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Metabolizable energy of diets low or high in dietary fiber from cereals when eaten by humans. Wolk A, Bergstrom R, Hunter D, Willett W, Ljung H, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Bruce A, Adami H-O. A prospective study of association of monounsaturated fat and other types of fat with risk of breast cancer. Independent effects of palatability and within-meal pauses on intake and appetite ratings in human volunteers. Effect of dietary macronutrient composition on tissue-specific lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin action in normal-weight subjects. Dose-response effects of dietary a-linolenic acidenriched oils on human polymorphonuclear-neutrophil biosynthesis of leukotriene B4. Hydrogenation alternatives: Effects of trans fatty acids and stearic acid versus linoleic acid on serum lipids and lipoproteins in humans. Energy and macronutrient content of human milk during early lactation from mothers giving birth prematurely and at term. Obesity as an adaptation to a high-fat diet: Evidence from a cross-sectional study. Impact of the v/v 55 polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene on 24-h energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. A meta-analysis of the factors affecting exerciseinduced changes in body mass, fat mass and fat-free mass in males and females. A Metabolic Study with Special Reference to the Efficiency of the Human Body as a Machine. The Gaseous Metabolism of Infants, with Special Reference to its Relation of Pulse-Rate and Muscular Activity. Variations and determinants of energy expenditure as measured by whole-body indirect calorimetry during puberty and adolescence. Human energy expenditure in affluent societies: An analysis of 574 doubly-labelled water measurements. Thermogenic response to an oral glucose load in man: Comparison between young and elderly subjects. Muscle accounts for glucose disposal but not lactate appearance during exercise after acclimatization to 4,300 m. Effect of moderate cold exposure on 24-h energy expenditure: Similar response in postobese and nonobese women. Adjustments in energy expenditure and substrate utilization during late pregnancy and lactation. Influence of body composition and resting metabolic rate on variation in total energy expenditure: A meta-analysis. Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. The association of obesity with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in women: A twin study. Tracking of blood lipids and blood pressures in school age children: the Muscatine study. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. Human Energy Metabolism: Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure Measurements in Epidemiological Research Based upon Direct and Indirect Calorimetry. Energy utilization and growth in breast-fed and formula-fed infants measured prospectively during the first year of life. Moderate alcohol intake and spontaneous eating patterns of humans: Evidence of unregulated supplementation. Physical activity and body composition in 10 year old French children: linkages with nutritional intakefi Role of deep abdominal fat in the association between regional adipose tissue distribution and glucose tolerance in obese women. Effect of exercise training on energy expenditure, muscle volume, and maximal oxygen uptake in female adolescents. Changes in energy expenditure of light physical activity during a 10 day period at 34°C environmental temperature. A growth-limiting, mild zinc-deficiency syndrome in some Southern Ontario boys with low height percentiles. Endurance training does not enhance total energy expenditure in healthy elderly persons. Influence of sex, seasonality, ethnicity, and geographic location on the components of total energy expenditure in young children: Implications for energy requirements. Energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition of poor rural Philippine women throughout the first 6 mo of lactation. Greater influence of central distribution of adipose tissue on incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in women than men. The relationship of obesity, fat distribution and osteoarthritis in women in the general population: the Chingford Study. In: Body Composition Measurements in Infants and Children: Report of the 98th Ross Conference on Pediatric Research. Basal metabolic rate in human subjects migrating between tropical and temperate regions: A longitudinal study and review of previous work. Influence of menstrual cycle on thermoregulatory, metabolic, and heart rate responses to exercise at night. Body-size dependence of resting energy expenditure can be attributed to nonenergetic homogeneity of fat-free mass. The association of body weight, body fatness and body fat distribution with osteoarthritis of the knee: Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Longterm follow-up of patients attending a combination very-low calorie diet and behaviour therapy weight loss programme. Energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry in premenopausal women: Variation within one menstrual cycle. Metabolically active components of fat free mass and resting energy expenditure in nonobese adults. Energy expenditure of Chinese infants in Guangdong Province, south China, determined with use of the doubly labeled water method. Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intakes underestimate true energy requirements in middle-aged women. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during normal pregnancy: Relationship to gestational hormone action. Determinations of standard energy metabolism (basal metabolism) in normal infants. Prospective study of clinical gallbladder disease and its association with obesity, physical activity, and other factors. No relationship between identified variants in the uncoupling protein 2 gene and energy expenditure. Calorimetric validation of the doubly-labelled water method for determination of energy expenditure in man. Body fat and water changes during pregnancy in women with different body weight and weight gain.

