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These are: • 8:0 Caprylic acid • 10:0 Caproic acid • 12:0 Lauric acid • 14:0 Myristic acid • 16:0 Palmitic acid • 18:0 Stearic acid the saturated fatty acids are not only a source of body fuel medicine 3 sixes buy genuine panadol, but are also structural components of cell membranes treatment emergent adverse event cheap panadol online mastercard. Various saturated fatty acids are also associated with proteins and are necessary for their normal function medications not to take during pregnancy buy panadol with a mastercard. Fats in general medicine jokes discount panadol 500mg otc, including saturated fatty acids, play a role in providing desirable texture and palatability to foods used in the diet. Palmitic acid is particularly useful for enhancing the organoleptic properties of fats used in commercial products. Stearic acid, in contrast, has physical properties that limit the amount that can be incorporated into dietary fat. Monounsaturated fatty acids are present in foods with a double bond located at 7 (n-7) or 9 (n-9) carbon atoms from the methyl end. Monounsaturated fatty acids that are present in the diet include: • 18:1n-9 Oleic acid • 14:1n-7 Myristoleic acid • 16:1n-7 Palmitoleic acid • 18:1n-7 Vaccenic acid • 20:1n-9 Eicosenoic acid • 22:1n-9 Erucic acid Oleic acid accounts for about 92 percent of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid and nervonic acid (24:1n-9), are important in membrane structural lipids, particularly nervous tissue myelin. Other monounsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitoleic acid, are present in minor amounts in the diet. Linoleic acid is the precursor to arachidonic acid, which is the substrate for eicosanoid production in tissues, is a component of membrane structural lipids, and is also important in cell signaling pathways. Dihomo-fi-linolenic acid, also formed from linoleic acid, is also an eicosanoid precursor. Arachidonic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids are involved with regulation of gene expression resulting in decreased expression of proteins that regulate the enzymes involved with fatty acid synthesis (Ou et al. This may partly explain the ability of unsaturated fatty acids to influence the hepatic synthesis of fatty acids. This group includes: • 18:3 fi-Linolenic acid • 20:5 Eicosapentaenoic acid • 22:5 Docosapentaenoic acid • 22:6 Docosahexaenoic acid fi-Linolenic acid is not synthesized by humans and a lack of it results in adverse clinical symptoms, including neurological abnormalities and poor growth. Trans Fatty Acids Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration. The trans double-bond configuration results in a larger bond angle than the cis configuration, which in turn results in a more extended fatty acid carbon chain more similar to that of saturated fatty acids rather than that of cis unsaturated, double-bond– containing fatty acids. The conformation of the double bond impacts on the physical properties of the fatty acid. Those fatty acids containing a trans double bond have the potential for closer packing or aligning of acyl chains, resulting in decreased mobility; hence fluidity is reduced when compared to fatty acids containing a cis double bond. Partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils causes isomerization of some of the remaining double bonds and migration of others, resulting in an increase in the trans fatty acid content and the hardening of fat. Hydrogenation of oils, such as corn oil, can result in both cis and trans double bonds anywhere between carbon 4 and carbon 16. In addition to these isomers, dairy fat and meats contain 9-trans 16:1 and conjugated dienes (9-cis,11-trans 18:2). The trans fatty acid content in foods tends to be higher in foods containing hydrogenated oils (Emken, 1995). There is limited evidence to suggest that the trans-10,cis-12 isomer reduces the uptake of lipids by the adipocyte, and that the cis-9,trans-11 isomer is active in inhibiting carcinogenesis. Similarly, there are limited data to show that cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers inhibit atherogenesis (Kritchevsky et al. Dietary fat undergoes lipolysis by lipases in the gastrointestinal tract prior to absorption. Although there are lipases in the saliva and gastric secretion, most lipolysis occurs in the small intestine. The hydrolysis of triacylglycerol is achieved through the action of pancreatic lipase, which requires colipase, also secreted by the pancreas, for activity. In the intestine, fat is emulsified with bile salts and phospholipids secreted into the intestine in bile, hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes, and almost completely absorbed. Pancreatic lipase has high specificity for the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of