My sincere appreciation and gratitude are also expressed towards the staff members at the Office for Students with Disabilities symptoms you are pregnant buy genuine naltrexone, University of the Western Cape symptoms 6 days before period order naltrexone 50 mg with visa, for the years of support and assistance they have provided symptoms 4dp3dt purchase naltrexone in india. To my uncle treatment xerosis order naltrexone overnight, Peter Edmund van Vuuren, former principal of Hillside High, now Chief Whip for Basic Education in the Eastern Cape for the Democratic Alliance. I would also like to express my profound gratitude towards my loving mother, brother, sister and extended family for their guidance, love and support throughout my life. I would also like to express my deep thanks and gratitude to my (late) grandparents George and Elizabeth van Vuuren, who have been a source of encouragement and support during my whole studies. I only knew you for nine years but I remember as a little boy, you nicknamed me professor and for this reason I am dedicating this degree to you because you spoke this into my life. Your presence is solely missed and it saddens me because you are not around to witness this degree being awarded to me. On the other hand, some patients present with primarily hematologic, renal or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Four inheritance models, namely a susceptibility model, a tipping point model, a protective mutation model, and an asymptomatic model were proposed for the analysis because it was not clear whether the mode of inheritance is dominant or recessive. From the middle ages to the midst of the nineteenth century, the fundamental clinical illustrations of lupus were dermatologic, as depicted by Bateman, Cazenave and Kaposi (Blotzer, 1983; Smith and Cyr, 1988). In 1833, Cazenave used the term, erythema centrifugum, to characterize cutaneous lesions that are now known as discoid lupus, and in 1846 the butterfly distribution of the facial rash was described by von Hebra (Blotzer, 1983; Smith and Cyr, 1988). In the year 1872, Kaposi was the first to describe systemic appearance of lupus, such as subcutaneous nodules, arthritis with synovial hypertrophy of both small and large joints, lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, anemia and central nervous system involvement (Kaposi, 1872), and Kaposis findings were later confirmed by Oslek (Oslek, 1904) and Jadassohn (Jadassohn, 1904). On the other hand, some patients present with primarily hematologic, renal or neuropsychiatric manifestations (Schur, 2003). In comparison to adults, children have a higher incidence of malar rash, anemia, leukocytopenia (Rood et al. The diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus requires the presence of four or more of the following 11 criteria, serially or simultaneously, during any period of observation. Malar rash: fixed erythema, flat or raised, over the malar eminences, tending to spare the nasolabial folds 2. Discoid rash: erythematous, raised patches with adherent keratotic scaling and follicular plugging; possibly atrophic scarring in older lesions 3. Photosensitivity: skin rash as a result of unusual reaction to sunlight, as determined by patient history or physician observation 4. Oral ulcers: oral or nasopharyngeal ulceration, usually painless, observed by physician 5. Arthritis: non-erosive arthritis involving two or more peripheral joints, characterized by swelling, tenderness, or effusion 6. Serositis: pleuritis, by convincing history of pleuritic pain, rub heard by physician, or evidence of pleural effusion; or pericarditis documented by electrocardiography, rub heard by physician, or evidence of pericardial effusion 7. Neurologic disorder: seizures or psychosis occurring in the absence of offending drugs or known metabolic derangement. Hematologic disorder: hemolytic anemia with reticulocytosis; or leukopenia, < 4,000 per mm3 (4. Antinuclear antibodies: an abnormal antinuclear antibody titer by immunofluorescence or equivalent assay at any time and in the absence of drugs known to be associated with drug-induced lupus 4 etd. Author (Reference), Country (Area), Total Rate per 100,000 per Female Rate per 100,000 per a b b Study Period year (n) year (n) Americas Uramoto, United States, Minnesota 5. Age-adjusted rates provided when available; group-specific estimates provided when based on 2 or more cases. Voss included a total of 107 patients, but the number per time period was not provided. Al-Arfaj used a survey with follow-up examination, and all other studies b used various type medical records for case ascertainment. Age-adjusted rates provided when available; group specific estimates provided when based on 2 or more cases. Statistical significance not reported; odds ratio based on 7 cases in 140 relatives of probands compared to estimated population prevalence of 2%. These factors lead to an inevitable break in immunological tolerance (Bertsias et al. The depletion of immune tolerance, elevated antigenic load, excess T cell help, defective B cell suppression and the displacement of T helper 1 (Th1) to T 11 etd. Once activated, immune reactants such as immune complexes intensifies and prolongs the inflammatory response (Bertsias et al. In the past, autoimmunity has been regarded as being synonymous with the development of clinical disease. It has become obvious