Bellini M muscle relaxant and nsaid generic 30gr rumalaya gel mastercard, Biagi S muscle relaxant over the counter walgreens order rumalaya gel with a mastercard, Stasi C spasms vhs generic 30 gr rumalaya gel overnight delivery, et al Gastrointestinal manifestations in myotonic muscular dystrophy muscle relaxant elemis muscle soak buy rumalaya gel. Lindeman E, Leffers P, Spaans F et al Strength training in patients with myotonic dystrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy:a randomized clinical trial. U S Department of Health and Human Services health gov/paguidelines 24. Echenne B, Rideau A, Roubertie A, Sebire G, Rivier F, Lemieux B Myotonic dystrophy type I in childhood long-term evolution in patients surviving the neonatal period. Cognitive profle in childhood myotonic dystrophy type 1: Is there a global impairmentfi Winchester P, Kendall K, Peters H, Sears N, Winkley T the effect of therapeutic horseback riding on gross motor function and gait speed in children who are developmentally delayed. Annu Rev Neurosci 29:259-77, 2006 Machuca-Tzili L; Brook J D; Hilton-Jones D Clinical and molecular aspects of the myotonic dystrophies: a review. W B Saunders, London Korade-Mirnics Z; Babitzke P; Hoffman E Myotonic dystrophy: molecular windows on a complex etiology. Hum Mol Genet 5 Spec 1417-23, 1996 Pizzuti A; Friedman D L; Caskey C T the myotonic dystrophy gene. Neuromuscul Disord Jan 15:5-16, 2005 Machuca-Tzili L; Brook J D; Hilton-Jones D Clinical and molecular aspects of the myotonic dystrophies: a review. American Journal of Human Genetics 74: 793-804, 2004 Day J W; Ricker K; Jacobsen J F; Rasmussen L J; Dick K A; Kress W; Schneider C; Koch M C; Beilman G J; Harrison A R; Dalton J C; Ranum L P; Myotonic dystrophy type 2: molecular, diagnostic and clinical spectrum. Science 293:864-7, 2001 Larkin K, Fardaei M Myotonic dystrophy-a multigene disorder. Genet 13: 3079-88, 2004 Kanadia R N; Johnstone K A; Mankodi A; Lungu C; Thornton C A; Esson D; Timmers A M; Hauswirth W W; Swanson M S A muscleblind knockout model for myotonic dystrophy. Genet 4: 599-606, 1995 Fu Y-H; Friedman D L; Richards S; Pearlman J A; Gibbs R A; Pizzuti A; Ashizawa T; Perryman M B; Scarlato G; Fenwick R G Jr; Caskey C. Science 260: 235-8, 1993 Hull K L Jr; Roses A D Stoichiometry of sodium and potassium transport in erythrocytes from patients with myotonic muscular dystrophy. Genet 10: 855-63, 20 01 Gomes-Pereira M; Fortune M T; Monckton D G Mouse tissue culture models of unstable triplet repeats: in vitro selection for larger alleles, mutational expansion bias and tissue specifcity, but no association with cell division rates. Neurology 50: 1501-4, 1998 Magee, A C; Hughes, A E Segregation distortion in myotonic dystrophy. Nature Genet 15: 190-2, 1997 Leefang, E P; McPeek, M S; Arnheim, N Analysis of meiotic segregation, using singlesperm typing: meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus. Genet 54: 575-85, 1994 Abeliovich D, Lerer I, Pashut-Lavon I, Shmueli E, Raas-Rothschild A, Frydman M Negative expansion of the myotonic dystrophy unstable sequence. Invest 100: 1440-7, 1997 Casanova G, Jerusalem F Myopathology of myotonic dystrophy: