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Centrifugation of the urine specimen a) Mix the urine specimen b) Transfer about 10 ml of urine in the centrifuge tube herbals for kidney function purchase cheap karela on line. If Pasteur pipette is not available herbals on demand buy karela us, gently incline the tube and place drop of sediment into the clean herbals good for the heart buy karela 60 caps lowest price, sterilized and dry slide herbs used in cooking karela 60 caps without a prescription. Do not 91 forget to raise the condenser and opening of the diaphragm when you change the objective in to the high power (40x). Under high power objective also you should have to look for a minimum of 10-15 fields). For determination of cellular elements, casts, etc, the number of elements seen under at least 10 fields should be counted and the average of this number is used for report value. Source of Errors in the Microscopic Examination of Urine Possible errors that may encounter during microscopical examination of urine include: fi Drying of the specimen on the slide. Alkaline Urine Crystals Amorphous phosphate Calcium carbonate Calcium phosphate 93 5. Appearance: normally, clear granular disc shaped, fi Measure 10-15 fim, the nuclei may be visible. Those coming from renal cells Size is small as compared to other epithelial cells It measures 10fi to 18 fim in length, i. Cells from pelvis and urethra of the kidney Size is larger than renal epithelias Those from pelvis area are granular with sort of tail, while those from urethra are oval in shape Most of the time urethral epithelia is seen with together of leukocytes and filaments (mucus trades and large in number) Pelvic epithelias seen usually with no leukocyte and mucus trade, and are few in number c. Reporting of the result: Epithelial cells distribution reported after looking under 10x (low power objective) of the microscope. Interfering factors Squameous epithelial cells from female patients that shade from vaginal area (together with vaginal discharge) may give false result of high epithelial cells. Most of them dissociate in alkaline urine, and diluted urine (specific gravity fi 1. Thus to look them clearly, it is important to lower the condenser and close (partially) the diaphragm. There are different kinds of casts based on their shape and content (morphologically) may be grouped in to the following. Clinical Implication Presence of large number of hyaline casts may show possible damage of glomerular capillary membrane. This damage permits leakage of protein through glomerulus and result in precipitate and gel formation. Thus this may indicate: Nephritis Meningitis Chronic renal disease Congenital heart failure Diabetic nephropathy 99 Hyaline casts may also be seen in moderate number temporarily in the case of: Fever Postural orthostatic strain Emotional stress Strenuous exercise After anesthesia b. Granular Casts More similar in appearance with hyaline casts and in which homogenous, course granules are seen. More dense (opaque) than hyaline cast, thus can be more easily seen than hyaline casts. Some other studies also suggest that, they are formed independently from cellular cast degeneration, and stated that they result from aggregation of serum proteins into cast matrix of mucoproteins Based on the amount and type of granules, they can be further divided into fine, and course granular casts. Clinical implication Granular casts may be seen in Acute tubular necrosis Advanced granulonephritis Pyelonephrites Malignant nephrosicosis Chronic lead poisoning In healthy individuals these casts may be seen after strenuous exercise 100 c. Clinical Implication: the occurrence of fat droplets, oval, fat bodies, or fat casts is very important sign of nephritic syndrome. Cellular Casts Cellular casts are casts, which contain Epithelial cells White blood cells Red blood cells Normal range: normally not seen in normal individual Appearance these are casts in which cellular elements are seen. Sometimes it is possible to get a single cast having course granules, fine granules and fat droplets, i. At this time decision is made after looking and evaluation of other fields and based on the majorities. Reporting of Laboratory Result Casts are ex7amined