The concentration of gas at the Appendix B: Decontamination and Disinfection 331 site of decontamination should be approximately 10 mg/L with contact time of one to birth control pills prescription drospirenone 3.03 mg without prescription two hours birth control pills mononessa discount drospirenone 3.03mg online. Chlorine dioxide possesses the bactericidal birth control zarah drospirenone 3.03mg visa, virucidal and sporicidal properties of chlorine birth control nuva ring buy drospirenone once a day, but unlike chlorine, does not lead to the formation of trihalomethanes or combine with ammonia to form chlorinated organic products (chloramines). The gas cannot be compressed and stored in high-pressure cylinders, but is generated upon demand using a column-based solid phase generation system. Within reasonable limits, a chlorine dioxide gas generation system is unaffected by the size or location of the ultimate destination for the gas. Although most often used in closed sterilizers, the destination enclosure for the chlorine dioxide gas does not, in fact, need to be such a chamber. Decontamination of Surfaces Liquid chemical germicides formulated as disinfectants may be used for decontamination of large areas. The usual procedure is to food the area with a disinfectant for periods up to several hours. This approach is messy and with some of the disinfectants used represents a toxic hazard to laboratory staff. For example, most of the high-level disinfectants on the United States market are formulated to use on instruments and medical devices and not on environmental surfaces. Intermediate and low-level disinfectants are formulated to use on fomites and environmental surfaces but lack the potency of a high-level disinfectant. This plan should include the rationale for selection of the disinfecting agent, the approach to its application, contact time and other parameters. Activity Levels of Selected Liquid Germicidesa Procedure / Product Aqueous Concentration Activity Level Sterilization glutaraldehyde variable hydrogen peroxide 6 30% formaldehyde 6 8% chlorine dioxide variable peracetic acid Disinfection glutaraldehyde variable high to intermediate ortho-phthalaldehyde 0. A large number of commercial products based on these generic components can be considered for use. Common household bleach is an excellent and inexpensive source of sodium hypochlorite. Concentrations between 500 and 1000 mg/L chlorine are appropriate for the vast majority of uses requiring an intermediate level of germicidal activity; higher concentrations are extremely corrosive as well as irritating to personnel, and their use should be limited to situations where there is an excessive amount of organic material or unusually high concentrations of microorganisms. Appendix B: Decontamination and Disinfection 333 d the effectiveness of alcohols as intermediate level germicides is limited because they evaporate rapidly, resulting in short contact times, and also lack the ability to penetrate residual organic material. They are rapidly tuberculocidal, bactericidal and fungicidal, but may vary in spectrum of virucidal activity (see text). Items to be disinfected with alcohols should be carefully pre-cleaned then totally submerged for an appropriate exposure time. Antiseptic iodophors are not suitable to disinfect devices, environmental surfaces, or medical instruments. Studies show that prions are resistant to conventional uses of heat and/or chemical germicides for the sterilization of instruments and devices. Disinfection, sterilization and antisepsis: principles and practices in healthcare facilities. Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities, 2003; [about 2 screens] Available from: Biological safety cabinets, decontamination or sterilization with paraformaldehyde. Biodecontamination of animal rooms and heat-sensitive equipment with vaporized hydrogen peroxide. Occupational risks associated with the use of selected disinfectants and sterilants. Appendix B: Decontamination and Disinfection 335 Appendix C?Transportation of Infectious Substances An infectious substance is a material known to contain or reasonably expected to contain a pathogen. A pathogen is a microorganism (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) or other agent, such as a proteinaceous infectious particle (prion), that can cause disease in humans or animals. Infectious substances may exist as purifed and concentrated cultures, but may also be present in a variety of materials, such as body fuids or tissues. For transport purposes, the term infectious substance is understood to include the term etiologic agent. Protection is achieved through rigorous packaging requirements and hazard communication. Packages must be designed to withstand rough handling and other forces experienced in transportation, such as changes in air pressure and temperature, vibration, stacking, and moisture. Hazard communication includes shipping papers, labels, markings on the outside of packagings, and other information necessary to enable transport workers and emergency response personnel to correctly identify the material and respond effciently in an emergency situation. In addition, shippers and carriers must be trained on these regulations so they can properly prepare shipments and recognize and respond to the risks posed by these materials. Persons who offer for transportation or transport select agents in commerce in the United States must develop and implement security plans for such transportation. A security plan must include an assessment of the possible transportation security risks for materials covered by the security plan and specifc measures to reduce or eliminate the assessed risks. At a minimum, a security plan must include measures to address those risks associated with personnel security, en route security, and unauthorized access. Applies to the shipment of infectious substances in commercial transportation within the United States. These regulations provide minimal packaging and labeling for blood and body fuids when transported within a laboratory or outside of it. Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (Technical Instructions). Applies to the shipment of infectious substances by air and is recognized in the United States and by most countries worldwide. Transfers Regulations governing the transfer of biological agents are designed to ensure that possession of these agents is in the best interest of the public and the nation. These regulations require documentation of personnel, facilities, justifcation of need and pre-approval of the transfer by a federal authority. The following regulations apply to this category: Importation of Etiologic Agents of Human Disease. Importation of Etiologic Agents of Livestock, Poultry and Other Animal Diseases and Other Materials Derived from Livestock, Poultry or Other Animal. Federal Plant Pest Regulations; General; Plant Pests; Soil; Stone and Quarry Products; Garbage. This regulation requires a permit for movement into or through the United States, or interstate any plant pest or a regulated product, article, or means of conveyance in accordance with this part. This regulation requires that exporters of a wide variety of etiologic agents of human, plant and animal 338 Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories diseases, including genetic material, and products which might be used for culture of large amounts of agents, will require an export license. Information may be obtained by calling the DoC Bureau of Export Administration at (202) 482-4811, or at the DoC Web site: The following is a summary of each packaging type and related transportation requirements. A Category A material is an infectious substance that is transported in a form that is capable of causing permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease to otherwise healthy humans or animals when exposure to it occurs. An exposure occurs when an infectious substance is released outside of its protective packaging, resulting in physical contact with humans or animals. The package consists of a watertight primary receptacle or receptacles; a watertight secondary packaging; for liquid materials, the secondary packaging must contain absorbent material in suffcient quantities to absorb the entire contents of all primary receptacles; and a rigid outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, mass, and intended use. The completed package must pass specifc performance tests, including a drop test and a water-spray test, and must be capable of withstanding, without leakage, an internal pressure producing a pressure differential of not less than 95 kPa (0. The completed package must also be capable of withstanding, without leakage, temperatures in the range of -40? In addition, the package must be accompanied by appropriate shipping documentation, including a shipping paper and emergency response information. A Category B infectious substance is one that does not meet the criteria for inclusion in Category A. A Category B infectious substance does not cause permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease to humans or animals when exposure to it occurs. Appendix C: Transportation of Infectious Substances 341 Figure 2 shows an example of the triple packaging system for materials known or suspected of containing a Category B infectious substance. A Category B infectious substance must be placed in a packaging consisting of a leak proof primary receptacle, leak proof secondary packaging, and rigid outer packaging. At least one surface of the outer packaging must have a minimum dimension of 100 mm by 100 mm (3.
Food in large birth control pills delay period cheap drospirenone 3.03 mg with visa, deep containers food temperature gets closer to birth control blood clots drospirenone 3.03mg amex the and large thick pieces of meat are Never reheat food in the hot temperature of the refrigerator birth control used for acne cheap drospirenone master card. Great care must be taken during the guide to birth control 21 day pack purchase drospirenone 3.03 mg otc show if foods are cooling cooling of soups, sauces, gravies, Never place any food in a hot properly. The food temperature must stews, rice, chili, whole turkey, holding unit that has not been drop from 140?F to 90?F or lower by pre-heated. If this doesn?t the temperature of cooling foods Cooling happen, it clearly means that the rate must be monitored and documentCooked potentially hazardous of cooling is too slow and foods will ed with a food product thermomefood items that are held for later never reach 70?F within 2 hours. Take the temperature of the cooling food each hour to ensure that Many food workers underestimate 140 the amount of time it takes for foods it is cooling within the required time. Pour out the contents of large containers into much smaller Hour Temperature ones or into shallow pans 4 inches Start 140 Recommended deep with the product depth of 1 to 2 inches. An ice Reheating ing cooling; this will hasten the water bath can be made up by the Health Code requires that cooling process, replace the cover filling a sink or other large conpotentially hazardous food that is or lid only after the food has tainer with ice and water. While foods are or above for 15 seconds within two cooling in this ice bath, stir the hours and held at 140?F or above food periodically. Foods must be cooled in a refrigPotentially hazardous foods erator or in an ice bath. They reheated in a microwave oven must should never be allowed to cool be covered and reheated to a temwhile stored at room temperature, perature of at least 190?F and for example, being left out on top