Grade-level retention effects: A asked to blood pressure chart dr oz generic beloc 40 mg with amex rate 20 stressful life events that included such meta-analysis of research studies hypertension obesity buy beloc 20mg amex. The effects of non sixth-grade students reported only the loss of a parent promotion on elementary and junior high school pupils: A and going blind as more stressful than grade retention pulse pressure 42 buy beloc 20 mg line. Reviews of Educational Research blood pressure 140100 buy discount beloc 20 mg, 54, this study was replicated in 2001, and it was found 225–236. Meta-analysis of grade retention single most stressful life event, higher than both the research: Implications for practice in the 21st century. Winning the battle and losing the war: Examining the rela stress of grade retention increasing from first, to third, tion between grade retention and dropping out of high to sixth grade. In classrooms, intermittent schedules are timing with which reinforcement is delivered for a very useful because they are not as prone to satiation certain behavior. The most basic type of schedule is one cumbersome to implement and administer, and pro in which reinforcement follows every occurrence of duce behaviors that are more resistant to extinction, the behavior. For this type of schedule to be truly continu variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval ous, each and every instance of the behavior must be schedules. This predeter ing and what we know about the effects of different mined number of occurrences determines when a rein schedules of reinforcement suggest that the teacher forcer is delivered. The reinforcement would follow the fourth occurrence of teacher would benefit from planning out the averages the behavior. Moving to Interval schedules deliver reinforcement based on higher-ratio requirements is called thinning the rein time and the occurrence of a target behavior. The term schedule, the teacher would reinforce a student (per ratio strain is used to describe instances in which a haps with stickers) the first time the behavior of inter rich ratio schedule is thinned out too quickly. Fixed-ratio schedules lead to very predictable Fixed interval schedules are typically easier for patterns of student response when used in classrooms. Additionally, as the ratio ratio schedules, teachers need not monitor and keep increases in size, students may demonstrate a pause up with each occurrence of student behavior. This With larger ratios, the student will demonstrate larger period of time is not fixed and averages some prede pauses. Continuous reinforcement is • Degree to which students, parents, and staff are preferred when teaching new behaviors, but teachers involved in collaborative decision making should strive to eventually transition to intermittent • Degree to which there are high expectations for schedules. Reinforcement can be delivered based on student learning the number of times a behavior occurs (ratio sched ules) or on the passage of time (interval schedules). A school that has a positive school climate is per Additionally, the delivery of reinforcement can be ceived as welcoming (to students, parents, and staff) fixed (by occurrences or time) or variable. Students are motivated to achieve, and behavior following the delivery of reinforcement as a staff convey the importance of school and learning. It is consistently identified as a associated with steadier rates of responding without variable that is a key ingredient of effective schools and pauses or scallops. Intermittent schedules are typi is positively associated with academic effectiveness. Effective use of these schedules of rein mate and higher levels of achievement in reading, math, forcement can enhance the teaching and ultimate and writing. In addition, students who attend schools with acquisition of new behaviors and assist in the manage positive school climates are more likely to have favorable ment of problematic behaviors in the classroom. Moore behavior problems and higher levels of attendance are also associated with a positive school climate. See also Behavior; Behavior Intervention; Generalization; A variety of school characteristics related to school Self-Management climate are also associated with negative school out comes. Applied behavior and students have higher absentee levels and higher analysis for teachers (6th ed. These findings have implications for school poli Elementary principles of behavior (4th ed. Promoting posi is clear that there is not one best program or strategy tive school climate. More A school counselor is a licensed professional edu recently, efforts to create more positive learning envi cator trained to address the needs of students by ronments have occurred within the context of imple implementing a standards-based school counseling menting universal interventions that are delivered to all program. Their work requires resolution, prevent bullying, or increase school safety attention to developmental stages of student growth, are also examples of programs that can be used to as well as to the needs, tasks, and student interests improve school climate. School counselors work with ronments is a continuous process that must be revisited all students, including those who are considered at and modified regularly. Although best mate that adhere to best practices include initial mea known for their role in counseling students with men sures of key stakeholders’ perceptions of school climate tal health concerns, school counselors also are respon. Counseling (individual and group) to create positive learning environments that engage students, parents, and staff. Coordination Additionally, school psychologists can offer knowl edge about associated research, ways of measuring school climate, and examples of effective strategies. Their school psychologist colleagues also work Addressing issues associated with school climate is a to optimize students’ health and learning, but they powerful, preventive approach that can be used to typically provide assistance through consultation and facilitate student engagement with school and learn assessment. Rasmussen See also Discipline; Dropouts; High School; Middle School; Multicultural Education; School Reform; Violence in Schools See also Counseling School Psychologist———473 negative behavior. The small time commitment required for implementation A school–home note, otherwise referred to as increases the likelihood of acceptability and follow a daily report card, is a means of sharing informa through of the program. The increased parental tion from classroom to home and back to classroom involvement may also enhance the support of the regarding a student’s behavior and/or academic per intervention and its ability to be maintained in differ formance. A school–home note allows for parents to sultation” when both the parent and the teacher are become directly involved with the progress of their included. According to Kelly (1990), a quality school–home See also Consultation: Conjoint Behavioral; Intervention; note program involves a parent-teacher conference in Motivation; Parenting which acceptable or desirable behavior for the student is discussed. Intervention ior and goals have been identified, the parents and techniques for academic performance problems. Finally the school–home note should be implemented with frequent verbal feedback and praise along with the promised consequences. Kelly (1990) identified recom the history of school psychology may be appro mended behaviors to be targeted by a school–home priately described as one of continuous evolution and note program: expansion. Yet the foundations of many, if not most, current practices and professional issues are found in • School work completion the earliest years of the profession. For example, the • Using class time well roles of the school psychologist (testing and place • Talking only with permission ment, assessment and treatment, consultant and health • Being prepared for class care provider), the inextricable relationship between • Handing in homework school psychology and special education, and the • Playing nicely with other children influence of social reforms and state and federal legislation on the profession were all anticipated in Elliot and colleagues (1999) state that school– the earliest years of the profession’s development. They also state that a school–home note has a variety the beginning of school psychology is commonly of advantages. It requires collaboration between associated with Lightner Witmer and the opening parents and teachers in problem solving and provides of the first “psychological clinic” at the University frequent feedback emphasizing positive rather than of Pennsylvania in 1896. As a result of requests he 474———School Psychologist received to help children with school-related problems, and, perhaps most important to school psychology, the Witmer turned part of his scientific laboratory into a enactment of compulsory education laws. Witmer suggested the term “clinical” psychol from widely diverse backgrounds into school for the ogy to describe his research and services for children. The combination of a dramatic increase in As a result he is considered the founder of both clini enrollment and the wide variation of students’ ability cal and school psychology. Witmer’s primary interest and achievement levels created a need for profession was the application of the young science of psychol als who could assist in “sorting” children into appro ogy to solve problems for individual children, espe priate educational levels and placements, including cially problems related to school. If all children were compelled to conducted experimental attempts to develop individ attend school, then schools might logically be ual intelligence tests. Thus, two testing and its application to education are most of school psychology’s most enduring roles—the directly linked to the work of Binet. In 1904, Binet school psychologist as a “sorter” of children into was appointed to a commission by the French govern educational placements and as a “gatekeeper” regulat ment to develop a test to identify children most likely ing the flow of children into special education—were to benefit from placement in special classes. Rather, the term a mental “level” and proposed the first classification clinical was used generically in the early 20th century of intelligence based on the test results. A mental level to refer to all applied psychologists—engaged in solv was determined by how far the score of a particular ing practical problems of the school or workplace. Binet then proposed that a established in the Chicago Public Schools in 1899 as child with a mental level that was two years below the a research facility associated with the larger Child average score of normal children of the same age Study Movement founded by G. Stanley Hall and should be classified as below normal and placed in devoted to the depiction of children’s behavior. The Binet-Simon test was revised in ever, the clinic later provided services that included 1916 by Lewis Terman at Stanford University and group testing and individual treatments. Child guid later became known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence ance clinics, previously associated with delinquency Scales. With this revision, the concept of a mental and the early juvenile courts, also began to provide level or mental age was replaced with the intelligence therapy services in the schools in the 1920s.