that this is not always the case and that it is possible to draw a distinction between what could be described as either destructive or non-destructive autoimmunity. Destructive autoimmunity is affiliated with the development of clinical disease, whereas autoimmune responses that are non destructive do not lead to disease. All these discoveries state that both Th1 and Th2 responses are equally important in the pathogenesis of lupus-associated tissue injury. Therefore, the accumulation of several genes and the contributions of each allele (odds ratio ~1. The amalgamation of risk alleles that leads to susceptibility and the mechanisms by which they regulate autoimmunity is not fully understood. Although chronic viral infection can advance to T cell debilitation, viruses have also been involved in contributing to autoimmunity through molecular imitations. Some viral proteins are identical to self-antigens and therefore trigger specific immune responses that can cross-react with 17 etd. Self-antigen Ro is a regular target of autoantibodies (Toussirot and Roudier, 2008). Nonetheless, these drugs are rapidly being displaced due to the introduction of novel drug compounds. Over the next half century, genetics advanced as a basic science, with a focus on Drosophila, the mouse, and corn as experimental systems. Most human studies were based on biostatistics and population-based mathematical analyses. Nonetheless, during this time, Mendelian inheritance was defined in multiple disorders, such as albinism, brachydactyly, and symphalangism (Keeler, 1953; Bell, 1951). A scientific approach to human genetics emanated in 1948 with the endowment of the American Society of Human Genetics (Weiss and Ward, 2000). In 1983, due to advancements in the field of molecular genetics, the Huntington disease gene was the first to be mapped to a human chromosome without any pre existent indication of the gene location (Bates, 2005). Since then, over the following two decades, advances in human genetics have made considerable progress in genome analysis techniques leading to the discovery of a remarkable number of human disease genes. This wealth of information has also reported that the traditional difference between Mendelian and complex diseases might sometimes be obscured. Linkage analysis is based on the premise that genes lying close to each other are less likely to segregate during meiosis. The method searches for known genetic markers that co-segregate with the inherited disease phenotype. Their segregation data best fit a model of autosomal dominant inheritance, nonetheless, the poorly informative markers used, the insufficiency of pedigree material available to study and the apparent complexity of the underlying genetics colluded against producing significant linkage results. To further corroborate the presence of linkage in the genomic neighbourhood of D11S2002, they genotyped two additional markers, D11S937 and D11S1887, which were 5. Whilst this study identified broad genetic loci that may be associated with the disease, it could not address underlying genetic mechanisms for disease occurrence. This effect was maximized with a dominant model with 95% penetrance in males and 99% in females. The microarray assay they used (Panorama Cytokine Gene Array membranes; Sigma Genosys, Inc), comprised 375 genes enriched in cytokines, chemokines, cell surface receptors, and other immune-system cell surface molecules, including adhesion molecules. Through advances in technology, it has become apparent that microarray gene-expression studies were rapidly being succeeded by sequenced-based methods, which had the potential to detect and evaluate rare transcripts without prior knowledge of a particular gene and could provide information regarding alternative splicing and sequence variation in identified genes (Wold and Myers, 2008; Wang et al. Even though the Sanger method was still regarded by the research community as the gold standard for sequencing, it had numerous limitations (Men et al. The method was also unable to analyze complex diploid genomes at low cost, and de novo genome assembly was challenging (Drmanac et al. However, this method underwent multiple improvements, ultimately leading to the complete sequence of 3 billion base pairs (bp) contained within a human genome (Marzillier, 2013). This attribute has broadened the realm of experimentation beyond just determining the order of bases.
The difference is evident medications depression order naltrexone 50mg line, and it consistent with the analysis presented at Chapter 4 symptoms zinc toxicity discount naltrexone 50mg. For practical reasons medicine urinary tract infection cheap naltrexone 50 mg online, the short-circuit connections of the tag sides to keratin treatment discount 50mg naltrexone mastercard the ground plane were implemented by using vias (8 each side, with radius 0. Both of the effects mentioned above should be attributed to the additional ohmic losses introduced by: i) the connections to ground, which have been implemented in the prototype by using vias, instead of the vertical metallic walls considered in the simulation and ii) the losses on the copper metal plane, which were not considered in the simulations. The effect of these losses is to decrease the antenna quality factor, and therefore enhance its bandwidth. In order to confirm the simulated results, a tag prototype was