dietary triacylglycerols, resulting in the release of free fatty acids from the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and 2-monoacylglycerol. These products of digestion are absorbed into the enterocyte, and the triacylglycerols are reassembled, largely via the 2-monoacylglycerol pathway. The triacylglycerols are then assembled together with cholesterol, phospholipid, and apoproteins into chylomicrons. Following absorption, fatty acids of carbon chain length 12 or less may be transported as unesterified fatty acids bound to albumin directly to the liver via the portal vein, rather than acylated into triacylglycerols. Dietary phospholipids are hydrolyzed by pancreatic phospholipase A2 and cholesterol esters by pancreatic cholesterol ester hydrolase. The lysophospholipids are re-esterified and packaged together with cholesterol and triacylglycerols in intestinal lipoproteins or transported as lysophospholipid via the portal system to the liver. These particles enter the circulation and within the capillaries of muscle and adipose tissue. Chylomicrons come into contact with the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which is located on the surface of capillaries. Most of the fatty acids released in this process are taken up by adipose tissue and re-esterified into triacylglycerol for storage. Triacylglycerol fatty acids also are taken up by muscle and oxidized for energy or are released into the systemic circulation and returned to the liver. Most newly absorbed fatty acids enter adipose tissue for storage as triacylglycerol. However, in the postabsorptive state or during exercise when fat is needed for fuel, adipose tissue triacylglycerol undergoes lipolysis and free fatty acids are released into the circulation. Hydrolysis occurs via the action of the adipose tissue enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase. When plasma insulin concentrations fall in the postabsorptive state, hormone-sensitive lipase is activated to release more free fatty acids into the circulation. Thus, in the postabsorptive state, free fatty acid concentrations in plasma are high; conversely, in the postprandial state, hormone-sensitive lipase activity is suppressed and free fatty acid concentrations in plasma are low. When free fatty acid concentrations are relatively high, muscle uptake of fatty acids is also high. As in liver, fatty acids in the muscle are transported via a carnitine-dependent pathway into mitochondria where they undergo fi-oxidation, which involves removal of two carbon fragments. These two carbon units enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), through which they are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide with the generation of large quantities of highenergy phosphate bonds, or they condense to form ketone bodies. However, the uptake of fatty acids in excess of the needs for oxidation for energy by muscle does result in temporary storage as triacylglycerol (Bessesen et al. High uptake of fatty acids by skeletal muscle also reduces glucose uptake by muscle and glucose oxidation (Pan et al. Oxidation of fatty acids containing up to 18 carbon atoms occurs mainly in the mitochondria. Oxidation of excess fatty acids in the liver, which occurs in prolonged fasting and with high intakes of medium-chain fatty acids, results in formation of large amounts of acetyl CoA that exceed the capacity for entry to the citric acid cycle. During starvation or prolonged low carbohydrate intake, ketone bodies can become an important alternate energy substrate to glucose for the brain and muscle. High dietary intakes of medium-chain fatty acids also result in the generation of ketone bodies. This is explained by the carnitine-independent influx of medium-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, thus by-passing this regulatory step of fatty acid entry into fi-oxidation. Fatty acids of greater than 18 carbon atoms require chain shortening in peroxisomes prior to mitochondrial fi-oxidation. The major pathway for triacylglycerol synthesis in liver is the 3-glycerophosphate pathway, which shows a high degree of specificity for saturated fatty acids at the sn-1(3) position and for unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position. Fatty acids are generally catabolized entirely by oxidative processes from which the only excretion products are carbon dioxide and water. Small amounts of ketone bodies produced by fatty acid oxidation are excreted in urine. Fatty acids are present in the cells of the skin and intestine, thus small quantities are lost when these cells are sloughed. When saturated fatty acids are ingested along with fats containing appreciable amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, they are absorbed almost completely by the small intestine.