a morphometric study. Acta Neuropath (Berlin) 45: 213-40, 1979 de Swart B J, van Engelen B G, van de Kerkhof J P, Maassen B A Myotonia and faccid dysarthria in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1480-2, 2004 Drachman D B, Fambrough D M Are muscle fbers denervated in myotonic dystrophyfi J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1406-9, 2005 Kurihara T New Classifcation andTreatment for Myotonic Disorders. Internal Medicine 44: 1027-32, 2005 Logigian E L, Ciafaloni E, Quinn L C, Dilek N, Pandya S, Moxley R T 3rd, Thornton C A Severity, type, and distribution of myotonic discharges are different in type 1 and type 2 myotonic dystrophy. Muscle Nerve Apr 35:479-85, 2007 Logigian E L, Blood C L, Dilek N,Martens W B, Moxley R T4th, Wiegner A W, Thornton C A, Moxley R T 3rd Quantitative analysis of the “warm-up” phenomenon in myotonic dystrophy type 1. Neurology 62: 1081-9, 2004 Lovell M E, Morcuende J A Neuromuscular disease as the cause of late clubfoot relapses: report of 4 cases. Iowa Orthop J 27:82-4, 2007 Lueck J D, Mankodi A, Swanson M S, Thornton C A, Dirksen R T Muscle chloride channel dysfunction in two mouse models of myotonic dystrophy. Mol Cell 10:35-44, 2002 Mounsey J P, Xu P, John J E 3rd, Horne L T, Gilbert J, Roses A D, Moorman J R Modulation of skeletal muscle sodium channels by human myotonin protein kinase. J Clin Invest May 95:2379-84 1995 Orngreen M C, Olsen D B, Vissing J Aerobic training in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Neurol 57: 754-7, 2005 Reddy S, Smith D B, Rich M M, Leferovich J M, Reilly P, Davis B M, Tran K, Rayburn H, Bronson R, Cros D, Balice-Gordon R J, Housman D Mice lacking the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase develop a late onset progressive myopathy. Nature Genet 13: 325-35, 1996 Streib E W, Sun S F Distribution of electrical myotonia in myotonic muscular dystrophy. Ann Neurol 14:80-2, 1983 Timchenko N A, Iakova P, Cai Z J, Smith J R, Timchenko L T Molecular basis for impaired muscle differentiation in myotonic dystrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77:1282-3, 2006 Cardiovascular Bassez G, Lazarus A, Desguerre I, Varin J, Laforet P, Becane H M, Meune C, Arne-Bes M C, Ounnoughene Z, Radvanyi H, Eymard B, Duboc D Severe cardiac arrhythmias in young patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Neurology 63:1939-41, 2004 Bhakta D, Lowe M R, Groh W J Prevalence of structural cardiac abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy type I. Am Heart J 147:224-7, 2004 Duboc D, Eymard B, et al Cardiac management of myotonic dystrophy. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. J Card Surg 22:74-5, 2007 Kilic T, Vural A, et al Cardiac resynchronization therapy in a case of myotonic dystrophy (Steinert’s disease) and dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 99(8): 1041-6 1999 Lazarus A, Varin J, Babuty D, Anselme F, Coste J, Duboc D Long-term follow-up of arrhythmias in patients with myotonic dystrophy treated by pacing: A multicenter diagnostic pacemaker study. Cardiovasc Res 33:13-22, 1997 Schoser B G, Ricker K, Schneider-Gold C, Hengstenberg C, Durre J, Bultmann B, Kress W, Day J W, Ranum L P Sudden cardiac death in myotonic dystrophy type 2. Neurology 63:2402-4, 2004 Sovari A A, Bodine C K,et al Cardiovascular manifestations of myotonic dystrophy-1. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis Sep 9:252-5, 2007 Klompe L; Lance M; van der Woerd D; Scohy T; Bogers A J Anaesthesiological and ventilatory precautions during cardiac surgery in Steinert’s disease: a case report. J Card Surg 22:74-5, 2007 Laub M; Berg S; Midgren B Symptoms, clinical and physiological fndings motivating home mechanical ventilation in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Respir Physiol Neurobiol Nov 30 144:99-107, 2004 Nishi M; Itoh H; Tsubokawa T; Taniguchi T; Yamamoto K Effective doses of vecuronium in a patient with myotonic dystrophy. Anaesthesia 59:1216-8, 2004 Rosenbaum H K; Miller J D Malignant hyperthermia and myotonic disorders. Anesthesiol Clin North America 20, 385-426, 2002 Aquilina A; Groves J A combined technique utilising regional anaesthesia and target-controlled sedation in a patient with myotonic dystrophy. Anaesthesia 57:385-6, 2002 Nugent A M; Smith I E; Shneerson J M Domiciliary-assisted ventilation in patients with myotonic dystrophy. Chest Feb 121:459-64, 2002 Shneerson J M; Simonds A K Noninvasive ventilation for chest wall and neuromuscular disorders. Muscle Nerve Apr 25:616-8, 2002 Nitz J; Burke B A study of the facilitation of respiration in myotonic dystrophy. Physiother Res Int 7:22838, 2002 Imison A R Anaesthesia and myotonia-an Australian experience. Anaesth Intensive Care 29:34-7, 2001 Calabrese P; Gryspeert N; Auriant I; Fromageot C; Raphael J C; Lofaso F; Benchetrit G Postural breathing pattern changes in patients with myotonic dystrophy. Respir Physiol Aug 122:1-13, 2000 Ugalde V; Breslin E H; Walsh S A; Bonekat H W; Abresch R T; Carter G T Pursed lips breathing improves ventilation in myotonic muscular dystrophy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Apr 81:472-8, 2000 Keller C; Reynolds A; Lee B; Garcia-Prats J Congenital myotonic dystrophy requiring prolonged endotracheal and noninvasive assisted ventilation: not a uniformly fatal condition. Pediatrics 101: 704-6, 1998 Mathieu J; Allard P; Gobeil G; Girard M; De Braekeleer M; Begin P Anesthetic and surgical complications in 219 cases of myotonic dystrophy. Neurology 49:1646-50, 1997 Moxley R T 3rd Carrell-Krusen Symposium Invited Lecture-1997. J Child Neurol 12:116-29, 1997 Mathieu, J, Allard, P, Gobeil, G, Girard M; De Braekeleer M; Begin P Anesthetic and surgical complications in 219 cases of myotonic dystrophy. Neurology 49:1646-50, 1997 Robin N H; Curtis M T; Mulla W; Reynolds C A; Anday E; Rorke L B; Zackai E H Non-immune hydrops fetalis associated with impaired fetal movement: a case report and review. Br J Anaesth 1990; 65:692-7, 1990 Aldridge L M Anaesthetic problems in myotonic dystrophy. A case report and review of the Aberdeen experience comprising 48 general anaesthetics in a further 16 patients. Anaesthesia 35:4925, 1980 Moulds R F; Denborough M A Letter: Myopathies and malignant hyperpyrexia. Br Med J 3:520, 1974 Saidman L J; Havard E S; Eger E I 2nd Hyperthermia during anesthesia.