Personal flotation devices alone cannot prevent drowning; constant hypertension signs and symptoms buy generic beloc on-line, focused adult supervision is also important blood pressure chart pdf 40mg beloc. There are no data demonstrating that swimming lessons decrease the risk of drowning in children younger than 4 years of age blood pressure 8060 order beloc 40 mg mastercard. Association between wearing a personal floatation device and death by drowning among recreational boaters: a matched cohort analysis of United States Coast Guard data heart attack 42 year old order genuine beloc on line. A guide to personal flotation devices and basic open water safety for pediatric health care practitioners. In this approach, every subject is analyzed according to his or her randomized group assignment; noncompliance, protocol deviation, withdrawal, and other events that may follow randomization are ignored. Intention to treat is best regarded as a comprehensive strategy for study design, conduct, and analysis rather than a mode of analysis alone. This approach maintains similarity in treatment groups, thus, as noncompliance among study participants is recognized and these results are included in the analysis, an unbiased estimate of treatment effect results. Intention-to-treat analysis minimizes type I error, or the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis. She has never had a seizure or head injury before and there is no family history of seizures. Her physical examination shows a mildly sleepy girl, with no other neurological abnormalities. She is admitted for observation and the next day has an electroencephalogram that is normal. Factors that increase the risk of recurrent seizure include abnormal findings on electroencephalogram and abnormal results from magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, such as remote brain injury or brain malformation (which may not be seen on computed tomography). In a typically developing child with a first, unprovoked seizure whose electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain are normal, the recurrence risk is as low as 25%. For the girl in the vignette, the seizure recurrence risk is 25% to 45%; it will be at the lower end of the range if her magnetic resonance imaging results are normal. About half of recurrent seizures occur in the first 6 months after the first seizure, and almost 90% of recurrent seizures happen in the first 2 years. Seizures and epilepsy in childhood can be due to an epilepsy syndrome or to an underlying etiology. Underlying etiologies can be subdivided into 6 categories: genetic, structural, metabolic, immune, infectious, and unknown. This classification scheme is currently being updated by the International League Against Epilepsy ( Examples of epilepsy syndromes include childhood absence epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Examples of underlying etiologies of epilepsy include traumatic brain injury, mitochondrial disorders and genetic disorders. For example, a child younger than 4 years of age who develops absence seizures may also have glucose transporter deficiency, a metabolic and genetic cause for epilepsy; or, a child with tuberous sclerosis has both a genetic and structural cause for epilepsy. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of developing seizures in children with one or more underlying etiologies, but it is rarely necessary to start anticonvulsants prior to the onset of clinical seizures. He does not have a significant past medical history, take any medications, or have any allergies. He is in respiratory distress with grunting, tachypnea, and intercostal retractions. He has metabolic acidosis based on his levels of serum bicarbonate and lactate, as well as respiratory alkalosis based on hypocapnia out of proportion to normal respiratory compensation for his degree of metabolic acidosis. There are few clinical scenarios in pediatrics more dangerous than the combination of metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The underlying etiology can include congestive heart failure, toxic ingestion, increased intracranial pressure, sepsis, and pulmonary embolism. In addition to the life-threatening conditions on this differential diagnosis, the false sense of security some clinicians may adopt with a blood gas pH result in the “normal” range makes this combination even more concerning. Although the pH of the child in this vignette is normal, the blood gas as a whole is very abnormal. Separate from the blood gas results, the clinician should recognize that the boy is in cardiogenic shock, based on tachycardia, delayed capillary refill time, and hepatomegaly. As a result, he has metabolic acidosis due to lactic acidosis from poor end-organ perfusion. If ventilation is intact, the cerebral respiratory center causes an increase in minute ventilation to compensate for