manufactured and tested. In case of working over metal at the second resonance, however, high-permittivity substrates are necessary to contain the lateral size within acceptable values. On the other hand, when working at the first resonance, the particle is so small that the use of a high-permittivity substrate is not necessary, but at the same time, due to its reduced dimensions, its radiation efficiency is totally insufficient for practical use (Table 3). This structure is obtained by providing each ring with two cuts, separated by 180 (Figure 5. The geometric parameters (height over the metal plane, width and separation between rings, and port position across the slot) can be tailored to adjust the resonant frequency, or, equivalently, the electrical size of the antenna, until reaching acceptable radiation efficiency. In case, the number of slits can be even increased to obtain larger uniform current loops with controllable electrical size. In this case, the screen containing the particle was cut round-shaped, with a radius of 20. To increase the accuracy of the simulation results, the ground was modeled by a conductive wall with 7 the conductivity of copper ( = 5. The volume enclosed by the antenna was treated as air in the simulation, since no substrate was used. Regarding the radiation efficiency, a significant improvement was obtained by avoiding the use of a dielectric substrate. Obviously, due to the absence of a substrate, and the consequent lack of structural rigidity, the presented solution is not suitable for manufacturing without further modifications. One possible solution is to increase the thickness of the metal, and even the metal type, to obtain a self-supporting structure. For example, a stainless-steel edition of the tag would possess sufficient rigidity to withstand the environmental conditions in many applications. Due to the lower conductivity of this material, however, the radiation efficiency would be reduced. Simulation results predicted an efficiency of rad = 11%, leading to a gain of G0 =4. In this case, the simulated results predicted smaller loss of performance, with the radiation efficiency reaching rad = 18% (with substrate characteristics: hs = 15m, and r = 3. However, the metallization of the screen sides to the ground would still require special techniques, and may increase the tag complexity and cost. In a general case, the antenna input resistance at resonance is Rin = Rrad + Rloss, i. Therefore, its radius dependence is a second order 2 polynomial of the form Rin = ar0 + br0, where a and b depend on the frequency f0, the metal conductivity and the geometrical parameters c and h. However, in case the radiation efficiency is expected to be sufficiently high (Figure 4. Since the metal used for the prototype is copper with a thickness of h = 35 m, setting the strip width to c = 2 mm allows using the expression above, because the expected efficiency is 98% (neglecting the substrate). First, a dielectric substrate with the proper combination of relative permittivity r and thickness hs is chosen, obtaining a resonant frequency near to the desired value. Finally, by tailoring the distance d between rings, a fine adjustment of the frequency of resonance is done. The simulated radiation efficiency and antenna gain are rad = 92% (lower to the predicted 98% due to the presence of dielectric losses) and G0 = 2. The power reflection coefficient of the system was measured by means of an Agilent N5221A network analyzer, and the results (Figure 5. However, since the presence of the balun was not taken into account in the simulations, some differences between simulation and measurement arise. The total losses in the antenna-analyzer link, accounted by the parameter A, where the sum of the coaxial losses (measured to be 0. In this work, a novel approach to the problem is proposed, which allows overcoming the abovementioned limitations and greatly reduces the performance gap with respect to general-purpose tags. Based on the study of the disc structure, the tag operation principle is proposed, and a working prototype is presented to confirm the validity of the presented solution. Since a study of the structure and electromagnetic properties of the different disc types was at the base of the presented solution, the disc structure will be first discussed as follows. The substrate layer, made of polycarbonate plastic, provides structural rigidity and protects the internal layers from mechanical damage (scratches) and oxidation caused by atmospheric agents (humidity, oxygen, dust, etc. In every case, the substrate presents a central hole of 15 mm, in which the rotational head of the reader is inserted. The reflective layer, which is found in all kind of optical storage devices, is necessary to reflect the laser beam during read and write operations of the data content. It is constituted by a very thin metal film (30-50 nm) grown on the polycarbonate by means of sputtering deposition. The sputtered material can be aluminum, gold, silver, or silver alloys, depending on the disc type . Its inner diameter varies from 20-25 mm to 48mm (which is the beginning of the data zone), depending on the disc model. As it will be detailed later, the inner diameter of the metal layer is tightly related to the performance of the tags proposed in this work. The data layer, which contains the information, is usually adjacent to the