under 10x objective of the microscope. Trichomonas Vaginalis It is a protozoal parasite that infect the genitourinary tract. Sometimes the miracedium hatch from the egg and can be seen swimming in the urine. It is also important to remember that even when persons are highly infected, eggs may not be present in the urine. Therefore that is important to examine several specimens collected on different days and examine carefully, that is due to the irregular pattern of egg excretion. It occurs when the urogenital lymphatic vessels, which are linked to those, that transport chyle from the intestine became blocked and rupture. Other points that should be considered also the parasite usually found in high concentration during night from 10:00 p. Clinical Significance They are usually of candida species (candida albicans) and are common in patients with Urinary tract infection Vaginites Diabetic mellitus Intensive antibiotic or immunosuppressive therapy. The Gram-positives account for proportionately large number of infections in hospital inpatients. To check the presence or absence of bacteria a technician can either check for Nitrate that was formed in the urine after breakdown of nitrite into nitrate by the metabolic action of bacteria. Or one can use urine microscopy test to check the presence of pus cells within the drop of urine or its sediment. Appearance Bacteria that are seen in the microscopic examination of the drop of urine sample. Mostly occur during metabolic abnormalities and excessive consumption of certain foodstuffs. May be classified into acidic, basic, and both acidic and basic based on: pH of urine in which they are usually seen. Identification of particular urine crystals from patient urine-sediment mainly serves as Guide to diagnose most likely type of calculus present. Leucine, and Tyrosine, indicate the patient is in certain metabolic disorders and 108 Some drug crystals in the urine include, sulfonamides, aspirin, caffeine, used to follow the treatment condition. Amorphous Urates (Anhydrous uric acid) Normally present in urine in different quantity. Both are amino acids usually; in case of severe liver disease, they will not be metabolized, and excreted in urine. Acidic, Neutral, or Basic Urine Crystals Calcium Oxalate Crystal Are colorless and refractive. Alkaline, Neutral, or Slight Acidic Urine Crystals Triple Phosphates Colorless and refractive. Calcium Phosphates Seen in small amount in normal individual urine, and when they are in large amount, may indicate chronic cystitis, or prosthetic hypertrophy. Spermatozoa Are small structures consisting of a head and tail, connected by a short middle piece (neck). Other Contaminates and Artifact Structure Muscle fibers Vegetable cells all are fairly seen and easily Cotton fibers (wool fibers) recognizable. Bright field microscopy of the unstained urine sediment Traditionally, the urinary sediment has been examined microscopically by placing a drop of urine sediment on a microscopic slide, cover with cover slide and observing the preparation with the lower and high power, objective of the bright field microscope. When the sediment is examined under the bright field microscope, correct light adjustment is essential, and the light must be sufficiently reduced, by the correct positioning of the condenser and the iris diaphragm to give contrast between the unstained structures and the back ground liquid. Phase contrast has the advantage of hardening the outlines even the most ephemeral formed elements. A crystal violet safranin stain (sternheimer and malbin) is useful in the identification of cellular elements. Preparation of Reagents Solution (1) Crystal violet - 3g Ethanol (95%)- 20 ml Ammonium Oxalate- 0. Procedure Add 1 or 2 drops of crystal violet safranin stain to approximately 1 ml of concentrated urine sediment. Cyto Diachrome stains When such stains are used, it is recommended that both the stained and unstained sediment be mounted and observed, as the stain may cause precipitation of some constituents. This is especially the problem with alkaline urine specimens, because the precipitated materials may obscure important pathological constituents. Weigh the para-dimethylaminobenzaldeyde and transfer it to clean, leak proof bottle.