allowed to stand covered for two of a counter. Microwave ovens cook unevenly and standing allows the temperature to be equally distributed throughout the food. Ready-to-eat food taken from a commercially processed, hermetically sealed container or from an intact You may apply ice directly into package from a food processing Cut large pieces of meat into food as an ingredient. Thick soups plant that is subject to City, State or smaller pieces, 6 pounds or less. Such and gravies may be cooled down Federal inspection, needs to be small portions will cool rapidly. Serve hot control if certain time limits and tain time limits and other guidefood within four hours or discard it. Using minimum hot temperature, and If the temperature is more than 70 time as a public health control is a cold foods at a maximum cold temat four hours, immediately discard concept that recognizes that signifiperature, at all times. If the temperature is less cant bacteria growth or toxin proas a Public Health Control, take the than 70, you can hold the food for duction are not possible within a food from temperature control and: an additional two hours. Previously cooked and refrigerated foods that will be served from a hot holding unit must be rapidly reheated to 165?F using: 2. When bacteria from a raw food get into a cooked or ready-to-eat food, this is called: 3. The correct cooking temperature for poultry, stuffed meat and stuffing is: 4. To prevent illness, pork must be cooked to an internal temperature of: F 8. The Health Code requires that frozen foods be properly thawed before being cooked. Ground meat and foods containing ground meat must be cooked to an internal temperature of: 11. Cleaning is the (household bleach spraying, pouring process of removing visible contamWith 5. Items to noting that only pure bleach should be equipment that comes in contact be sanitized are soaked in hot water used without any additional additives, with food is called food contact surat a temperature of 170?F for at and it should never be mixed with face. Generally, the detergent which will reduce the faces from which food may drip, third compartment sink is filled strength of the sanitizing solutions. For gas burner or electrical coils; water to make various sanitizing solutions example, when using microwave is heated to 170?F and then mainusing household bleach (5. A thermometer must be used to back on to the foods being reheated Chlorine Strength Amount Amount determine temperature readings. In this respect, cloths for cleaning and sanitizing this method of sanitizing ensure that the bleach is not ultra bleach must be available in every work involves the use of hot water and a or extra strength bleach. Store utensils, Pre-Rinse with glasses and cups warm water Sanitize utensils in third from a spray Wash in first comcompartment by use of (inverted) in a clean type nozzle all partment with warm hot water or a chemical dry place. Rinse utensils utensils using a good washcompartment by immermaking use of a long-handled wire basket, in promptly sion in clean, warm clean hot water at a temperature of at least 170 before food ing compound, brush water. An alternate method is utensil immersion the wash water free of large food particles; loosens dried-on foods; does not sanitize Change the rinse water for a least one minute in a sanitizing solution reduces stains on dishes; saves utensils. A two chemicals to achieve sanitization are the following: the drain boards and dish tables compartment sink may be used for should be pitched a minimum of 1/8 the washing and sanitizing of bar the chemical sanitizing feeder inch per foot and drainage directed glasses. In these cases an electrical should be approved for use with into a sink so as to prevent contamibrush device should be used in conthe specific make and model of nation of other areas of the dish table junction with a combination deterthe machine in question. Drain boards may gent-sanitizer in the sink compartA visual flow indicator is suggestgenerally be at least 36 inches to 48 ment used for washing utensils. Other indicating devices Principles of Food Preparation piece of equipment or utensil to be such as audible alarms may also and Service cleaned and each compartment be used. The flow indicating During food preparation, improper should be supplied with adequate devices should be installed so as techniques may contaminate the hot and cold potable running water. In the case of equipment too It is for this purpose that sanitary large to be sanitized by immersion, General procedures must be observed. Listed the swabbing of such equipment Adequate facilities should be probelow are some principles which with a solution of at least twice the vided for pre-flushing or pre-scrapshould be followed. The food transported can be in a Protein Type Salads ready-to-eat state or a pre-cooked (Tuna, Ham, Shrimp, Egg, Chicken, Foods to be served hot are to be stage, which is finally processed at Lobster, etc. The following face temperatures do not fall these salads are always served practices should be observed to see below 140?F. Care must be taken cold and, therefore, all salad ingrethat contamination is not introin the cooling of hot foods so dients except the seasoning and duced, or possible previous bacterial they do not become contaminatspices are to be chilled to 41?F or contamination not afforded means ed by dust, contact with work less before use. Cooling should be accomplished salads, should be treated so as to as quickly as possible by the use Transporting containers and vehiminimize its bacterial content by of an ice water bath, fans, refrigcles should be clean and of saniimmersing the chopped celery in eration, etc. Just prior to placor below) or hot (above 140?F) Before the mixing operation, the ing the food on the hot-holding temperatures while in