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Each event has a across events in order to symptoms 13dpo purchase 500 mg panadol otc obtain the theme or moral typical duration and an expected onset and offset of a story that is being processed for the first time medicine 4h2 order panadol us. Thus medications you cant donate blood buy cheap panadol, in the case 1995; Pietrini treatment locator buy panadol 500 mg line, Guazzelli, Basso, Jaffe, & Grafman, of the event that indicates you are going into a 2000; Zalla et al. It is probaactivation of a subsequent event and the temporal ble that the same plasticity mechanisms that accomand cognitive distance the current event is from pany learning and recovery of function in other the primed event. The closer the primed event is cortical areas operate in the frontal lobes too (Grafin sequence and time to the priming event, the man & Litvan, 1999a; see also chapter 22, this volmore activated it should be. The ables humans to form a distributed episodic membasal ganglia, in turn, send back to the prefrontal ory for later retrieval. The binding also enables cortex, via the thalamus, signals that refiect their priming across representational forms to occur. They apthresholds should be decreased for recognizing pear to play a role in the storage of visuomotor seand thinking about objects normally found in an quences (Pascual-Leone et al. The more salient the ported, they lend confidence to the structure of the context, the more important it becomes for enmodel as predicated by its architects. When hyhancing the retrieval or recognition of episodic potheses are rejected, they occasionally lead to the memories. Thus, the hippocampus also serves to rejection of the entire model but may also lead to a help bind the activation of objects, words, faces, revised view of a component of the model. Furthermore, the hippocampus may be inor computational model and instead have opted volved in the linkage of sequentially occurring for functional attributions that can hardly be disevents. This is not entirely the fault of the investiquent event requires conscious recollection of gator as the forms of knowledge or processes stored forthcoming events, which should require the parin the prefrontal cortex have perplexed and eluded ticipation of a normally functioning hippocampus. Thus subjects with ampacity for abstraction, and assume what representanesia might gain confidence and comfort in tional states those trends would lead to. Errors in event sequencing can occur representational priming in amnesia should be govwith preservation of aspects of event knowledge erned by the same restraints that affect word or ob(Sirigu, Zalla, Pillon, Grafman, Agid, et al. Thematic knowledge can be impaired even though event knowledge is preserved (Zalla et al. There is evidence object, face, or scene are stored in the posterior for category specificity in that the ventromedial cortex. These representations are crucial compoprefrontal cortex appears to be specialized for sonents of a context and can provide the key cue to cial knowledge processing (Dimitrov, Phipps, et al. Future studies need to test tion of information across time, and in the control these predictions. Rehabilitation specialists so-called process models such as working memory are aware of the seriousness of deficits in executive that dominate the field today. Process models rely impairments, but there are precious few group upon a description of performance (holding or mastudies detailing specific or general improvements nipulating information) without necessarily being in executive functions that are maintained in the concerned about the details of the form of reprereal world and that lead to a positive functional sentation. This is one reason why the development of of thinking away from how we have previously neuroergonomics is an encouraging sign of furtried to understand the format in which informather interaction between cognitive neuroscience tion is stored in memory. Driving is than has been previously offered by its propooften conceived of as requiring skills that engage nents. The representational point of view that I perceptual, tactical, and strategic processes. Complicating matters these days is the use of cell phones that require divided attention. So even though people’s ability to maintain their previous level of we can use a skill associated with the frontal lobes work, responsibility to their family, and social comlike multitasking that results in an increase in the mitments (Grafman & Litvan, 1999b). These are quantity of tasks simultaneously performed, it does all key ergonomic and social issues. In turn, the not mean the quality of your task performance will Executive Functions 173 improve—in fact, it is likely to decline. It might be that a new discipline of neuroerA second example of how executive functions gonomics would supplement traditional human are used in daily life involves making judgments of factors research for specific tasks (such as driving, others’ behaviors. The ventromedial prefrontal coreconomic decision making, and social dynamics) tex might be concerned with storing attitudes and if the addition of cognitive neuroscience techstereotypes about others. An obvious model for this ties, depending on their sex, age, ethnicity, and application would be the introduction of neuroerracial identity). Your ability to determine the intengonomics to the training practices of government tion of others might depend on your ability to acagencies concerned with improving the skills and cess your stored knowledge of plans and other abilities of soldiers. The representational approach Making the assumption that the investor is