metabolic acidosis. This is often seen in severe diabetic ketoacidosis, especially with neurologic impairment, in which minute ventilation cannot keep up with the severity of metabolic acidosis. It should be noted that mechanical ventilation sometimes cannot keep up either, so extreme caution should be taken before intubating a child with diabetic ketoacidosis. Although there are 2 discrete disorders, the clinician may not recognize either disorder and underestimate the severity of illness. In congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema activates the lung stretch receptors that feed back to the respiratory center to stimulate tachypnea. Tachypnea is one of the major criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Neurologic effects of some toxic ingestions, such as salicylates and tricyclic antidepressants, can stimulate the respiratory center. These are all life-threatening conditions that independently lead to respiratory alkalosis. If they also occur in the setting of metabolic acidosis, the blood gas could be in the normal range. The child does not have metabolic alkalosis because the bicarbonate level is lower than the normal range. Metabolic compensation for respiratory alkalosis can occur, but the primary metabolic derangement in this vignette is lactic acidosis from cardiogenic shock. She was born at 39 weeks of gestation by spontaneous vaginal delivery to a 26-year-old gravida 1, now para 1 mother. Routine prenatal laboratory test results were normal, including a negative group B Streptococcus culture. On physical examination, the neonate has a temperature of 37°C, heart rate of 180 beats/min, respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min, and blood pressure of 100/70 mm Hg. She appears thin with decreased subcutaneous fat, but is awake and alert with her eyes wide open. Although not revealed in the vignette, the mother has a history of Graves disease that was treated with radioactive iodine ablation, so the mother now requires levothyroxine replacement. Despite definitive treatment for her Graves disease, thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins are still present and cross the placenta where they stimulate the baby’s thyroid gland. Neonatal Graves disease is rare, but when it occurs, can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody are associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis and are not pathologic. Although a blood culture and glucose level may be indicated based on symptoms, they would not reveal the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. The effect of maternal levothyroxine on the fetus is minimal and would not cause hyperthyroidism in the baby. Clinical features of infants with hyperthyroidism may include increased wakefulness, jitteriness, tachycardia, decreased subcutaneous fat, exaggerated Moro reflex, and ultimately heart failure. Older children and adolescents may experience weight loss, increased appetite, palpitations, increased stooling, difficulty sleeping, exercise intolerance, decreased school performance, menstrual irregularities, tremor, exophthalmos, warm, moist skin, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes with clonus, and systolic hypertension. Elevated thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies are consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis, although they can also be elevated in Graves disease. A nuclear medicine thyroid uptake and scan shows increased, uniform uptake in Graves disease and decreased uptake with thyroiditis or exogenous thyroid hormone intake. An autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is detected on the scan as a concentrated area of uptake. For Graves disease, treatment options include the anti-thyroid medication, methimazole, radioiodine ablation, and thyroidectomy. The latter two are considered definitive therapies, ultimately requiring thyroid hormone replacement. Propylthiouracil is no longer recommended as first-line therapy due to reports of serious liver injury.
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Characteristics of Learners Screened for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in 2 suburbs of Kimberley Both suburbs Roodepan Galeshewe p Descriptive data in all learnersn = 1510 n = 411 n = 1099 Sex (% female) 715 (47 blood pressure chart senior citizens order cheapest beloc and beloc. Maternal Alcohol and Substance Use A history of drinking in pregnancy was given by 80 (87%) of 92 informants in total 10 quality 20 mg beloc, and by 45 (90%) of 50 mothers hypertension 14090 buy beloc toronto. Information regarding current drinking could only be ob 148 Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in a South African City tained from mothers: of 48 maternal respondents prehypertension youtube beloc 40mg lowest price, 44 (92%) had consumed alcohol in the preceding 12 months (current drinkers). Of current drinkers, 29 (66%) indicated that they drank more now than in the index pregnancy, and 36 (82%) that they had been drunk at least once in the past year or couldn’t remember how often they had been drunk. The women were primarily weekend drinkers, with only one woman reporting daily drinking. The number of standard drinks they reported personally consuming per drinking session were: 3-4 drinks in ten women (23%), 5-9 drinks in fourteen (32%), over 10 drinks in ten (23%), and ten women were uncertain (23%). In both Roodepan and Galeshewe, the commonest