestige. The Turkish or "tailor" cross-legged squat is used in the Middle East and India and in much of Asia. The practce of crossing the legs or folding them to one side, which was thought to be assumed by women because of narrow skirts, is found in cultures where clothing is not wor. Standing is infuenced by the use of footwear as well as a complex of many fctors: anatomic, physiologic, cultural, environmental, occupa tional, technologic, and sexual. Religious concepts have influenced posture by prescribing priods of kneeling, bowing, standing, and prostration during worship. Eighteenth-century chairs with hard seats and straight backs have been replaced by sof curved chairs or sofas. We still, however, tain our children to conform to cultural norms of posture by verbal instructon. Standad posture is one of skeletal alignment refined as a relative arrangement of the parts of the body in a state of balance that protects the supporting structures of the body against injury or progressive deformity. This was the definiton given by the Posture Committee of the American Academy of Orhopaedic Surger in 1947. The body is porly engineered for standing because stance is main tined with the heavy parts at the top upon a narrow base (. Posture must also be viewed fom the cultural aspcts of taining, background, and childhood environment. Parental example is of un doubted significance in the establishment of accepted normal posture. Competton and example from siblings or classmates will also leave its mark on the psyche which in turn molds the postural patters. Our stance and our movements mirror clearly to the observer our psychologic inner drives or their absence. Our posture is "organ language, " a feeling-expression, in fact a postural exteriorization of our inner feelings. The depressed, dejected person will stand in a "droopd" postural manner with the upper back rounded and the shoulders depressed by the "weight of the world carried on his back. The posture of fatigue places a chronic ligamentous strain upon an individual and the muscular effort exered to relieve the strain may be too feeble to be effectual. The hypractve hyperkinetic person will portray his feelings in posture as well as in the abruptness and irregularity of his movements. The movements of alertness need not be, and in fact usually are not, those of effciency and effectiveness. This posture depicts that of the uneasy aggressor, in combat pose, ready to leap or ready to withdraw in a defensive crouch. In observing this typ of person, the dotor need not ask his psychologic attitude but should merely observe his sitting, standing, walking, response to questions, and movements during the interview and examination. The fll-bosomed girl, influenced by teasing or fear ing to lack modesty, sat, stood, and walked with rounded shoulders to decrease the apparent size of her bosom. All patters of psture assumed in childhood for real or imagined results form a pater that becomes deep seated. The patter becomes not only a psychic patter, but it gradually molds the tissues into somatic patters that remain a structural monument to early psychic 24 molding. When the age of "reason" or realization is reached the posture is largely fixed in its structural composition and is deeply establishedin the subconscious. Without extreme persistent efort to change, that posture will become a permanent fixture. However, repated emo tional upheavals cause the child to adopt attitudes that ensure safety. This, he claims, evokes contraction of the flexor muscles inhibiting extensor tone. His analogy to animals is that when they are fightened they react by violent contaction of all flexor muscles, thus preventing (inhibiting) the extensor musculature. The attitude of the child from repeated emotional stresses is that of flexion with concurrent inhibition of the extensors. This attitude in the upright erect posture becomes one of flexion at the hips and spine with a forward head posture. This posture becomes habitual and feels "nor mal:" the pain-causing postural patter can be ascertained by under standing the deviation from what is considered normal. A full evalua tion of the mechanisms of pain production in the static then in the kinetic spines will follow, but the exact sites of pain production must first be determined. When the site of tissue capable of eliciting pain can be loated, the specific movement or positions of the vertebral compo nents that iritate thesetissues can be established. For the evaluation of the sites in the vertebral column capable of painful reaction we must retur to thejUlictional unit (. The total disc is an inert tissue and the nucleus has been found completely free of any sensory typ of nerve endings. Nere endings have been found in the annulus, but neurophysiologic studies have failed to discover pain sensor transmission from these nerves. The discs, therefore, both annulus and nucleus, must be considered insensitive to pain sensa tions, 2. If the absence of sensory nerves emanating fom the disc be accepted it must be assumed that it is not pssible to consider the disc a pain producing unit. The commonplace disc-pain must, therefore, originate from contiguous tissues, with the disc itself in some manner par ticipating in the instigation of disc-pain by its action on these sur rounding tissues. The tissues labeled + are pain-sensitive in that they contain sensor nerve endings that are capable of causing pain when irritted.