either a I developed is based on the structured event comprofessional or an informed day trader, many abiliplex framework. In addition, when these memory timally between the late 20s and mid-50s, and so representations become activated via environmenexpert decision making with optimal high-level tal stimuli or by automatic or refiective thought, skills should occur primarily between those ages. Although should lead to a richer corpus of predictions about 174 Perception, Cognition, and Emotion subject performance that can be rejected or valiWood, J. Whether the application of cogniallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, “prefrontal” and “limbic” functions. Progress in Brain Research, tive neuroscience techniques substantially increase 85, 119–146. The human prefrontal cortex is the last brain Sorting Test performance in patients with multiple area to develop in humans and is one of the sclerosis. Executive functions including reasoning, tional Neuropsychological Society, 4, 523–526. Complementary roles of prefrontal of knowledge stored in other brain areas or cortical regions in cognition, memory, and emotion in primates. Executive functions (and therefore the Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex) mediate many of the skills cortex. Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. Coarse semantic coding and frontal cortex has evolved to represent components discourse comprehension. Doing without schema hierarchies: A recurrent connectionist apsterdam: Elsevier Science. Strategy application disorder: the role of the frontal lobes in human multitaskCacioppo, J. European Neurology, 39, ronal modeling of cognitive functions: From synap193–199. Similarities and distinctions among Philosophical Tranactions of the Royal Society of Loncurrent models of prefrontal cortical functions. Pyramidal cells of the frontal frontal cortex and the integration of sensory, limbic lobe: All the more spinous to think with. International Review of Frontal-subcortical circuits: the anatomic basis Neurobiology, 41, 297–323. The prefrontal cortex and cognisemblies, response blocking and response capture tive control. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, by action: Neuropsychological evidence for action769, 183–190. Where the brain ordering performance: Impaired self-awareness folappreciates the moral of a story. The role of the dorsolateral working memory functions within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in implicit procedural learning. An odd kind of fame: Stories of chitectonic analysis of the human and macaque Phineas Gage. European Jourgerial knowledge following pre-frontal cortex damnal of Neuroscience, 11, 1011–1036. Encoding of sequence and gressive behavior assessed by positron emission boundaries of scripts following prefrontal lesions. Experimental Brain Research, 133, deficits in closed head injury and anterior commu130–138. Dissociation of atmemory: Evidence from spatio-temporal patterns tentional processes in patients with focal frontal of brain activity. Toward years after penetrating head injury: Report from the neuroanatomical models of analogy: A positron Vietnam Head Injury Study. To the extent that decision-making researchers identifying phenomcurrent economic models of expected utility exena that systematically violated normative princiclude emotion from their vocabulary, it is really inples of economic behavior (Kahneman & Tversky, consistent with their foundations. Decision-making research in the 1990s beThus the prevalent assumption, which is pergan to see a shift in emphasis from not merely haps erroneous, is that a direct link exists between demonstrating violations of normative principles to knowledge and the implementation of behavioral attempting to shed light on the underlying psychodecisions, that is, one does what one actually logical mechanisms responsible for the various efknows. Today, several researchers agree that the next normal people often deviate from rational choice, phase of exciting research in this area is likely to despite having the relevant knowledge.

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Field biologists and persons working in previously "contaminated" buildings are at risk medicine zetia generic 500 mg panadol with visa. Occupational Health and Safety regulations commonly define a requirement to medications that cause weight gain purchase generic panadol canada develop a written "exposure control plan" for workers required to medications xyzal purchase genuine panadol on line handle medications in pregnancy purchase panadol 500mg without prescription, use or produce an infectious material or organism or likely to be exposed. Such a written plan includes: identifying workers at risk, routes of infection, signs and symptoms of disease, vaccination, engineering controls, personal protective equipment, personnel training, safe work practices and procedures, dealing with accidents, and investigating accidents. The attitudes and actions of those who work in the laboratory determine their own safety, and that of their colleagues and of the university community. Laboratory equipment and design can contribute to safety only if they are used properly by people who are genuinely concerned and knowledgeable about safety issues. Containment levels refer to the physical requirements and risk groups refer to the pathogenicity of the organisms. Biosafety Level 1 is required to manage the lowest risk and Bio-safety Level 4 is required to manage the highest risk to human or animal health. Bio-safety Level 1 Risk Group 1 infectious agents are biological agents that are unlikely to cause disease in healthy workers or animals. Facilities