transit. The mixing operaContact of ready-to-eat foods tion is to be completed as quickly as tures and conditions. Food Processing Techniques for Do not place packing cases and Specific Types of Service cans on food work surfaces. Additional Instructions for Displayed Food Specific Salads When it is necessary to taste (Buffet, Smorgasbord, etc. Egg Salad?After removing with the bottom and upper portions shells, use a hand strainer or 7) Use clean sanitized utensils in of the sides of the food container. Chicken and/or Turkey Salad stock or meat gravies may be used After removal from bones, to reheat meats. Salad Preparation Guide Ham Salad?Immerse diced 1) Refrigerate all salad ingredients ham in boiling water or boiling except seasoning and spices overnight stock for 30 seconds and then or chill to 41?F or lower before use. Fast chilling and utensils (pots, pans, spoons, can be accomplished by the same spatula, etc. Stainless steel utensils and from Steam-tables or Warming equipment are preferred in preparaDevices tion of these foods. Schedule the cooking of meats so 3) Clean hands, fingernails, and they will be completed as close as arms thoroughly with soap and hot possible to desired time of service. Upon removal from the oven or stove, cooked meats are to be 4) Individuals preparing cold salkept at an internal temperature of ads must not touch the ingredients 140?F or higher in a steam-table or finished product with bare hands. Do not use table at a temperature in excess of fingers to pry off can lids or drain 180?F. However, it is at ingredient: using shellfish from neered by the Pillsbury Company in the steps that are determined to be unapproved source or meat and the 1960?s. During this period, the critical control points that some meat products from uninspected space program was escalating and action must be taken. Some Frequently Found Hazards tainers: storing barbecue sauce in this system involves following Microorganisms are allowed to grow by: galvanized containers. By observing food at each step Inadequate hot holding: holding Sanitarians has a series of seven of the production process, it is easy prepared foods at less than 140?F inter-related steps: to recognize potential problems and while awaiting service. Its various 165?F within two hours using a review recipes to identify potentially parts are: stove or an oven.
Reject any is free from rust and dents birth control injection 3.03mg drospirenone for sale, properly come in many forms: intact shell eggs birth control pills 852 order cheap drospirenone, produce that shows signs of decay birth control pills buy discount 3.03 mg drospirenone with amex, sealed and labeled and slightly conliquid eggs birth control for 12 year old buy 3.03mg drospirenone visa, frozen eggs, or in powmold, mushiness, discoloration, cave at both ends. Only the powdered and vegetables are causing more foodseverely rusted, severely dented, leakpasteurized eggs may be held at room borne illness among Americans than ing and cans with swollen ends. Because of the absence of air, foods packaged in this manner provide ideal conditions for the growth of the clostridium botulinum micro-organism, Modified Atmosphere unless they are refrigerated at temDry Foods Packaged Foods peratures recommended by the Dry foods such as grains, peas, Various food items are packaged manufacturer. These conditions by approved sources and care taken will cause growth of molds and the include the following: to preserve the packaging during deterioration of these products. Food is placed in a package and handling and when taking the temBroken and defective packages will all the air is withdrawn: vacuum perature. Food establishments interested in Food is placed in a package, all Whenever these products are making modified atmosphere packthe air is withdrawn and gases are removed from their original conaged foods must first obtain peradded to preserve the contents tainers, they must be stored in modified atmosphere packaging. The term "potentially hazardous food" refers to foods which do not support rapid For convenience as well as cutting growth of microorganisms. Home canned food products are allowed in commercial food shift towards using prepared preestablishments. Shellfish tags must be filed in order of delivery date and kept for a period quality as well as safety. Fresh shell eggs must be refrigerated at an ambient temperature Ensure that refrigerated foods are of: F. Foods in Modified Atmosphere Packages provide ideal conditions for the growth (Except, as noted previously, of: smoked fish must be received at 8. Chicken and other poultry are most likely to be contaminated with: All packaging must be intact. Therefore, this product must be stored at: F Any frozen food packaging that 12. Safe temperatures for holding potentially hazardous foods are: F or shows signs of thawing and below and F or above refreezing should be rejected. What are the four types of defective canned products that must be Signs include liquid or frozen liquids removed from circulation? Cold fter receiving the foods proper Storage Containers temperature does not kill microorAly, they must be immediately It is always best to store food in ganisms, however, it slows down moved to appropriate storage areas. The most common types of food when it is removed to another conPre-packaged cold foods must be storage include: tainer, take extra care to avoid contstored at temperatures recommended amination. This is especially that are clean, non-absorbent and Freezer storage important when dealing with vacuum are made from food-grade material Dry storage packed foods, modified atmosphere intended for such use. Smoked made from metal may react with fish is required by the Health Code to We will discuss each of these certain type of high acid foods such be stored at 38?F or below. Plastic