reflective layer, sometimes being the reflective layer itself. Data are stored in this layer in the form of nanometer scale pits and lands, which modulate the intensity of the reflected laser beam detected by the reader photodiode. Depending upon the disc type, different materials can be employed to form this layer. When it comes to electromagnetic simulation, it is possible to simplify the problem by modeling the disc considering only the substrate layers and the metal layer. In fact, these are the most important layers in terms of electrical properties, as the other layers are very thin and do not present critical electrical properties. This approximation can only be assumed in the case of single data layer discs only. As said above, the reflective layer is the responsible of the problems arising when tagging optical discs. This means that the film effectively behaves as a metal, forcing its boundary conditions which prevent the correct operation of any electric dipole-based tag. This situation led to the development of specific tag designs, which will be detailed in the next section. However, this solution presents poor performance, mainly because of two factors: i) the proximity of the disc metallic layer, which generates image currents opposed to the dipole currents, and ii) the reduced tag size, which is a consequence of the small available area. As a result, the achieved read ranges are sensibly reduced as compared to general-purpose tags. Moreover, this kind of tags typically presents complex layout geometries (as in the case of ), and the design process is not fully explained. This can be seen in the simulated disc response, in terms of induced currents and electric fields, when illuminated by a plane wave (Figure 6. The tag proposed in this work is intended to excite a similar current distribution on the disc surface, so that an oscillating dipolar moment would be generated, acting as the main radiating element of the system. In this situation, the tag would take advantage of the whole dimensions of the disc, and no image currents would arise. Obviously, their radiation efficiency mainly depends on the losses in the radiating body, i. As it will be detailed in the next sections, the obtained efficiencies are sufficiently high to provide read ranges in the order of several meters, as a function of the disc type and the tag design. Since the metal layer is buried under the disc surface, it is not directly accessible by a tag attached to the disc. Therefore, the disc excitation must be based on electric/magnetic coupling between the tag and the reflective layer.
The confrmation diagnosis of Lupus will require the presence of suggestive symptoms that affect two or more organs or systems medications you can give your cat buy genuine naltrexone on-line. After the presence of these symptoms treatment bulging disc purchase generic naltrexone pills, the health professional will proceed to medications on carry on luggage buy naltrexone american express carry out blood analyses that will help confrm or rule out this disease medications you cannot crush discount naltrexone online american express. This diffculty is due to the fact that the manifestations required to establish the diagnosis do not usually appear at the same time, but rather, they appear gradually over time. This problem increases the risk of heart attacks, cardiac insuffciency, and cerebral vascular accidents. For this reason, special attention should be paid to risk factors (high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, smoking. Lupus may also cause damage to the kidney and derive in renal insuffciency (possibly requiring dialysis). You can help prevent these severe problems by consulting your doctor when the frst symptoms appear. These include: v High blood pressure v Swelling of feet and hands v Swelling around the eyes v Changes in urine (presence of blood or foam in the urine, need to urinate more at night, having diffculties or feeling pain when urinating) It seems that Lupus and its treatment may also increase the risk of suffering osteoporosis (decalcifcation of the bones), so your bones become less dense and more likely to break. You should try to maintain a balanced diet, rich in calcium and vitamin D, doing physical exercise on a regular basis, and consulting your doctor if you are a candidate to bone density test (especially if receiving treatment with corticosteroids. Lupus has no cure today, so its treatment focuses on controlling its manifestations. As Lupus may affect different organs of the body, which vary depending on the patient, treatment will be personalised. It should be taken into account that the treatments applied may become very aggressive and generate considerable side effects. Reducing the risk of side effects of the medication When treating the manifestations of Lupus, these can be divided into two blocks: 1. This block includes fever, joint swelling (arthritis), skin lesions and infammation of different membranes. Noteworthy among these are impairment of the kidney, central nervous system, blood cells (in form of anaemia or reduction of platelets), lung and heart. Depending on the severity, the doctor may choose from among the drugs indicated below, adjusting the treatment and its possible toxicity to the affect that the disease has. It is very important to bear in mind that we should avoid producing more harm with the