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Pharmacodynamics of use of sildenafil among commercially insured adults in intracavernously injected drugs and cavernous wall resistance bladder spasms 4 year old cheap rumalaya gel on line. Subcutaneous rapidly improves gonadal function in hyperprolactinemic males: apomorphine: An evidence-based review of its use in a comparison with bromocriptine muscle relaxant 771 rumalaya gel 30 gr on-line. The Importance of Erection Hardness muscle relaxant jaw rumalaya gel 30 gr line, Psychological WellBr J Clin Res 1993;429-36 spasms heat or ice rumalaya gel 30gr on line. Erectile dysfunction therapy in special populations Rehabilitation 1996;77(8):750-753. Side effects of chronic intrathecal baclofen on erection and Deedwania P, Volkova N. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2005;3(3):453-463. Penile anesthesia risk factors and erectile dysfunction: can lifestyle associated with sertraline use. A critical review of anagrelide of oral sildenafil (Viagra) in men with erectile dysfunction therapy in essential thrombocythemia and related caused by spinal cord injury. Anagrelide: An update on its design of a 292 ft tall self-erecting flare tower for offshore mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential. Proceedings of the International Conference on Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2004;4(4):533-541. The role of 5 alpha reductase inhibitors and alpha Dinsmore W W, Hackett G, Goldmeier D et al. Curr Opin Urol Topical eutectic mixture for premature ejaculation 2004;14(1):17-20. Evaluation of the Sexual Assessment Monitor, a diagnostic device DeVries C R, Anderson R U. Endoscopic urethroplasty: An used to electronically quantify ejaculatory latency improved technique. Sildenafil increases cerebrovascular reactivity: A transcranial Dey J, Shepherd M D. The effect of sildenafil on nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in Di Matteo, Vincenzo Di, Giovanni Guiseppe et al. Predictive value of real-time RigiScan monitoring for the Di Rocco A, Tagliati M, Danisi F et al. Atlas of the Urologic plus cyproterone acetate in the treatment of advanced prostatic Clinics of North America 2002;10(1):63-73. The treatment advantages over sildenafil in the treatment of erectile satisfaction scale: a multidimensional instrument for the dysfunctionfi. Combination of finasteride and doxazosin for the Dorey G, Feneley R C, Speakman M J et al. Expert Opin floor muscle exercises and manometric biofeedback Pharmacother 2004;5(5):1209-1211. Is amlodipine the best initial monotherapy for Continence Nursing 2003;30(1):44-51. Pelvic floor exercises for treating post-micturition dribble in men Dogra P N, Rajeev T P, Aron M. Medicolegal aspects in the with erectile dysfunction: a randomized controlled management of erectile dysfunction. Direct effects controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle exercises and of selective type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors alone or with manometric biofeedback for erectile dysfunction. Recovery of sexual function prostatectomy compared with incision of the prostate after prostate cancer treatment. Curr Opin in the treatment of prostatism caused by small benign Urol 2006;16(6):444-448. Role of transrectal ultrasound guided salvage cryosurgery for recurrent prostate Dorrance A M, Lewis R W, Mills T M. Prostate Cancer & Prostatic treatment reverses erectile dysfunction in male stroke Diseases 2005;8(3):235-242. Is it an effective and safe treatment for localised of ginkgo (ginkgo biloba) during pregnancy and prostate cancerfi. Value of noninvasive tests compared with penile versus photon radiotherapy in locally advanced duplex ultrasonography. Evaluation of 1972-1987 single institutional experience: Comparison of side effects of sildenafil in group of young healthy standard radical prostatectomy and nerve-sparing technique. Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and Droupy S, Hessel A, Benoit G et al. Assessment of the physical problems in men and women: a cross functional role of accessory pudendal arteries in erection by sectional population survey. How, why and when should study of the prevalence and need for health care in the urologists evaluate male sexual functionfi. Dursteler-MacFarland K M, Stohler R, Moldovanyi A du Plessis S S, de Jongh P S, Franken D R. Sexual Function raloxifene on gonadotrophins, sex hormones, bone Before and After Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: A turnover and lipids in healthy elderly men. Eur J Systematic Review of Prognostic Indicators for a Successful Endocrinol 2004;150(4):539-546. Sexual dysfunction in male patients with Dubocq F, Tefilli M V, Gheiler E L et al. Diabetic neuropathy: men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: 10-year An intensive review. Can an erectogenic pharmacotherapy regimen after radical prostatectomy improve postoperative erectile functionfi. Diagnostic value of nitric oxide, lipoprotein(a), and malondialdehyde levels in the peripheral venous and Earle C M, Seah M, Coulden S E et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with erectile dysfunction: is there a vascular Eden C G, Cahill D, Vass J A et al. Screening for ischemic heart disease in patients with erectile dysfunction: role Eglau Uwe. A risk-benefit assessment of treatment with finasteride in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Apomorphine versus mating behavior in testing El-Bahrawy M, El-Baz M A, Emam A et al. Urology vacuum constriction device in the management of erectile 1995;45(4):715-719. Erectile dysfunction in smokers: a penile dynamic and vascular El-Gabry E A, Strup S E, Gomella L G. Importance of thermal dose and antenna location in transurethral microwave Eri L M, Tveter K J. Effects of pollen extract preparation Prostat/Poltit on lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with chronic Erkan E, Muslumanoglu A Y, Oktar T et al. Dual radioisotopic study: a technique for the evaluation of vasculogenic Emberton M, Neal D E, Black N et al. Mediterranean diet improves erectile function in Englert H, Schaefer G, Roll S et al. Int J Impot Res dysfunction among middle-aged men in a metropolitan area in 2006;18(4):405-410. Sexual functioning in a lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in obese men: population-based study of men aged 40-69 years: the good news. Modulation of angiogenesis in patients intracavernous papaverine test always indicate a normal penile with myelodysplastic syndrome. Evaluation of penile hemodynamic status and adjustment of treatment alternatives in Ethans K D, Casey A R, Schryvers O I et al. Invest Med behalf of Gruppo Italiano Studio Deficit Erettile nei Int 1992;18(4):163-168. Diabetes Levine, Stephen B (Ed); Risen, Candace B (Ed); Althof, Stanley Care 1998;21(11):1973-1977. Experience with tranylcypromine in early cavernosography in standardized cavernosometry. Pituitary clinical experience with water-jet dissection (hydro­ 2004;7(3):145-148. Cadaveric dura mater graft for correction of penile Technologies: Mitat 2002;11(5-6):257-264.

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It inhibits intrathyroidal synthesis of thyroid hormones by interfering with thyroid peroxidase-mediated iodine utilization spasms lower right abdomen 30 gr rumalaya gel for sale. As a result spasms left rib cage order rumalaya gel 30 gr online, the concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in serum are decreased spasms due to redundant colon buy rumalaya gel master card. In addition muscle relaxant tmj purchase rumalaya gel 30gr line, and unlike methimazole, propylthiouracil inhibits type-1 deiodinase which converts T4 to T3 in the liver and other tissues (Cooper, 2000). Therefore, serum T3 concentrations fall rapidly after administration of propylthiouracil, sooner than would be expected on the basis of inhibition of thyroidal hormone synthesis. In some studies, hyperthyroid patients became hypothyroid if the dose of propylthiouracil was not monitored carefully. In one study, 56% of patients became hypothyroid within 12 weeks while taking 400 mg/day (Kallner et al. The concentration of T3 decreased by up to 50% in hyperthyroid patients, and that of reverse T3 (rT3), an inactive metabolite of T4 that is cleared by type-1 deiodinase (see Figure 1, General Remarks), increased by up to 50% (Cooper et al. Ten patients with primary hypothyroidism (eight women and two men), who had been receiving 0. Similar changes were seen when six healthy volunteers (three men and three women) who had been treated with T4 at 200–250 fig/day for 9 days were given 150 mg of propylthiouracil orally four times a day for 5 days. The concentrations rapidly returned to normal after cessation of treatment