required to contain risk group 1 organisms include Containment Level 1: No special facilities, equipment or procedures are required standard well-designed experimental animal and laboratory facilities and basic safe laboratory practices suffice hand-washing facilities must be provided disinfectants must be properly used Bio-safety Level 2 Risk Group 2 infectious agents are pathogens that can cause human or animal disease but, under normal circumstances, are unlikely to be a serious hazard to laboratory workers, the community, livestock, or the environment. Laboratory exposures rarely cause infection leading to serious disease; effective treatment and preventive measures are available and the risk of spread is limited. Standard Operating Procedures must be provided and posted within the laboratory outlining operational protocols, waste disposal, disinfection procedures and emergency response. The facility must have a medical surveillance program appropriate to the agents used, which includes serum storage for all personnel working in the containment laboratory and an accident reporting system. Bio-safety Level 4 Risk Group 4 infectious agents are pathogens that usually produce very serious human or animal disease, often untreatable, and may be readily transmitted from one individual to another or from animal to human or vice-versa directly or indirectly, or by casual contact. Risk Group 4 infectious agents are all viruses, such as, Ebola viruses, Herpes B virus (Monkey virus), Foot and Mouth Disease. Only fully trained and authorized personnel may enter the Level 4 containment laboratory. The following table summarizes the bio-safety levels and corresponding facility precautions including safety equipment to be used. Surveys have revealed that up to 44% of people working with laboratory animals develop allergies to one or more species, and they usually become allergic within 3 years of first exposure. These proteins occur in the serum and tissues, but also in the saliva, urine and skin dander. When animals groom themselves, the salivary proteins also end up on the skin, and on the dander particles that flake off and become aerosolized. Allergic reactions can be classified according to the site of the reaction: upper respiratory; lower respiratory; skin; generalized; anaphylactic. However, any allergen exposure, even very low levels, will trigger symptoms in allergic individuals. A relative humidity of 50-65% significantly reduces the quantity of allergen being aerosolized. Use of processed paper products and absorbent pads result in lower levels of aerosolized allergens. Cleaning and Sanitation Practices A high level of cleanliness results in reduced levels of allergens circulating in laboratory animal rooms. There is a strong correlation between the intensity of exposure to the allergen, and the severity of symptoms. Housing rodents in filtered cages and ventilated cage racks, use of ventilated waste dumping stations and laminar flow hoods for animal manipulations, will all help minimize exposure to laboratory animal allergens. Maintaining a high level of cleanliness, and using a bedding type that minimizes aerosol dust particles will also help minimize exposure to laboratory animal allergens. The appropriate use of personal protective equipment such as good quality particulate masks and gloves can significantly reduce exposure to animal allergens. Such equipment should be provided for all staff required to work in high exposure areas. These include education programs for staff, improved engineering standards for ventilation and relative humidity, and provision of appropriate personal protective gear. Education programs that cover topics such as symptoms, risks, defining risk zones and tasks, proper use of personal protective equipment, and health counseling for affected and at-risk staff, are very important. Chemical Safety Experimental animal facilities routinely contain various chemicals such as detergents, disinfectants, anesthetics, tissue preservatives. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health Fifth Edition 2007 U. Historically, the information in this publication has been advisory in nature even though legislation and regulation, in some circumstances, have overtaken it and made th compliance with the guidance provided mandatory. Wherever possible, an attempt was made to clarify both the language and intent of the information provided. In an attempt to better serve the needs of our community in this new era, information on the following topics has been added in th the 5 edition: • Occupational medicine and immunization • Decontamination and sterilization • Laboratory biosecurity and risk assessment • Biosafety Level 3 (Ag) laboratories • Agent summary statements for some agricultural pathogens • Biological toxins At last count, over two hundred of our scientific and professional colleagues have th assisted in the preparation of the 5 edition through participation on technical working groups; serving as reviewers and guest editors; and as subject matter experts. The Executive Steering Committee did a stellar job in shepherding this massive revision effort and not without many bumps and bruises along the way. It is through their absolute commitment to quality, technical accuracy, and dedication to the th professional practice of biosafety that the 5 edition is born. Kerstin Traum, Council Rock Consulting, for her expertise, keen eye for detail and seeming tireless efforts in performing the duties of technical writer-editor. Thank you for your patience and understanding during the long and comprehensive revision process. Director Director Division of Occupational Health and Safety Office of Health and Safety