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Many Contracting States allow licence holders to herbal viagra order 60caps karela overnight delivery undergo the medical examination for renewal of their Medical Assessment on a convenient date up to kairali herbals generic 60 caps karela mastercard 45 days before their current Medical Assessment expires without changing the dates for the new validity period correspondingly herbals plant actions buy karela 60 caps amex, thus extending the validity period by up to herbalsmokeshopcom buy karela in india 45 days. Studies in two Contracting States have shown that older licence holders have a significantly increased incidence of medical conditions of importance for flight safety. The periods of validity of the Medical Assessment for various categories of licence holders are as follows: 1. Rules concerning licences I-1-11 60 months for the glider pilot licence; 60 months for the free balloon pilot licence; 12 months for the flight navigator licence; 12 months for the flight engineer licence; 48 months for the air traffic controller licence. In such cases the period of validity of the Medical Assessment may be reduced so as to ensure adequate monitoring of the condition in question. However, experience has shown that Licensing Authorities have interpreted this Recommendation in different ways and, following discussion with States, it was revised to the wording above. Examples include: internet website; information circular; medical examiner briefing. A medical examiner briefing may be effective, and for Class 1 applicants under 40 years of age it is suggested that this could be formally included in the preventive and educative part of the medical assessment. Any licence holder should be aware of the action to take in the event of suffering a common cold, without having to seek advice from a designated medical examiner unless there are complicating factors, but for more serious conditions advice concerning fitness to operate should be readily available from those with specialist knowledge. If a licence holder is affected by any medical condition such as those mentioned in the list above (which is not exhaustive), he should be aware of the need to seek aeromedical advice before again exercising the privileges of his licence. The term problematic use, which is employed in regulatory aviation medicine, is defined in Annex 1: Problematic use of substances. The use of one or more psychoactive substances by aviation personnel in a way that: a) constitutes a direct hazard to the user or endangers the lives, health or welfare of others; and/or b) causes or worsens an occupational, social, mental or physical problem or disorder. Return to the safety-critical functions may be considered after successful treatment or, in cases where no treatment is necessary, after cessation of the problematic use of substances and upon determination that the persons continued performance of the function is unlikely to jeopardize safety. In addition, when an aeroplane is operated at flight altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than 376 hPa, or which, if operated at flight altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is more than 376 hPa and cannot descend safely within four minutes to a flight altitude at which the atmospheric pressure is equal to 620 hPa, there shall be no less than a 10-minute supply for the occupants of the passenger compartment. Passengers should be safeguarded by such devices or operational procedures as will ensure reasonable probability of their surviving the effects of hypoxia in the event of loss of pressurization. The conclusion reached by one or more medical experts acceptable to the Licensing Authority for the purposes of the case concerned, in consultation with flight operations or other experts as necessary. A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as pilot-in-command but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction. A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time. The total time from the moment a helicopters rotor blades start turning until the moment the helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the rotor blades are stopped. All civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire. In the context of the medical provisions in Chapter 6, likely means with a probability of occurring that is unacceptable to the Medical Assessor. The evidence issued by a Contracting State that the licence holder meets specific requirements of medical fitness. A physician, appointed by the Licensing Authority, qualified and experienced in the practice of aviation medicine and competent in evaluating and assessing medical conditions of flight safety significance. An air traffic controller holding a licence and valid ratings appropriate to the privileges exercised by him. A systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures. This definition includes, but is not limited to, flight crew, cabin crew, aircraft maintenance personnel and air traffic controllers. The different interpretations by States (countries) of the aeromedical standards established by the International Civil Aviation Organization has resulted in a variety of approaches to the development of national aeromedical policy, and consequently a relative lack of harmonization. However, in many areas of aviation, safety management systems have been recently introduced and may represent a way forward. Such disparate practices result in some pilots who have been denied certification by one regulatory authority attempting to find another that will permit them to operate (a form of aeromedical tourism). However, accident statistics alone do not currently suggest that differences in medical standards between States are a potential safety concern, although such statistics may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect differences between States concerning the aeromedical contribution to safety. Basis for Regulatory Aeromedical Decision Making Expert Opinion Aeromedical policy and