treatments than the harm that Lupus could cause. The drugs that are normally recommended for treating Lupus include: > Non-steroid anti-infammatory drugs Non-steroid anti-infammatory drugs are drugs that combat infammation. However, in Lupus, their use is restricted to short symptomatic treatments, basically in cases with joint conditions, as, in general, they cannot control the disease by themselves. They are usually well-tolerated, but it may be recommendable to use them together with gastric protectors, especially if taken together with corticosteroids. Although the most important side effects of these drugs are digestive related, there is also a risk of adverse effects at kidney and cardiovascular level (high blood pressure and cardiac insuffciency in susceptible patients). Glucocorticoids are anti-infammatory and they have a powerful and generally fast effect, so they are very useful in acute fares of the disease. However, they also have many and very serious adverse effects, with capacity to product irreversible organ damage at several levels (diabetes, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, bone infarcts destruction of part of the bone due to lack of vascularisation, etc. Over the last few years it has been established that high doses of oral glucocorticoids (prednisone) should be avoided whenever possible, limiting the administration time as much as possible. However, their regulating effect on the immune system has been known for some time, and they form one of the most commonly used groups of drugs in Lupus, especially hydroxychloroquine. Although it has been considered for years that hydroxychloroquine was only indicated in minor manifestations of Lupus, recent studies have shown a large variety of benefcial effects. Nowadays it is considered that hydroxychloroquine is the essential baseline treatment for Lupus, so its prolonged administration is recommended in all patients who have no contraindications. Its excellent safety profle permits its use during pregnancy, too, so it should not be discontinued during this period. Fortunately, it is not very frequent in patients treated with hydroxychlorquine (not so, though, with chloroquine), and it can be prevented if detected early on. Keep your appointments with the ophthalmologist when you are taking anti-malarial drugs. There are old immunodepressive drugs (such as cyclophosphamide, azathioprine or methotrexate) and other more recently introduced ones (such as mycophenolate or tacrolimus). They are considered as alternative drugs that are used in cases of severe manifestations (for example, in nephritis or lupus psychosis), but they are also used in more mild forms of Lupus that require maintenance therapy with prednisone, so that the dose of the latter can be reduced. Although these are drugs that are considered as potentially toxic, if properly indicated, if their doses are controlled well and their adverse effects are properly monitored, their safety profle is good, above all considering that they help us control severe manifestations of Lupus and minimise the toxicity associated with glucocorticoids. Many of them are contraindicated in pregnancy; however, azathioprine and tracrolimus can be used relatively with relative tranquillity during this period. You and your doctor should review the results of your treatment plan on a regular basis. If new symptoms appear, if they increase in frequency or intensity, immediately inform your doctor; he/she will indicate if your treatment has not been modifed. Follow the treatment, keep your medical appointments, get analyses done and follow your doctors instructions. These teams should be led and coordinated by doctors with training and experience, and who are specifcally dedicated to autoimmune disease. Furthermore, depending on the type of specifc manifestations in each patient, the participation of other specialities may be necessary: v Nephrologists v Dermatologists v Haematologists v Neurologists v Immunologists v Pneumologists v Cardiologists v Endocrinologists v Obstetricians and gynaecologists v Psychiatrists It is also very important for Primary Care doctors to be involved, and for them to coordinate appropriately with hospital doctors. It is very important for the work of the different professionals to be coordinated, ensuring easy accessibility and fast responses in patients situations of need. These visits will help you and your doctor to: v Detect changes in symptoms v Prevent fares and complications of lupus v Adjust the treatment plan v Detect side effects of the treatment On many occasions, several specialists should intervene and act together in your treatment plan and follow-up. It is important to involve the medical care team during your pregnancy, in close collaboration with the gynaecologist/obstetrician. There are some considerations to be taken into account if you are thinking of getting pregnant: v Pregnancy, in women with Lupus, is considered high risk; however, the majority of women have complication-free pregnancies. Your doctor will help you plan your pregnancy and will advise you during the gestation. With respect to contraceptive measures, you should take the following aspects into account. Recent studies have shown that some oral contraceptives (pill) are practically harmless for women with inactive Lupus and without other factors of risk of thrombosis, like antiphospholipid antibodies