food-grade conFresh meat, poultry and other storage and are described below. The use of such age is to be able to use food products temperatures, refrigerators and products is prohibited. In this regard, stock rotation is Re-using cardboard containers to peratures lower than 41?F and 0?F. Lining containers in the warmest part of a refrigerated method of stock rotation prevents with newspapers, menus or other unit are necessary to monitor the waste of food products and ensures publication before placing foods is temperature of each unit. This way, the older stock first step would be to date all prodpassageways, rest rooms, garbage is moved to the front, and the newly ucts as they are received. Cross perishable foods for short pericooling, in which case they must be contamination may also occur between ods of time?a few hours to a covered after being cooled to 41?F. Avoid placing large pots of hot poultry juices falling on raw beef foods in a refrigerator. This will An adequate number of effiwill contaminate it with Salmonella, cause the temperature of the cient refrigerated units are which is typically only associated refrigerator to rise and other required to store potentially with poultry and raw eggs. Adequate Food should be stored at least six storage space as well as low humidity inches off the floor, away from walls (50% or less), and low temperatures and dripping pipes. In addition to the above, covered and safe from contaminaFoods stored at least six avoid sunlight as it may affect the tion. Following are Check food daily and throw away some of the guidelines: any spoiled or contaminated food. Store foods away from dripping Use First In First Out method of Store cleaning, disinfecting, and condensate, at least six inches above stock rotation. Keep food refrigerated at a temKeep foods in containers with Freezer Storage perature of 41?F or below. Freezing is an excellent method Monitor temperatures regularly Keep dry storage areas well lightfor prolonging the shelf life of foods. Keep all cooling compartments However, if frozen foods are thawed Do not store foods under overclosed except when you are using and then refrozen, then harmful head water lines that may drip them. Store food in a refrigerator in levels when thawed for the second Do not store garbage in dry food such a way that the air inside can time. Never reKeep all refrigerated foods covered, vermin proof by sealing walls and freeze thawed foods, instead use them and use up stored leftovers quickly. Keep all Use First In First Out method of chemicals in the food storage areas cups and glasses inverted. All chemimay be kept inside a covered dissolid with temperature at 0?F or lower. Always use clean containers that used in accordance to the instructions the only goods that should be left are clearly labeled and marked, on the label. Pesticide use is prohibiton the counter uncovered are those and have proper and secure lids. Whenever products are removed stored in ice, care must be taken to from their original containers, store ** Tip: When receiving multiple ensure that water from the melted them in tightly covered, rodent items, always store the frozen foods ice is constantly being drained so proof containers with labels. Furthermore, it is improper to Dry Storage store food in ice machines or ice Proper storage of dry foods such that will be later used for human as cereals, flour, rice, starches, spices, consumption. These short but safe time limits will help keep refrigerated food 41 F (5?C) from spoiling or becoming dangerous. Because freezing 0 F (-18 C) keeps food safe indefinitely, the following recommended storage times are for quality only. In order to prevent cross-contamination, raw foods in a refrigerator must be stored cooked foods. When foods are stored directly in ice, the water from that ice must be use of sulfites is prohibited. Chemical hazards Physical Hazards Similarly, containers previously A chemical hazard may be in a the presence of a foreign object designed to hold cleaning agents food item either accidentally, delibin food that can cause an injury or and other chemicals should never be erately or naturally. Always ensure the common cause of a physical A chemical may be introduced to that food storage containers are hazard is accidental and/or due to a food accidentally by the careless made from food-grade materials. Food workers must ing and other chemicals next to Biological Hazards be trained to handle foods safely so open foods and the storage of acidic Biological hazards occur when as not to contaminate foods. In addition to that, Some common examples include: Using an experienced, licenced toxins found naturally in certain foods exterminator. Storing cleaning and other chemiMushrooms are both poisonous cals, including personal medicaFragments of glass?from a broand non-poisonous and they are diftion, away from foods, preferably ken glass, from scooping ice with ficult to tell apart. Storing acidic foods in containers they must be purchased from a relimade of food-grade plastic. A chemical may be introduced Toxins in certain fish can also be Bandages into a food item deliberately to a serious problem. Some fish have Metal shavings from a worn can enhance its taste or appearance natural toxins, others accumulate opener without realizing that it may cause toxins from their food, while yet consumers to become ill. These fish have high tetrodotoxin and/or saxitoxin which that eat the smaller fish. In this levels of histidine in their flesh and can cause severe illness and death. Histamine is Certain predatory fish, such as borne illness caused by the connot destroyed by cooking. Scombridae family: tuna, mackerel, Algae, during certain seasons and in and a few non-Scombroidae relatives, certain waters may be toxic.
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