individual decisions are often based on expert opinion, (level 5 evidence) (13). However, expert opinion is often the easiest (quickest and least costly) to implement and may, therefore, be an attractive option for regulatory authorities. Acceptable Aeromedical Risk Another area where a diversity of views can be found among regulatory authorities is the level of aeromedical risk that is acceptable. Further, authorities differ in their opinions as to whether it is possible to use objective numeric aeromedical risk criteria as a basis for decision making in individual cases or for developing policy. Of the authorities that do use such risk criteria, there are differences regarding the maximum acceptable level of risk for certification, although for professional pilots a commonly held norm of maximum risk is 1% per annum (8). However, 2% per annum has also been proposed (10) and is in use in at least one State. A pilot incapacitation risk of 1% per annum infers that if there were 100 pilots with an identical condition, 1 of them would be predicted to become incapacitated at some time during the next 12 mo (and 99 would not). While the data for predicting incapacitation in the next 12 mo for a condition is not always robust, there are some common medical conditions. Contribution to Aviation Safety of Medical Examinations Routine Periodic Examination There are few published studies on the safety value of the routine medical examination, yet millions of dollars are spent annually on the process. In the general population, behavioral factors such as anxiety and depression are more common in the under-40s age group (12) and illicit drug use and alcohol consumption also cause a considerable, increasing disease burden (14,15). Despite this, relatively little formal attention is given to these aspects in the routine periodic encounter with an aviation medical examiner; the emphasis is usually placed on the detection of physical disease. Indeed, although medical examiners may take it upon themselves to include some informal discussion of behavioral or mental health issues, the examination is often colloquially described as a pilots physical. On being advised of the Federal Aviation Administrations policy of not permitting antidepressant use in operating pilots, 710 of the 1200 indicated they would not take the recommended treatment and would continue to fly; 180 indicated they would take the recommended medication and continue to fly while withholding information concerning the medication from their aviation medical examiner; and 300 indicated they would stop flying while taking the medication. If this pilot group acted on their intentions, approximately 75% of pilots diagnosed with depression would have continued to fly, unknown to the regulator. One conclusion may be that regulating against pilots flying while taking antidepressants is, paradoxically, detrimental to flight safety since this could result in information concerning an important medical condition being withheld from the regulatory authorities while pilots continue to operate after having had a diagnosis of depression, treated or not. Conversely it may be concluded that as the current standards are not being adhered to, additional regulatory action such as more focused interview or survey techniques (to detect depression) and blood testing (to detect antidepressant use) is warranted. This suggests that there are safe subpopulations among those with depressive disorders. Also, if pilots wished to hide their depressive illness and its treatment it is unlikely that interview and survey methods would identify any except the most clinically depressed. Blood testing for antidepressant medications would be very expensive if applied to the entire pilot population. This, in turn, suggests that it would be a more effective safety strategy both to accept the use of certain selected antidepressants and to structure the routine aeromedical examination to better identify those who may benefit from psychiatric intervention than it would be to try and continue to exclude all pilots with depressive disorders and to institute additional measures to try and increase their detection. Safety Management as a Way Forward Safety Management Principles For some years the concepts of safety management have been applied in the aviation industry, but largely outside the field of aviation medicine. Safety management systems became mandatory in January 2009 for aircraft operators (1). In other words, safety should be managed in a manner similar to other aspects of the business. In the past, this has not always occurred, with responsibility for safety often being delegated by senior management to safety officers. If there is no high level accountability, in the event of an accident senior management may not see themselves as being responsible. It is, however, difficult for a senior executive to take responsibility for aeromedical safety in a Part I. Rules concerning licences I-1-21 company (as opposed to other safety aspects), partly because of the confidential and personal nature of the information involved and partly because many companies do not have the necessary expertise among their staff for such a role. In-flight medical events: When considering what data might be useful to monitor aeromedical safety, a good starting point would be to include in-flight aeromedical events that affect the flight crew. However, while accurate information concerning in-flight medical events is of potential benefit to companies and States alike, there remain some significant challenges in obtaining such data: a) a minor event may not be obvious to the passengers or cabin crew and there may be a temptation not to report it if only the flight crew are aware of the event; b) the flight crew involved may fear adverse repercussions from the employer, or regulator; c) the paperwork regarding such an event may be onerous; d) confidentiality issues may be a concern; or e) the initial report will almost always be made by crewmembers with little or no medical training.

