In the future treatment anemia cheap selegiline express, it is important to treatment anal fissure purchase selegiline on line amex focus on strategies of reading and writing ethnography in order to treatment in statistics order selegiline 5 mg on-line evaluate the quality of arguments and the use of evidence (Hammersley medicine park lodging buy selegiline 5 mg overnight delivery, 1991, 1993). Fischer (1999) empha sizes that ethnographic practice in the future needs to juxtapose, complement or 502 Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing supplement other genres of writing such as those used by historians, literary theorists and photographers. Cliord (1997) expresses a concern that multilocale eld studies are a symptom of postmodern fragmentation. He wonders if it can be collectively fashioned into something more substantial and emphasizes critical dialogue and respectful polemic. He emphasizes not only that this type of ethnography is about involving several eld sites, but that the elds are linked together in a coordinated structure. It is of interest to try to identify which types of chains and patterns of social relations exist in the network. Furthermore the eld is not only multilocale, but translocale, the latter focusing on identifying the relationships between the localities (Hannerz, 2001). The social anthropologists at Stockholm University started early to work along this line and Hannerz (2001) indicates that they probably have a wider selection of studies than most anthropological institutions in the world. An example is Garsten’s (1994) doctoral dissertation ‘Apple World’, in which she studied the organizational culture of the computer company Apple in its oce in a suburb of Stockholm, in the international head quarters in Silicon Valley and in the European headquarters in Paris. Some examples are Latour (1993, 1998) and Haraway (1991), both of whom have published multi-sited research. In consumer research, a recent example of multi-sited research is Canniford (2005), who reassesses the experience of global cultures with reference to the global surng scene. By talking to and interviewing surfers in dierent surng locations in Indonesia, by reviewing the emergence of multi-sited ethnography 503 surng lms and other media, and by the use of historical data, he demonstrates how local sovereignty is pooled on a global stage. Other examples of multi-sited consumer research are SchoutenandMcAlexander(1995), whostudiedbikers, BelkandCosta(1998), whodidmul tiple location case studies over several years, focusing on the mountain man myth, and Belk, Ger and Askegaard (2003), who studied desire in the United States, Turkey and Denmark. There are dierent techniques for conducting multi-sited ethnography, such as ‘follow the people’, things, metaphor, plot, story, allegory, life, biography or conict (Marcus, 1998). An example of using ‘follow the people’ technique is in migration studies, and in studies involving shadowing people who move around in multinational contexts. An example of ‘follow the thing’ is Curasi, Price and Arnould (2004), who studied how objects pass across generations. Appadurai (1986) writes about how the status of commodities shifts in dierent contexts. An example of ‘follow the metaphor’ is presented in Martin’s (1994) study on the body’s immune system. An example of following the forma tion of the plot and thereby the story can be found in the work of Czarniawska (2004a). An example of ‘follow the life or biography’is illustrated in an on-going study on the mean ings of food among elderly at dierent ages and life situations (Brembeck et al. Hardtmann (2001) studied resistance activists in India and England who are against the caste system. One of the benets of multi-site ethnography is the dierent perspectives provided com pared to a single-site study. Marcus calls this research imaginary, inuencing how research ideas are formulated and how eld work is conceived. In Hannerz’s (2001) anthology on translocale eldwork, he says that it might be possible to say that the eldwork is multilocale, but the analysis is translocale. In international anthropology, it is more common to use the term ‘multi-sited’, which also includes translocale. However it might still be of interest to try to identify to what extent the character of a specic eld study is multi-sited or translocale. He writes: ‘The challenge to producing a neighborhood in these settings derives from the inherent instability of social relationships, the powerful tendency for local subjectivity itself to be commoditized, and the tendencies for nation-states, which sometimes obtain signicant revenues from such sites, to erase internal, local dynamics through externally imposed modes of regulation, credentialization, and image production. In translocale eld studies, the process of transfer and the motion is par ticularly interesting (Hannerz, 2001). The participants’ inputs and relations can be just as short-term as the anthropologists’ in translocalities such as conferences, courses and fes tivals (Hannerz, 2001). Czarniawska (2004b) introduces the concept of mobile ethnolo gies for studying the life and work of people who move in contemporary organizations. Gupta and Ferguson (1997) write: ‘ “The eld” is a clearing whose deceptive transparency obscures the complex processes that go into constructing it. Sometimes the choice of which localities to include might be quite obvious, at least, at the beginning of the study. Interdisciplinary research can be expected to contribute to this, in that new perspectives, theories and methods are made visible. Johansson (2004) discusses how creativity and innovations can be found in