or smoking, providing that the doses of oestrogens they contain are low. In any case, it should be your regular doctor and your gynaecologist who make an assessment of your case and inform you of the most appropriate measures for you. Bear the following advice in mind: v Practice aerobic exercise (walking, swimming, cycling, etc. He/ she may assess possible defciencies of some elements such as iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, calcium and vitamin D. Try not to go to the beach at hours around midday, when the sun is at its most harmful. Some patients may be very sensitive to the sun and require more drastic protection measures. At times, the family should adapt to changes in their daily activities and leisure. Families should have a good understanding of the disease and its possible limitations, as well as the most suitable lifestyle to be followed. The following advice may be useful for families, caregivers, or people who live with patients with Lupus, to help them: v Try not to be overprotective. You cannot give them their health back but being overprotective may make the person affected feel unable to cope by themselves. Lupus, depending on the severity, may generate quite a signifcant impact on the lives of people, forcing them to change their daily habits and, on many occasions, lose their autonomy. Faced with this change of reality, people with Lupus often feel frustrated and express rage, among other emotions. Mistrust websites that offer a cure for your disease or do not have the backing of experts. If the person affected is your partner bear in mind that: v You should try to prevent the disease from governing your lives.
As soon as the vehicle is back on a road To receive real-time traffic reports via known to 4d medications cheap naltrexone 50 mg line the system symptoms of strep throat buy 50 mg naltrexone otc, route guidance satellite radio medicine questions generic naltrexone 50 mg, you require: continues in the usual way treatment kitty colds buy naltrexone 50 mg with mastercard. At the start of the route guidance, you will see Received traffic reports are displayed on the the Off road message, an arrow and the map either as text or as symbols. As soon as the vehicle is back on a road known to the system, route guidance continues in the usual way. Off-road during route guidance Due to roadworks, for example, there may be differences between the data on the digital map and the actual course of the road. In such cases, the system will temporarily be unable to locate the vehicle position on the Traffic reports 93 Real-time traffic reports on the map: Symbol delimiting the section of the route affected; Symbol indicating an incident on the route (traffic flow) = Destination Z 94 Traffic reports Symbol for real-time traffic reports Warning (red) On the map: symbol appears at the beginning of the affected route section if route guidance is active and the route leads through an affected area. Traffic reports: symbol appears with the warning entry type Traffic incident (yellow) On the map: symbol appears at the beginning of the affected route section if route guidance is active and the route leads through an affected area. Traffic reports: symbol appears with the caution entry type Slow-moving traffic on the route On the map: symbol appears at the beginning of the affected route section if route guidance is active and the route leads through the area. Traffic reports: symbol appears with the slow-moving traffic entry type Traffic jam on the route On the map: symbol appears when approaching a traffic jam if route guidance is active and the route passes through the area affected by the traffic jam. Traffic reports: symbol appears with the traffic jam on route entry type Blocked route section on the route On the map: symbol appears at the beginning of a blocked section if route guidance is active and the route passes through the blocked section. Traffic reports: symbol appears with the blocked route section entry type Yellow line Traffic incidents with arrows On the map: possible delays. If the dialog field shows the "No Traffic Messages" message, this means that: the first list shows the roads, areas and Rno traffic reports have been received yet. X To cancel the search: select Cancel and X To show all reports: select Display All press W to confirm. You see a list of all roads, areas and regions If traffic reports exist, a list is shown. List when route guidance is not active X To show a traffic report: select a road, area or region and press W to confirm. Displaying traffic reports on the map Reading out traffic reports on the route Introduction the read-aloud function is only available while route guidance is active. Dynamic Route Only After Request take i If there are no reports for the route, the all relevant traffic messages into account when calculating a route (Y page 56). Read out all messages on route menu item is shown in gray and cannot be If you have set the route type Dynamic selected. X To switch off the read-aloud function: select Cancel read-aloud function and If you have set the route type Dynamic press W to confirm or press the 8 Route Only After Request, a prompt button. Destination memory X Select Read Traffic Messages Automatically and press W to confirm. Home address (My address) Depending on the previous state, switch Entering the home address via address the option on O or