drink was commercial lager beer [27/50 (54%)], followed by cider [10/50 (20%)]. In Galeshewe, 6 (17%) of 35 mothers drank traditional (sorghum) beer and three (9%) drank spirits, whereas in Roodepan, five (33%) of 15 drank wine. Women in Galeshewe were less likely to be smokers, and no other substance abuse was reported. Discussion Characteristics of the Study Population of Learners this study focused on 2 low-income suburbs that comprise 62% of the population of one of the secondary cities, and a provincial capital, of South Africa. Consistent with the th low-income setting, the rate of growth stunting (height <5 percentile) was high in both suburbs. It is unclear whether this relates to prenatal alcohol expo sure, or for other reasons, such as possible ethnic variation. A significant difference was detected for the practical reasoning domain, though this may relate to the more frequent use of interpreters in Galeshewe. The vast majority of learners were significantly delayed for language and practical reasoning, compared to a minority with significant delay for the locomotor, personal-social and performance domains. The South African Demographic and Health Survey found heterogeneous levels of alcohol consumption, with greater con sumption by urban than rural Black African women, and variation by province (Parry et al, 2005). Areas with known high rates of female alcohol consumption are expected to be high risk, though the existing data gives little geographic detail. If broad socio-economic factors such as unemployment and poverty are important, then Galeshewe has many features in common with other townships in South Africa. However, there may be more specific historical factors at play: the record indicates a long history of problem drinking in Kimberley, with ‘drinking, fighting, beer making and gambling’ already frequent in the early twentieth century (unpublished data, Lunderstedt, 2000). The long history of Galeshewe as an urban settlement may have allowed for attrition of socio-cultural prohibitions on female drinking, similar to descriptions of ‘accultura tion’ in other populations (Caetano, 1987; Caetano et al, 2009). Kimberley’s mining history may also be contributory, in keeping with evidence that residents of cities with a mining history have higher rates of alcohol and substance use compared to those in other South African cities (Sharp et al, 2014). In addition, more recent economic difficul ties due to downscaling of mining activity may be important, since there is good evi dence that binge drinking increases during economic downturns – amongst both unem ployed and employed individuals (Dee, 2001). For this reason, few received a grant to assist with care of a disabled child, although most received the child support grant, which is a small sum 151 Article 3 available for all children from families with limited financial means. A high proportion of women were unemployed and a significant minority lived in informal housing. In keeping with this, sorghum beer (the type of alcohol originally brewed by black African communities in the pre-colonial era) was only used by a minority of those studied, whereas commercial lager beer was widely used. In four of the eleven cases (36%) the interviewer had other evidence to indicate that the history was unrelia ble. Although the numbers in this group were small, there were no differences evident in maternal characteristics compared to other study participants. It has been suggested that stigmatisation of female drinking results in under-reporting of alcohol use among Black African women (Mphi, 1994; Siegfried et al, 2001), but we found no difference between Black African and Coloured women. The maternal death rate of 29% in Galeshewe was particularly high, and above that in Roodepan. Violence and injury is also a relatively frequent cause of death in the province, and also potentially alcohol-related, but there is no evidence that this or another cause would account for the difference in mortality rates between the two communities. Limitations: For logistical reasons, a tiered screening and diagnostic process was used, with neurodevelopmental assessments only being conducted on children who screened positive on both anthropometric and dysmorphic features. In addi tion, while each area had a predominant ethnic group, there was some overlap in the self-identified ethnicity of participants in the two communities. It remains unclear to what extent the findings are gen eralizable to other apparently similar environments. We recommend, in line with Jonnsen et al (2014), that surveillance be extended to further urban areas in South and Southern Africa. Specific characteristics of this community which may be relevant are that it is a long-established city, with a predominantly mining heritage, and current economic difficulties. Appendix the South African Census uses the terms “Black African to denote the majority popula tion of South Africa, and “Coloured” to designate the largest minority population group (although the term ‘Coloured’ remains contested in South Africa, it does not have a necessarily derogatory meaning). The term “Coloured” refers to a highly admixed population that developed during successive periods of colonization by the Dutch and British (between 1652 and 1910). This population derives from a variety of ancestral sources, and is best recorded in the Western Cape province of South African, where the historical record and genomic evi dence (de Wit et al, 2010) concur that the major ancestries are Khoisan (the indigenous population of the area into which the Cape colony encroached), European, Black African (predominantly slaves from East Africa) and Asian (slaves or political exiles from South Asia and the Dutch East Indies). This population remained subject to discriminatory colonial laws throughout the colonial period. Over time, this largely Afrikaans-speaking population became identified as “Coloured”, and the term was subsequently used as a designation in the apartheid era (1948-1990) when, although discriminated against, Coloureds held an intermediate status between White and Black South Africans. From the early days of the Cape colony, the development of viticulture ensured that alcohol was readily available. After slavery was abolished in 1834, this evolved into the “tot sys tem” that entailed the provision of alcohol as part-payment or incentive for farm work. The tot system was widely used on farms in the expanding Cape colony and continued 154 Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in a South African City in modified form until 1990. It is considered important in the entrenchment and spread of risky drinking practices in the Coloured population (Viall et al, 2011). In contrast, Black Africans originate primarily from several bantu-language indige nous tribes that inhabited parts of modern South Africa that were mostly outside the early Cape colony. They suffered land dispossession from the 1830s and especially in th the early 20 century, and were subjected to the worst effects of subsequent apartheid, but did not receive large scale exposure to effects of earlier colonial rule such as slavery th and the tot system. Urbanization of Black Africans increased from the late 19 century, was severely curtailed in the apartheid era, and has increased rapidly since. Black South Africans retain significant elements of their pre-colonial cultures, such as the use of an indigenous African language. An alcohol-related example is the cultural prohibition on female drinking (Mphi, 1994; Siegfried et al, 2001), the reduction of which may partially explain why the prevalence of risky drinking by urbanized Black African women is higher than those from more traditional rural areas. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Department of Social Development, Northern Cape Province for the invitation and funding of the study. Particular thanks to the Departments of Education and Health, specifically the school principals, teachers, psychologists and primary health care staff. Spe cial thanks to the parents, guardians, children and community members in Galeshewe and Roodepan for their cooperation and participation in the study. Baliunas D, Rehm J, Irving H, Shuper P (2010) Alcohol consumption and risk of incident human immunodefi ciency virus infection: A meta-analysis. Department of Health and Medical Research Council (2007) South Africa Demographic and Health Survey, 2003. Griffiths, Ruth (1970) the abilities of young children: a comprehensive system of mental measurement for the first eight years of life (Association for Research in Infant and Child Development). Paley B (2009) Introduction: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Shedding light on an unseen disability. Preston P (2006) Testing Children A practitioner’s guide to the Assessment of Mental Development in Infants and Young Children. Mortality and causes of death in South Africa, 2011: findings from death notification. Viljoen D, Craig P, Hymbaugh K, Boyle C, Blount S (2003) Fetal alcohol syndrome South Africa 2001. During pregnancy, only 35% (49/139) of cases had stopped drinking, varying be tween sites (from 21%-54% in chronological order of surveys; p<0.
In utero herpes simplex viral infection can cause which of the following clinical features All of the following are causes of arthropodtransmitted encephalitis except (A) lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (B) West Nile virus (C) Japanese encephalitis virus (D) St arrhythmia life threatening buy beloc. A 6-year-old boy presents to pulse pressure 55 mmhg purchase 40 mg beloc with visa your clinic with the chief complaint of new-onset headache hypertensive emergency buy line beloc, fever pulse pressure 31 cheap beloc 40 mg with mastercard, and neck stiffness on returning from a camping trip. On physical examination, he has an erythematous rash over the palms of his hands and vesicular lesions and ulcers over the oropharynx. Which of the following anaerobic organisms have been isolated from brain abscesses H influenzae type b disease has virtually disappeared with the advent of effective immunization, and pneumococcal meningitis has become less frequent as well. The recent introduction of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine should further decrease the prevalence of pneumococcal meningitis. Group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) are also gram-positive cocci usually configured in chains. Escherichia coli is a gram negative rod; L monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacillus. As a result, children older than 1 month of age who are suspected of having bacterial meningitis should be treated with vancomycin and ceftriaxone or cefotaxime. The therapy is especially indicated if the Gram stain reveals gram-positive diplococci (see answer 1). Of course, susceptibility testing should be performed, and the antimicrobial therapy should