National Institutes of Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Bethesda, Maryland Atlanta, Georgia January 2007 Editors: L. Weyant, PhD Chief, Laboratory Safety Branch Office of Health and Safety Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Martin L. Emmett Barkley, PhD Director of Laboratory Safety Office of Laboratory Safety Howard Hughes Medical Institute Mark Q. Dixon, PhD Chief, Bacteriology and Mycology Branch Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Mark L. Eberhard, PhD Director, Division of Parasitic Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Martin S. Favero, PhD Director, Scientific and Clinical Affairs Advanced Sterilization Products Johnson and Johnson, Inc. Susan Gorsky Regulations Officer, Office of Hazardous Materials Standards Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration United States Department of Transportation Mary E. Groesch, PhD Senior Advisor for Science Policy Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director National Institutes of Health Ted Hackstadt, PhD Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Rocky Mountain Laboratory Robert A. Hilliard, PhD Viral Immunology Center, Department of Biology Georgia State University William C. Director Office of Biotechnology Activities/Office of Science Policy Office of the Director National Institutes of Health Jonathan Y. Weyant, PhD Chief, Laboratory Safety Branch Office of Health and Safety Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Deborah E. The 5 edition is no exception, as specialists in multiple disciplines generously provided their considerable expertise to this revision. Beets Ermias Belay Kathryn Bernard Carolyn Black Walter Bond Cheryl Bopp Sandra Bragg David Bressler Charles Brokopp Elizabeth J. Byers Jane Caputo Arturo Casadevall Christina Cassetti Byron Caughey Vishnu Chaturvedi Bruce Chesebro May Chu Jeffrey I. Gale Galland Leslie Garry Adams Mahmoud Ghannoum Mark Gibson Chester Gipson Irene Glowinski Dore Gore Richard Green William Grizzle Mary E. Michael Janda Jackie Katz Carole Kauffman Molly Kellum Fred Khoshbin Maxim Kiefer Bruce Klein Phillip H. Levett Randall Levings Stuart Levitz Douglas Luster Keither Mansfield Dale Martin Al Mateczun Henry Mathews Michael McGinnis John J. Moore Mario Morales Rand Mortimer Bernard Moss Waledi Muhmed Brian Murphy Irving Nachamkin Janet K.

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This transformation is very much in line with the wider global trend symptoms hiatal hernia order genuine panadol line, where an obsession with poverty has become the preserve of the middle classes and the dispossessed are increasingly concerned with radical spirituality medicine on airplanes order 500mg panadol visa. Individuals come to medicine knowledge purchase 500 mg panadol fast delivery power and they either prove themselves competent or ineffective medicine 319 pill order discount panadol line, subtle or lumbering in dealing with ethnic and religious confrontations, and aceesible or remote. However, this is not a very adequate situation for a nation-state; it allows for unaccountable behaviour, no matter how locally popular. In actuality, policy is made on an ad hoc, state-by-state basis and evolves rapidly. Government should consider; fi Creating a clear and constitutionally specified role for traditional rulers with transparent mechanisms for either making or approving choices and for demoting or dismissing those who fail in their tasks; fi Specifying remuneration for traditional rulers and the sources of that remuneration; fi Reducing the creation of ‘new’ traditional rulers and halting the upgrading process; fi Specifying more clearly the role traditional rulers would be expected to play in conflict resolution. The failure to deal with these issues in 2006, when the Federal Government was paralysed by a debate over a third term for the incumbent is an excellent illustration of the manner in which short-term expediency trumps long-term considerations of stability. Another opportunity to consider the role of traditional rulers is unlikely to arise for some time. This would intentionally discriminate against new traditional rulers who are political creations and they would only be able to generate income through action with proven outcomes. However, it is clear that Federal Government policies in the arena of conflict resolution are completely dysfunctional, suggesting that any civil society institution that can play a role in improving the situation is worth support. Another conclusion of this study is that it is only worth supporting rulers at a certain level. To this end, donors could consider; fi Developing a ‘good rulers guide’, an examination of the traditional rulers’ institutions that are functioning effectively; fi Assist in developing government policy both to provide traditional rulers with more political support while maintaining the capacity to get rid of wayward individuals; fi Providing funds for conflict resolution out of a pool, so that they can be available flexibly and rapidly where conflict breaks out; fi Work with traditional rulers to develop an ‘early warning’ system, to identify potential sources of conflict. A key element is to try and transform the way information is collected and analysed. At present both writing about conflict and policy advice is in the hands of those who are by and large outsiders. As a consequence, the picture presented to donors is both urban and centralist; information that could be gathered by a close reading of newspapers. But this is a tainted source, informed as it is by political forces controlled by wealthy elites whose interests are their own. The anti-rural bias is very