off. Adopting an address book entry as a the My Address entry is listed as the first home address entry in the destination memory. X To switch on navigation mode: press the X Select My Address by turning cVd the O function button. If a X Select From Memory and press W to home address already exists, it is displayed confirm. You will see the destination memory list i If you select New Entry, you are also either with the character bar (option 1) or offered the option of entering the home as a selection list (option 2). You can then save the home address without having to Option 1: destination memory list with start route guidance. Option 2: destination memory list as selection list Destination memory 99 then save the home address without having After destination entry to start route guidance. X the destination has been entered and is X Select Home, Work or Not Classified and shown in the address entry menu press W to confirm. You will see a message and From the list of previous destinations then the address menu with the selected address. This function also stores the destination in You can now select storing options the address book. When the address book is full, no destinations can be saved in the destination memory. Once you have chosen one of the following options for storing a destination, you can X the input menu appears with data fields specify storage options: and the character bar. If the X Select Assign to Address Book Entry selected address book entry already from the storage options and press W to contains address data that can be used for confirm. You will see the address book either with X Select Yes or No and press W to confirm. X Select an address book entry If you select No, the process will be (Y page 144). If the selected address book entry already contains navigable address data, a prompt Previous destinations 101 will appear asking whether you wish to If you select No, the process will be overwrite the existing data. If the directly from the address book corresponding address book entry does (Y page 146). Deleting a destination or the home address X To switch to navigation mode: press the Previous destinations O function button. You will see the destination memory list either with the character bar (option 1) or Storing a destination permanently in as a selection list (option 2). X Select Position in the navigation system X Select Yes or No and press W to confirm. Z 102 Map operation and map setting Storing the crosshair position in the Map operation and map setting list of previous destinations General notes A crosshair appears on the map if you have Company logos displayed on the map are moved the map manually (Y page 103). You trademarks of the respective companies and can store the crosshair position as a used solely for the purpose of indicating the destination in the list of previous locations of these companies. Deleting one of the previous destinations X To switch on navigation mode: press the: Set map scale as a number with unit O function button. X Select Vehicle Position Map and press W to confirm or, if the crosshair is shown, press the % back button. Map with crosshair: Current vehicle position Centering the map on the destination; Crosshair position = Details of the crosshair position this function requires that a route to a X Select Destination position map and Display = may be the name of a street, for press W to confirm. Hiding the crosshair and centering the map on the vehicle position or destination X Press the % back button twice. Z 104 Map operation and map setting Map settings of the earth and the orange point of the symbol points north) Calling up the map settings menu R¤ 3D map (the map is displayed so that the heading is always up; from a scale of 1 km the map displays elevation; the orange point of the symbol points north). Points of interest are, for example, gas stations, X To switch the symbol display on/off: hotels, cinemas and restaurants. X To switch all custom symbols on/off: X Select Map Settings and press W to select All and press W to confirm. Symbol display determined by the factory If the function is switched off , you can settings. As a result, certain point of interest symbols may not be displayed on the map, even if the symbol display is switched on. Z 106 Map operation and map setting Selecting map information You can only see this display during route guidance. While moving the map, you will see additional data, depending on the crosshair position, if the digital map supports this data. During route calculation, or if the vehicle is traveling on a non-digitized road, the linear distance to the destination is shown. Map information in the display During route guidance, you can have map information shown at the bottom edge of the display. Geo-coordinate display: Current height above average sea level X Select Arrival Time / Distance, (rounded to the nearest 10 m) Current Street, Geo-coordinates or None and press W to confirm. Estimated time of arrival N Map operation and map setting 107 Height display: and number of satellites X Select Map Settings and press W to used The topographical map uses different colors Display switched off to depict elevation. Switching highway information on/off X Select Never, When Off-Road or When When driving on the highway, you can see the Route Guidance Inactive and press W following information on the right of the display: to confirm.