be altered based on that laboratory testing. Importantly, these vaccines are not yet in the routine immunization programs of many nations. Other possibilities include febrile seizures, encephalitis, and other unusual infectious agents, such as fungi or tuberculosis. In addition, seizures, cranial nerve involvement (as seen in this case), infarction, and disseminated intravascular coagulation can also occur. Before discharge, each child should have audiometry or brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in a younger child. Although the mother denied a history of vaginal or vesicular lesions, in most cases, infection occurs in children of asymptomatic mothers. Disseminated disease In the case of localized disease, symptoms typically occur 2-3 weeks after birth. Affected infants may be asymptomatic or have a petechial skin rash, intrauterine growth retardation, sensorineural hearing loss, hepatosplenomegaly, microcephaly, seizures, and/or retinitis. These children may present with failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, neurologic disease, hepatomegaly, or with an opportunistic infection. Incidentally, acyclovir seems to be an ineffective treatment, despite the fact that this virus is a member of the Herpesviridae family. Under these circumstances, infants experience intrauterine growth retardation, cataracts, microcephaly, and vesicular rash. The virus can be transmitted vertically if a pregnant woman acquires the virus and develops viremia. Although a third of patients are asymptomatic and many develop a self-limited febrile illness, others may experience symptoms of an aseptic meningitis: fever, headache, nuchal rigidity, photophobia, and malaise. Other members of the enterovirus (non-poliovirus) family include group A coxsackie viruses, group B coxsackie viruses, echoviruses, and other unclassified enteroviruses. The illness is more common in children, and often the patients have a mild pharyngitis or other respiratory symptoms. Headache, seizures, meningeal signs, neuropsychiatric symptoms, visual loss, and ataxia are common symptoms. T multiceps is a canine tapeworm that results in symptoms similar to cysticercosis with more pronounced ophthalmic involvement. In addition, aerobic organisms, such as members of the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus, have been isolated as have Gram-negative enterics. The causal organism depends on the underlying condition: head injury, postoperative infection, chronic otitis media, and cardiac disease. Erythematous nodule of the check of a 9-year-old girl at the site of the cat scratch. She states that she feels fine for the first 10-15 minutes but after that seems to fatigue. In addition, during routine practices, she falls approximately 10-12 times per session. She has to rest after 2 flights and cannot climb without holding on to the railing. In addition to soccer, the patient runs competitively, stating she used to be able to run 400 meters in 65 seconds. She denies any history of muscle pain, myoglobinuria, or previous infectious illness. On review of her past medical history, she was born at full term without complications. She has a history of bifrontal headaches associated with photophobia and phonophobia. However, on prolonged upward gaze, she developed moderate bilateral ptosis after 20 seconds. When asked to abduct her left arm repetitively, she developed left deltoid weakness after 45 attempts. An important study to obtain in the management of this patient is which of the following In counseling this patient, you warn her that certain common medications may make her condition worse. From the following list of medications, which will potentially exacerbate her condition A 4-year-old boy comes to your clinic with the chief complaint of muscle weakness. Which of the following statements is true regarding the genetics of Becker muscular dystrophy Which of the following statements is true regarding the genetics of myotonic dystrophy Children with congenital muscular dystrophy are deficient in which of the following proteins You are called to the intensive care nursery to evaluate a 4-day-old male infant who is reportedly “floppy. Shortly after birth, he developed respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. On review of his family history, you learn that a previous child died at 36 hours of life. On physical examination, the cranial nerves are intact with the exception of slight ptosis and a weak gag. Tongue fasciculations are most commonly seen with which of the following disorders The most specific test for myasthenia gravis is the detection of acetylcholine receptor antibodies in the patient’s serum. However, it should be remembered that antibodies are not detectable in all patients with myasthenia gravis. Edrophonium testing involves the administration of intravenous drug to patients with suspected myasthenia gravis. A positive test consists of clinical improvement following administration of the drug, such as resolution of dysarthria or improved ocular motility. Acetylcholine released at the nerve ending by the nerve impulse normally binds with acetylcholine receptors. In myasthenia gravis, anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody evokes immune-mediated destruction of the end plate. The condition is characterized by muscles weakness and, importantly, fatigability. This patient presents with juvenile myasthenia gravis in which onset is usually after the age of 10 years.