intersections across disciplines. Not all sites are uniform and they require dierent practices and opportunities (Marcus, 1998). They develop throughout movement and discovery among sites rather than being predetermined (ibid. The eects of simultaneity can be exemplied by looking at the action happening in dierent locales as a consequence of an event such as a scandal (ibid. Hannerz’s (2001) term, ‘translocale’, emphasizes the importance of identifying the rela tionships between the localities. It is important for the researcher to think about relation ships, associations and connections before, but also during, the eldwork. A crucial component in multi-sited research is translation from one cultural idiom or language to another. This concerns all interpretive research, but is in particular signicant in multi-sited research. The process of translation may help us to understand change better in that it considers watching, for example, ideas, objects and humans travel. It is not about reception, rejection, resistance or acceptance; rather it is about on-going interpretations and relationships (Czarniawska, 2001). The process of translation is applied by Penaloza (1994) when describing Mexican immigrants’ consumer acculturation process, in other words, their use of cultural signs and heuristics from the previous system in the new system. Literal language learning is as important in multi-sited ethnography as in single-sited ethnography, and it may explain why multi-sited eldwork has been developed in mono lingual, primarily Anglo-American contexts (Marcus, 1998). The emergence of multi-sited ethnography 505 Participant observation has always been a signicant part of anthropology. Gusterson (1997) has emphasized that it is important to consider the character of polymorphous engagements in contemporary eldwork rather than participant-observation fetichism. Hannerz (2001) mentions that several of the studies in his anthology on translocale eld studies include more interviews and fewer observations than is common in traditional anthropology. First, there might be less time to spend in observation for the multilocale eldworker. Hannerz (2001) emphasizes that, even if studies of today have less participant observation, they may have many other types of materials, which was not possible long ago. Also media play an important role in keeping the translocale elds together, by making them translocale instead of merely multilocale. Because ethnography is about being in the eld as well as writing up the eldwork, it is important to consider reexivity for both parts. Multi-sited research can also allow new ways of conducting research, such as new methods and media, but also bringing in a multiplicity of voices. Arnould and Price (1993), Joy and Sherry (2003) and Penaloza (2001) have previously used multivocal tech niques in consumer research. Voices can imply not only the researcher and the informants, but also the things studied. The separation between humans and nonhumans has been criticized by Latour (1993, 1998), who means that people and things, nature and culture should be studied in relationships. Also a researcher’s previous experience can aect how research is conducted, something which concerns all types of ethnographic research. For example, Huss (2001) probably beneted from his background as a music producer when he conducted eld studies of reggae music. Although ethnography in general requires immersion in the eld, in multi-sited research it is necessary to be able to immerse in dierent contexts and relations, both in and across sites. Furthermore the above discussion of balance considering emic and etic is important to consider here. Multi-sited research will allow the researcher to develop a better under standing of cultural phenomena. Multi-sited ethnographic research is useful for study ing global markets as well as for focusing on local markets.
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Setting aside the rather obvious fact than any civilization capable of interstellar flight must have had a more efficient communication technology at their disposal than arranging large mounds of dirt on the ground symptoms 8dpo selegiline 5 mg with visa, an alternative explanation exists medicine kit buy selegiline with a visa. Fortunately keratin intensive treatment selegiline 5mg discount, the New York Times (although not every other outlet that reported the story) provides it medications for ptsd discount selegiline line, in a quote from Dimitriy Dey, the discoverer of the mysterious stones: “I don’t think they were meant to be seen from the air, ” Mr. Dey, 44, said in an interview from his hometown, Kostanay, dismissing outlandish speculations involving aliens and Nazis. It doesn’t mean it’s true, but part of information literacy and evaluating claims is uncovering plausible alternatives, such as this. That is, one group of people was given Mozart to listen to, and one group of people was given nothing to do. Doing nothing is not an adequate control for doing something, and it turns out if you give people something to do—almost anything—the effect disappears. If you bring twenty people with headaches into a laboratory and give them your new miracle headache drug and ten of them get better, you haven’t learned anything. You’d need to have a control group of people with similar ages and backgrounds, and reporting similar pain. And because just the belief that you might get better can lead to health improvements, you have to give the control group something that enables that belief as much as the medicine under study. Hence the well-known placebo, a pill that is made to look exactly like the miracle headache drug so that