evident; many of the situations discussed in this study never make the national agenda. Table 20, ‘donors’ decision grid’ synthesises some of the conclusions of this study into a single matrix and tries to suggest where investment would most likely make a difference to Nigerian governance; Table 20. Similarly, extremely high status rulers are generally wealthy and are furthermore intensively involved in national politics; donor funds are therefore unlikely to be well-used. On the other hand, if the ruler is one of those Middle Belt or southern chiefs with little secular power and only ritual 108 Traditional leaders in Nigeria, Main text of Final Report importance, they will not have the institutional backing to succeed with subventions. Rulers with a track record of peace-making and reconciliation are worth supporting when not excluded by other criteria. Similarly, rulers facing complex multi-ethnic and multi-religious constituencies are more likely to face difficulties and financial shortfalls. Finally, some rulers have a known allegiance to a particular political faction; support to these should be excluded. Out of this selection process, the most likely ‘candidates’ are those at the mid to lower levels of the administrative web, the third-class Emirs, the District and Village Heads, who are often working hard to keep the peace and develop their area with little recognition and support be government. As the report shows, the existing subventions to traditional rulers are of limited value in terms of the demands on them (§6. As a consequence, a great deal of their attention is focused on raising money from a variety of sources, not all conventional. Relatively small amounts of funding could support activities such as peace-making committees, familiarisation visits, printing of documents relative to agreements reached and the like. It is proposed that a fund be created which traditional rulers could apply to for small sums to facilitate their work. Traditional rulers still have an important role to play in the governance of Nigeria but their position is blurred by a lack of a constitutional frame for their activities and inconsistent financial support. Moreover the recent flowering of new ‘ traditional’ chiefs representing a variety of sometimes ephemeral interests is out of control and can only have the effect of lowering the overall prestige of the institution. International donors should consider selective support to some of the hardworking individual levels operating at intermediate levels who are probably doing more to maintain civil order in Nigeria than the vast apparatus of the Federal State. In: Land Tenure Systems in Nigeria: Evolving Effective Land Use Policy for Poverty Alleviation. The Political History of Religious Violence in Nigeria: pre-colonial period through to 1996. Local Autonomy and Inter-governmental Relations in Nigeria, the Case of the Northern States in the Immediate Post Local Government Reform Period (1976-79). Zaria: Department of Local Government Studies, Institute of Administration, Ahmadu Bello University. In Urban Violence, Ethnic Militias and the Challenge of Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria. Urban Violence, Ethnic Militias and the Challenge of Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria. Military Professionalism and Conflict Management in Nigeria: A Case Study of Tiv-Jukun Conflict Since 1980. Paper Presented at the National Conference on Crisis and Conflict Management in Nigeria Since 1980. Communal Conflicts and the Possibilities of Conflict Resolution in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Tiv-Jukun Conflicts in Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State. The Expansion and Adaptation of Fulfie Pastoralism to Subhumid and Humid Conditions in Nigeria. Peace-building and Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria: Proceedings of the Northern Peace Conference. Religious Protest and Dissent in Northern Nigeria: From Mahdism to Quranic Integralism. Islam in Modern Nigeria: A Study of a Muslim Community in a PostIndependence State 1960-1983. A Nigerian Chiefdom: Some Notes on the Igala Tribe in Nigeria and their “Divine King”. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 34, 3:197-205 Crowder, Michael & Ikime, O. The Tragedy of Sharia, Cry and the Voice of the Masses: Kaduna Crisis from an Eye Witness. Lokalhistorien in Sudnigeria und die Schriften Jacob Egharevbas uber die Geschichte des Reiches Benin (Nigeria). The Military and Management of Religious Violence in Nigeria: the Maitatsine Crisis in Jimeta-Yola, 1984. Ethno-religious Conflicts in the Jos Plateau Region in the 19 and 21 Centuries: In Search for a Comparative Framework. The Nigerian State: Political Economy, State Class and Political System in the PostColonial Era. Radical Christian Revivalism in Nigeria and Ghana: Recent Patterns of Conflict and Intolerance. The Emirates of Northern Nigeria: A Preliminary Survey of their Historical Traditions. Revenge in the Name of Religion: the Cycle of Violence in Plateau and Kano States, Human Rights Watch report, 17, 8 (A), New York. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 524, Political Islam: 143-155. A Historical Whodunit: the So-Called "Kano Chronicle" and Its Place in the Historiography of Kano. The Late Treatment of Slavery in Sokoto: Background and Consequences of the 1936 Proclamation. Ethno-religious Conflicts in Nigeria: A Case Study of the 2001 Crisis in Kano State. The Politics of Religion in Nigeria: the Parameters of the 1987 Crisis in Kaduna State. Prince of the Times: Ado Bayero and the Transformation of Emiral Authority in Kano.

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