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There may be frank abscesses in the wall and thickened herbals in sri lanka buy karela cheap online, or flattened and atrophied herbals in the philippines 60 caps karela with visa. The lumen gangrenous necrosis with rupture into the peritoneal commonly contains multiple mixed stones or a combined cavity (gangrenous cholecystitis) herbal purchase 60 caps karela. Thickened and congested mucosa but occasionally of either type have similar clinical features jiva herbals buy cheap karela 60caps on line. Penetration of the mucosa deep into the wall of the irritation such as guarding and hyperaesthesia. The gallbladder up to muscularis layer to form Rokitansky gallbladder is tender and may be palpable. Early cholecystectomy within the first consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, three days has a mortality of less than 0. Variable degree of fibrosis in the subserosal and attacks and adhesions is avoided. There is almost constant association of Porcelain gallbladder is the pattern when the chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis. The association of chronic Acute on chronic cholecystitis is the term used for cholecystitis with mixed and combined gallstones is virtually the morphologic changes of acute cholecystitis always present. However, it is not known what initiates the superimposed on changes of chronic cholecystitis. Generally, the patienta fat, fertile, repeated attacks of mild acute cholecystitis result in chronic female of forty or fifty, presents with abdominal distension or cholecystitis. There is penetration of epithelium-lined spaces into the gallbladder wall (Rokitansky Aschoff sinus) in an area. Mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate is present in subepithelial and perimuscular layers. Biliary colic may and cholecystitis, though there is no definite evidence of occasionally occur due to passage of stone into the bile ducts. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis are Cholecystography usually allows radiologic visualisation of present in about 75% cases of gallbladder cancer. A number of chemical carcinogens structurally similar to naturally-occurring bile Benign tumours such as papilloma, adenoma, adenomyoma, acids have been considered to induce gallbladder cancer. Adenomyoma is more common benign tumour than the higher incidence of gallbladder cancer. All these tumours resemble their counterparts in morphology elsewhere in the body. Japanese immigrants and Native Americans Carcinoma of the gallbladder and carcinoma of the bile ducts of the South-Western America have increased frequency and ampulla of Vater are among the more frequent malignant while American Indians and Mexicans have lower incidence. Patients who have undergone previous surgery on the biliary tract have higher incidence of Carcinoma of the Gallbladder subsequent gallbladder cancer. Patients with inflammatory Primary carcinoma of the gallbladder is more prevalent than bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease) have other cancers of the extrahepatic biliary tract. It may remain undetected until the time it is widely fundus, followed next in frequency by the neck of the spread and rendered inoperable. They may be papillary or infiltrative, well-differentiated or poorly-differentiated. About 5% of gallbladder cancers are squamous cell carcinomas arising from squamous metaplastic epithelium. A few cases show both squamous and adeno carcinoma pattern of growth called adenosquamous carcinoma. Carcinoma of the gallbadder is slow-growing and causes symptoms late in the course of disease. Quite often, the diagnosis is made when gallbladder is removed for cholelithiasis. The symptomatic cases have pain, jaundice, noticeable mass, anorexia and weight loss. In such case, the growth has usually invaded the liver and other adjacent organs and has metastasised to regional lymph nodes and more distant sites such as the lung, peritoneum and gastrointestinal tract. This is an infrequent neoplasm but is more common than the rare benign tumours of the biliary tract. Infiltrating type appears as an irregular area of diffuse diseases of the biliary passages, it is more common in males thickening and induration of the gallbladder wall. Fungating type grows like an irregular, friable, with a number of other conditions such as ulcerative colitis, papillary or cauliflower-like growth into the lumen as well sclerosing cholangitis, parasitic infestations of the bile ducts as into the wall of the gallbladder and beyond. Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma may arise anywhere in the biliary tree but the most frequent sites, in descending order of frequency, are: the ampulla of Vater, lower end of common bile duct, hepatic ducts, and the junction of hepatic ducts to form common bile duct (see Fig. Grossly, bile duct carcinoma is usually small, extending for 1-2 cm along the duct, producing thickening of the affected duct. Histologically, the tumour is usually well-differentiated adenocarcinoma which may or may not be mucin secreting. Obstructive jaundice is the usual presenting feature which is characterised by intense pruritus. The lumen of the gallbladder contains irregular, friable papillary growth arising from mucosa (arrow). The human pancreas, though anatomically a single organ, Two multi-faceted gallstones (mixed) are also present in the lumen. The endocrine part of the gland viscidosis) and associated with increased concentrations of 645 is dealt with in Chapter 27 while the exocrine gland is electrolytes in the eccrine glands. The whole of pancreas, exocrine and and fibrocystic disease are preferable over mucoviscidosis endocrine, is embryologically derived from the foregut in view of the main pathologic change of fibrosis produced endoderm. The pancreas lies obliquely in the concavity of the duodenum as an elongated structure about 15 cm in the disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait length and 100 gm in weight (see Fig. The head lying in the concavity of the duodenum and the uncinate process projecting from the head. The tail is the thin, tapering part of the gland towards multiple organs and systems such as pancreatic insufficiency, the hilum of the spleen. The exocrine pancreas constitutes 80 to 85% cirrhosis and respiratory complications. Depending upon the the exocrine part is divided into rhomboid lobules severity of involvement and the organs affected, the separated by thin fibrous tissue septa containing blood pathologic changes are variable. Fatty replacement of the pancreas and grossly granules in their cytoplasm, while the basal region is deeply visible cysts may be seen. The zymogen Microscopically, the lobular architecture of pancreatic granules are membrane-bound sacs which fuse with the parenchyma is maintained. There is increased interlobular plasma membrane and are then released into the lumina of the acini. The acini are atrophic and many of the acinar ductal branches into the small ducts in the lobules and ducts contain laminated, eosinophilic concretions. Atrophy of the exocrine pancreas may cause provides the main drainage for pancreatic secretions into the impaired fat absorption, steatorrhoea, intestinal duodenum. The bile canaliculi are plugged by viscid of the pancreatic and bile ducts in the ampulla of Vater, or mucous which may cause diffuse fatty change, portal less often both open separately into the duodenum. More severe involve Occasionally, the proximal part of the dorsal duct persists ment may cause biliary cirrhosis (page 625). The main functions of the exocrine pancreas are seen in almost all typical cases of cystic fibrosis. The is the alkaline secretion of digestive enzymes prominent viscid mucous secretions of the submucosal glands of the among which are trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase, respiratory tract cause obstruction, dilatation and infection lipase and phospholipase. The significant developmental anomalies of the pancreas are ectopic or aberrant pancreatic tissue in Meckels diverticulum 4. Pathologic changes in the salivary (page 561), anomalies of the ducts, and cystic fibrosis. Only glands are similar to those in pancreas and include the last named requires elaboration here. Hypersecretion of sodium and chloride in the sweat observed in these patients may be reflected Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas or fibrocystic disease is a pathologically by diminished vacuolation of the cells of hereditary disorder characterised by viscid mucous eccrine glands. It is classified into acute and chronic forms both of Block in exocytosis of pancreatic enzymes occurring from nutritional causes results in activation of these intracellular which are distinct entities. Grossly, in the early stage, Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas the pancreas is swollen and oedematous. The severe form in a day or two, characteristic variegated appearance of of the disease associated with macroscopic haemorrhages grey-white pancreatic necrosis, chalky-white fat necrosis and fat necrosis in and around the pancreas is termed acute and blue-black haemorrhages are seen.


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