no one knows who is receiving what until after the experiment is over. Malcolm Gladwell spread an invalid conclusion in his book David and Goliath by suggesting that people with dyslexia might actually have an advantage in life, leading many parents to believe that their dyslexic children should not receive the educational remedies they need. We don’t know how much more successful his chosen dyslexics might have been if they had been able to improve their condition. The missing control group shows up in everyday conversation, where it’s harder to spot than in scientific claims, simply because we’re not looking for it there. You read—and validate—a new study showing that going to bed every night and waking up every morning at the same time increases productivity and creativity. An artist friend of yours, successful by any measure, counters that she’s always just slept whenever she wanted, frequently pulling all-nighters and sometimes sleeping for twenty hours at a time, and she’s done just fine. How much more productive and creative might she have been with a regular sleep schedule Two twins were separated at birth and reared apart—one in Nazi Germany and the other in Trinidad and Venezuela. One was raised as a Roman Catholic who joined the Hitler Youth, the other as a Jew. They were reunited twenty-one years later and discovered a bizarre list of similar behaviors that many fascinated people could only attribute to genetics: Both twins scratched their heads with their ring finger, both thought it was funny to sneak up on strangers and sneeze loudly. Both men wore short, neatly trimmed mustaches and rectangular wire rimmed glasses, rounded at the corner. Both loved butter and spicy food, flushed the toilet before and after using it, and read the endings of books first. Stories like this may cause you to wonder about how our behaviors are influenced by our genes. A social psychologist might say that the world tends to treat people who look alike in similar ways. The attractive are treated differently from the unattractive, the tall differently from the short. If there’s something about your face that just looks honest and free of self-interest, people will treat you differently from how they would if your face suggests otherwise. We’d need a control group of people who are not related, but who still look astonishingly alike, and were raised separately, in order to draw any firm conclusions about this “natural experiment” of the twins separated at birth. A statistician or behavioral geneticist would say that of the thousands upon thousands of things that we do, it is likely that any two strangers will share some striking similarities in dress, grooming, penchant for practical jokes, or odd proclivities if you just look long enough and hard enough. Without this control group—bringing strangers together and taking an inventory of their habits—we don’t know whether the fascinating story about the twins is driven by genetics or pure chance. It may be that genetics plays a role here, but probably not as large a role as we might think. Cherry-picking Our brains are built to make stories as they take in the vastness of the world with billions of events happening every second. If a long-lost friend calls just as you’re thinking of her, that doesn’t mean either of you has psychic powers. If you win at roulette three times in a row, that doesn’t mean you’re on a streak and should bet your last dollar on the next spin. If your non-certified mechanic fixes your car this time, it doesn’t mean he’ll be able to do it next time—he may just have gotten lucky. Say you have a pet hypothesis, for example, that too much Vitamin D causes malaise; you may well find evidence to support that view. But if you’re looking only for supporting evidence, you’re not doing proper research, because you’re ignoring the contradictory evidence—there might be a little of this or a lot, but you don’t know because you haven’t looked. Colloquially, scientists call this “cherry-picking” the data that suit your hypothesis. Proper research demands that you keep an open mind about any issue, and try to valiantly consider the evidence for and against, and then form an evidence-based (not a “gee, I wish this were so”–based) conclusion. This occurs when the information you have access to is unrepresentative of the whole. If you’re looking at a city through the window of a train, you’re only seeing a part of that city, and not necessarily a representative part—you have visual access only to the part of the city with train tracks running through it, and whatever biases may attach to that. Wealthier people usually occupy houses away from the noise, so the people who are left living near the tracks tend to have lower income. If all you know of a city is who lives near the tracks, you are not seeing the entire city. This is of course related to the discussion in Part One about data gathering (how data are collected), and the importance of obtaining representative samples. We’re trying to understand the nature of the world—or at least a new city that the train’s passing through—and we want to consider alternative explanations for what we’re seeing or being told. A good alternative explanation with broad applicability is that you’re only seeing part of the whole picture, and the part you’re not seeing may be very different. But if you’re trying to figure out whether to invest in the child’s future as the world’s next great painter, you’ll want to ask some questions: Who cropped it Through selective windowing, you may be seeing part of a series of brilliant drawings or a lovely little piece of a much larger (and unimpressive) work that was identified and cropped by the