with propylthiouracil (Westgren et al. Propylthiouracil was given at a dose of 10 mg by intraperitoneal injection to Wistar rats weighing about 150 g. At a concentration of 2 fi 10–6 mol/L, 50% inhibition occurred (Nagasaka & Hidaka, 1976). When iodide or thiocyanate was present, inhibition was prevented, suggesting that the initial action of propylthiouracil is to block iodination by trapping oxidized iodide (Davidson et al. When male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on T4 at 20 or 50 fig/kg bw per day were given propylthiouracil, the conversion of T4 to T3 was inhibited (Oppenheimer et al. Frumess and Larsen (1975) further studied the role of the conversion of T4 to T3 in thyroidectomized, hypothyroid male Sprague-Dawley rats that were given a subcutaneous injection of T4 at 8 or 16 fig/kg bw per day, with or without an intraperitoneal injection of propylthiouracil at 10 mg/kg bw per day. At 5 days, propylthiouracil treatment had increased the serum T4 concentration (from 4. When daily doses of 30 mg/kg bw were administered orally for 5 weeks to male Sprague-Dawley rats, both the T3 and T4 concentrations in serum were decreased, and a decrease in iodine incorporation was also noted. In other studies in male Wistar rats on the secretion of thyroid hormones, infusion of propylthiouracil for 4 h at a rate of 2 mg/h increased the excretion of rT3 in the bile of rats that had also received an infusion of T4, starting 2 h before the propylthiouracil treatment. Incubation of thyroid tissue with propylthiouracil in vitro inhibited thyroglobulin biosynthesis (Monaco et al. In liver homogenates from male Wistar rats, the conversion of T4 to T3 was lower in those from rats given 0. A graded dose of T4 failed to restore conversion activity in these rats (Aizawa & Yamada, 1981). In monolayers of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, outer-ring deiodination of an intermediate in thyroid hormone metabolism (3,3fi-diiodothyronine sulfate) was completely inhibited by 10–4 mol/L propylthiouracil, essentially with no effect on overall 3,3fi-diiodothyronine clearance (Otten et al. A strong inverse relationship was found between the dose of propylthiouracil and both thyroid hormone biosynthesis and peripheral T4 deiodination. The time for recovery from long-term (1 month) treatment was greater than that from short-term (1 week) treatment (2. Whereas 30 mg/kg bw propylthiouracil given to rats daily for 5 weeks increased thyroid weight sevenfold and decreased both T3 and T4 concentrations by 70%, the same treatment produced no changes in the thyroid in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). The concentration of propylthiouracil required to inhibit thyroid peroxidase in vitro in microsomes isolated from thyroids was markedly higher for the monkeys (4. Histologically, congestion of red pulp in the spleen and vacuolization of the liver were noted (Kariya et al. During propylthiouracil ingestion, growth hormone-producing cells in the pituitary gland lost their secretory granules, became enlarged and displayed progressive dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, becoming thyroidectomy cells. This effect was reversible: 14 days after treatment ceased, the normal pituitary structure was seen (Horvath et al. Young (3 months) and aged (26 months) male Lewis rats were given drinkingwater containing 0. In the younger animals, propylthiouracil increased the percentage of sphingomyelin in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex. In contrast, a decrease in glycerophosphocholine concentration and an increase in that of cholesterol were noted in aged rats (Salvati et al. Neonatal goitre was observed in one of a dizygotic set of twins whose mother had received propylthiouracil during pregnancy at an initial dose of 400 mg/day, which was subsequently reduced to 100 mg/day. The reason for the apparently selective effect of propylthiouracil on one of the twins was not clear. In 20 women who had received propylthiouracil during the third trimester of pregnancy at doses of 50–400 mg/day, four cases of neonatal goitre, one of thyrotoxicosis, three pregnancy losses and two malformations occurred (Mujtaba & Burrow, 1975). The two groups did not differ in a standard intelligence test, the Peabody test, the Goodenough test or on a number of physical characteristics (Burrow et al. In six pregnant hyperthyroid