teacher. A headline might announce that “three times more Americans support this new legislation than oppose it. It could well be that 1 percent oppose it, 3 percent support it, and 94 percent remain undecided. Translate this same kind of monkeyshines to an election headline stating that five times as many Republicans support Candidate A than Candidate B for the presidential primaries. That may be true, but the headline might leave out that Candidate C is polling with 80 percent of the vote. It’s counterintuitive, but there’s a probability very close to 100 percent that somewhere in that sequence you’ll get five heads in a row. We didn’t evolve brains with a sufficient understanding of what randomness looks like. It’s not usually heads-tails-heads-tails, but there are going to be runs (also called streaks) even in a random sequence. Just make a cell phone video recording of yourself tossing a coin 1, 000 times in a row. If it’s not, before you make the next toss, say, “This is going to be the third of five heads in a row. Looking at this another way, if you ask a hundred people in a room to toss a coin five times, there is a 96 percent chance that one of them will get five heads in a row. The sixteen-year-old may report being stopped repeatedly without cause, being racially profiled and treated like a criminal. If you’re a scholar doing research, or a documentarian looking for archival footage, you’re limited to what they choose to release to you. When looking at data or evidence to support a claim, ask yourself if what you’re being shown is likely to be representative of the whole picture.
Moreover treatment for strep throat buy cheap selegiline 5mg line, e-commerce platforms use data to medications emt can administer order selegiline 5 mg amex manipulate content and generate favourable online reviews (Lee medications like gabapentin buy selegiline 5 mg otc, Trimi and Yang treatment non hodgkins lymphoma selegiline 5mg on-line, 2018). For example, systemic curation management, such as clustering, screening, and sorting of reviews, is becoming an important factor that can considerably affect product sales. It also enables consumers to share their opinions and experiences about services and product usages on review platforms (Malik and Hussain, 2020). Reading product reviews has become a common step because such reviews contain important information and facilitate customers in making purchase decisions (Ye et al. However, most of the popular products receive large collections of reviews that result in information overload problem (Zhao and Zhang, 2020). Some e-commerce websites provide consumers with an interactive voting facility such as Amazon. The reviews with higher helpful votes are ranked higher than one with lower votes. However, with the exponential growth of reviews on websites, reviews are not always being consistently helpful. Potential purchasers place a great deal of stock in product reviews written by previous purchasers. Online reviews gain as much trust as personal recommendations for the majority of consumers and a glowing review motivates behaviour more than discounts and other offers (Reich and 121 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Porto, 16-17 April 2020 Maglio, 2020). Consumers seem to want product reviews and firms seem happy to offer such reviews on their websites, in their advertising, and elsewhere. Indeed, firms are increasingly engaging in efforts around “review solicitation” and “online reputation management, ” incentivizing previous purchasers to write reviews in exchange for discounted or free products (Reich and Maglio, 2020). As firms invest in, and consumers trust, online reviews, their management has come to occupy a more prominent role in marketing practice. Likewise, consideration of the review characteristics exerting the most impact has come to occupy a more prominent role in marketing theory. Positive reviews generally boost sales while negative reviews hurt sales and firms certainly opt to feature positive over negative reviews (Chevalier and Mayzlin, 2006). Scholarly research has achieved certain research results, especially those related to online reviews, review system curation, online promotion marketing, and seller guarantees. However, those research are relatively single-spread, and combining these four aspects for research and discussion remains uncommon. Given these limitations and challenges, this study suggests analyzing the factors that influence product sales based on online reviews. Online feedback assists customers in understanding product information and serves as an important reference for customers when making purchase decisions. For example, in some scientific works, Yahoo movies reviews were analyzed and observed that the number of online reviews has a positive impact on box office (Luan and Neslin, 2011). Some scholars have even found a positive correlation between sales volume, price, and review volume based on the restaurant review data collected from e-commerce websites (Lu et al. These studies highlight the impact of online review volume on product sales and services. The commonly used research variables include online reviews, the length of the review, and the percentage of negative reviews, among others (Reyes-Menendez, Saura and Martinez-Navalon, 2019). In general, positive online reviews often indicate positive attributes, such as good product quality, superior brand image, and being professional, while negative online reviews depict customers’ lack of confidence in product quality and brand image. Positive online reviews help increase customers’ willingness to buy a product or use a service, while negative online reviews impede customers’ willingness to purchase sellers’ service or product (Ho-Dac, Carson and Moore, 2013). Research shows that negative online reviews spread faster than positive online reviews and that they have a greater impact on the potential customer’s purchase decisions. Therefore, positive reviews may not have a significant impact on customers’ purchase decisions, while negative reviews definitely have a stronger impact than positive reviews on customers’ purchase decisions (Malik and Hussain, 2020). Chevalier and Mayzlin (2006) found that improvement in volume and valence of a book’s review leads to an increase in sales. The authors demonstrated that word count with a certain threshold is effective for helpfulness prediction and reviewer experience has a varying effect on helpfulness. Similarly, a text regression model was built using a combination of review and reviewer features to predict the helpfulness of reviews (Liu and Park, 2015). The feature set includes readability and valence of reviews, reviewer’s identity, expertise and reputation. Another study examined the moderating effect of product type, impact of reviewer reputation, identity and depth on review helpfulness (Malik and Hussain, 2020). The findings revealed that reviewer reputation, review extremity, and review depth are more important for helpfulness prediction using search goods. In related research, Wang (2013) examined how the impacts of online consumer reviews differ across products and consumer characteristics. They found that online reviews are more influential on the sales of less popular games or games with less experienced internet users. However, until now, there are no unified results towards the effect of online reviews on product sales. Most studies show a positive relationship between average reviews scores and product sales (Gu, Park and Konana, 2012). Using data from the movie box office, some researchers find there is no significant relationship between the movie’s average rating and movie revenue. They agree, though, that the underlying word-of-mouth (the content of reviews) does play a dominant role on consumers’ ratings (Yin, Wang and Shi, 2019). Chevalier and Mayzlin (2006) show that the addition of new, favourable reviews at one site results in an increase in the sales of a book at that site relative to the other site. They found some evidence that an incremental negative review is more powerful in decreasing book sales than an incremental positive review is in increasing sales. Their results on the length of reviews suggest that consumers actually read and respond to written reviews, not merely the average star ranking summary statistic provided by the Web sites. Additionally, Zhu and Zhang (2010) as well as Cheung, pointed out that online user-generated reviews are of use to both consumers and online retailers. Likewise, they indicated that online word-of-mouth can have important implications for managers in terms of brand building, product development, and quality assurance. Findings of recent studies show different effects of online reviews on the product/ service sales (Luo, Rong and Zheng, 2020). Costumer online reviews can be separated into several parts and figure 1 shows it. In this conceptual framework, we will try to answer these questions and build a model for future research. According to our framework, we can formulate a hypothesis: • H1: review volume can affect brand reputation positively that causes a positive effect on sales; • H2: number of picture reviews can affect brand reputation positively that causes a positive effect on sales; • H3: number of additional reviews can affect brand reputation positively that causes a positive effect on sales; • H4: the high percentage of negative reviews can affect brand reputation negatively that causes a negative effect on sales; 4. For the future, it is necessary to develop quantitative research inquiry to reach the goals of this study. The nature of this study is to test the model and build the theory, that is why quantitative research will be needed. Variable measurement should be performed by questions and questions may be measured on a 5-point Likert scale with 1 meaning “not at all” and 5 meaning “very much”. After measuring the variables, the appropriate test should be run and results found. Online reviews provide a powerful, cheap and impactful channel for online vendors and marketers to reach their customers. Therefore, online vendors take benefit of opinions of experienced customers to attract potential buyers. The “helpfulness” feature of online product reviews facilitates the customers to cope with the information overload problem and helps in their decision-making 124 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Porto, 16-17 April 2020 process (Reyes-Menendez, Saura and Martinez-Navalon, 2019). Identification of influential predictors for online review helpfulness has attracted much interest in the literature. The proposed conceptual framework model is quite effective and demonstrates the connection between online reviews brand reputation and sales. Also, it divides online reviews into the different segment and tries to demonstrate each effect on brand reputation and finally on sales. First, we find the effect of each component of online review om brand reputation that plays the mediation role, and then we find the connection to sales volume. First, we expand the product categories examined to search and quasi-experience goods, giving academic researchers a broader understanding of the impact of online consumer ratings and reviews. Second, our findings are helpful to online retailers that are considering adding consumer reviews to their websites.