women who received a daily oral dose of 50, 100 or 150 mg of propylthiouracil, a significant inverse correlation (r = –0. Transient neonatal hypothyroidism was seen in the offspring of 11 women who had received propylthiouracil at a dose of 100–200 mg/day at term [route unspecified] for Graves disease during pregnancy. The free and total serum T4 concentrations, but not that of T3, were significantly lower in the exposed infants 1 and 3 days after birth (Cheron et al. The growth of treated offspring was reduced up to 25 days of age and then generally paralleled that of control animals, but their body weight remained lower than that of the controls. At all ages studied, the testis weights were increased in the propylthiouracil-exposed groups, despite reductions in body weights. For example, at 90 days of age, the testis weight was increased by 41%, while the body weight was reduced by 22%. Epidydymal, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate weights were also increased, but this effect was not apparent until 135 days of age. There was no effect on serum T4, T3 or testosterone concentration at any adult age, and there were no obvious histological changes in any tissue. Administration of T4 at 15 fig/kg bw per day and T3 at 10 fig/kg bw per day to pups during exposure to propylthiouracil abolished the effects on testicular growth (Cooke & Meisami, 1991). A subsequent study showed an increase in daily sperm production of 83–136%, depending on age (Cooke et al. While the serum testosterone concentration was not permanently affected by this treatment, the circulating gonadotropin concentration remained 30–50% lower than that in controls throughout adulthood, an effect related to impairment of gonadal feedback and gonadotrope synthetic ability (Kirby et al. These results suggest a direct impairment of gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of gonadotrope development. Of six interstitial cell types, only Leydig cells showed an increased mitotic labelling index in male pups of rat dams given propylthiouracil at 0. The total number of Leydig cells in the testes of 180-day-old male offspring of dams given propylthiouracil at 0. A similar doubling of the number of Leydig cells was reported in 135-dayold male Sprague-Dawley rats made hypothyroid by the addition of 0. In parallel with the morphological delay, luteinizing hormonestimulated androstenedione production from testis in vitro increased from day 14 to day 21 in samples from controls but not in those from propylthiouracil-treated rats (Mendis-Handagama et al. A decrease in the relative proportion of Leydig cells (identified by morphology and 3fi-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase staining) in interstitial cells were also observed between day 12 and day 16 in propylthiouracil-exposed Wistar rats (Teerds et al. Ultrastructural analysis of Sertoli cells provided evidence of an approximate 10-day delay in development in 25-day-old propylthiouracil-treated male rats, including the presence of mitotic Sertoli cells not present in 25-day-old control males (De Franca et al. The observed effects on Sertoli cell development confirmed earlier work in Wistar rats exposed to 0. The authors found a cessation of proliferation of control Sertoli cells by day 20, as measured by a bromodeoxyuridine-labelling index, whereas propylthiouracil-treated animals had significantly enhanced labelling indices beginning on day 12 and continuing through at least day 26. As a result, there was an 84% increase in the number of Sertoli cells by day 36 (Van Haaster et al. Further examination of this experimental model of increased testis weight and function after exposure of rats to propylthiouracil during days 1–24 of life indicated that the testis weights were reduced between 10 and 60 days of age, after which time the increase became apparent (Kirby et al. Serum luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations were reduced to 50–70% of control levels throughout life, the changes being noticeable early after onset of exposure to propylthiouracil. The serum concentrations of growth hormone, prolactin and T4, which were depressed during exposure, returned to control levels at 40–50 days of age — i. The dose–response characteristics of the effect on testes were evaluated in 90-day-old male rats given 0, 0.

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