Prostate cancer often grows slowly blood pressure 300 over 200 cheap lanoxin 0.25 mg overnight delivery, so even if it does come back blood pressure chart stage 3 order 0.25mg lanoxin with mastercard, it might not cause problems for many years heart attack 18 year old male generic lanoxin 0.25 mg with mastercard, at which time further treatment could then be considered blood pressure medication addiction lanoxin 0.25mg. Cancer that clearly has spread If the cancer has spread outside the prostate, it will most likely go to nearby lymph 8 nodes first, and then to bones. When prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body (including the bones), hormone therapy is probably the most effective treatment. Castrate-resistant and hormone-refrac to ry prostate cancer Hormone therapy is often very effective at shrinking or slowing the growth of prostate cancer that has spread, but it usually becomes less effective over time. Doc to rs use different terms to describe cancers that are no longer responding to hormones. If an anti-androgen drug was not part of the initial hormone therapy, it is often added at this time. Other forms of hormone therapy may also be helpful for a while, especially if the cancer is causing few or no symp to ms. For cancers that are no longer responding to initial hormone therapy and are causing symp to ms, several options might be available. Chemotherapy with the drug docetaxel (Taxotere) is often the first choice because it has been shown to help men live longer, as well as to reduce pain. If docetaxel doesn’t work or s to ps working, other chemo 62 American Cancer Society cancer. Radiopharmaceutical drugs can often reduce pain if it’s more widespread, and may also slow the growth of the cancer. Several promising new medicines are now being tested against prostate cancer, 11 12 including vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other new types of drugs. Because the ability to treat hormone-refrac to ry prostate cancer is still not good enough, men are 13 encouraged to explore new options by taking part in clinical trials. Accessed at 64 American Cancer Society cancer. Last Medical Review: August 1, 2019 Last Revised: June 11, 2020 Written by the American Cancer Society medical and edi to rial content team ( This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Tes to sterone plays a significant role in obesity, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk fac to rs predisposing to diabetes mellitus type 2, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main components of the syndrome are visceral obesity, insulin resistance, glucose in to lerance, raised blood pressure and dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and a proinfiamma to ry and thrombogenic state. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported a direct correlation between plasma tes to sterone and insulin sensitivity, and low tes to sterone levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, dramatically illustrated by androgen deprivation in men with prostate carcinoma. Administration of tes to sterone to hypogonadal men reverses part of the unfavorable risk profile for the development of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Even among endocrinologists the expertise on sex hormones, A major problem is the management of overweight. This contribu is a condition that is reaching epidemic proportions in both tion will argue that tes to sterone has a significant role to play the developed and the developing world. In the United States, in the etiology and treatment of obesity and its sequels in the 63% of men and 55% of women are classified as overweight. Of these, 22% are deemed grossly overweight, with a body mass index above 30 kg/m2, and the consequences of this 2. Approximately 80% of obese adults sufier from at least one, and 40% from two or Adult men and women difier in their fat distribution; more of the diseases associated with obesity, such as type the regional distribution of body fat is a characteristic of 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, gallbladder masculinity and femininity . In premenopausal women disease, cancers, and diseases of the locomo to r system, such a larger proportion of fat is s to red in peripheral fat depots as arthrosis . Men tend to deposit this contribution will highlight the significance of tes to s excess fat in the abdominal regions (both subcutaneous and terone in the development and treatment of obesity. The intra-abdominal or visceral fat depots) and generally have reality of life is that the practice of medicine is subdivided a larger visceral fat depot than (premenopausal) women in to medical specialties, each with its own perspective . Obesity and particularly its sequels, such secondary sex characteristic, it is likely that sex steroids are as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and locomo to r involved in the male and female patterns of fat deposition. So, mobilization, until puberty boys and girls do not difier apparently while androgens induce visceral fat accumulation, very much in the amount of body fat and its regional once fat has been s to red in the visceral depot it does not need distribution. From puberty on words, difierences become continued androgen stimulation as opposed to maintenance manifest [5, 6]. The ovarian production of estrogens and of bone and muscle mass, which are lower in men with progesterone induce an increase in to tal body fat as well adult onset hypogonadism than in eugonadal controls . Androgen mass while the amount of to tal body fat does not change deprivation treatment of men with prostate cancer increases very much . Adolescent boys lose subcutaneous fat but fat mass, reduces insulin sensitivity, and impairs lipid profiles accumulate fat in the abdominal region, which in most increasing cardiovascular risk [15, 16] or worsens metabolic boys, is not very visible in that stage of development but control of men with diabetes mellitus considerably . The sex Correlation studies in large groups of subjects have shown steroid-induced regional distribution is not an all-or-none that visceral fat increases with ageing. Not only the fat distribution difiers between the cause and efiect relationships between the correlates the sexes from puberty on, but also the dynamics of fat whether low tes to sterone induces visceral fat deposition or cell size and fat metabolism are difierent. The amount of whether a large visceral fat depot leads to low tes to sterone fat in a certain depot is dependent on the number and size levels. Fat cells in the gluteal and femoral region nous androgens predict central adiposity in men and are larger than in the abdominal region . The activity of that these low tes to sterone levels are significantly inversely lipoprotein lipase, the enzyme responsible for accumulation associated with levels of blood pressure, fasting plasma of triglycerides in the fat cell, is higher in the gluteo-femoral glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index but positively region than in the abdominal area . A five-year follow is regulated by hormone sensitive lipase, which in turn up study of Swedish men indicated that elevated plasma is regulated by several hormones and by the sympathetic cortisol and low tes to sterone were prospectively associated nervous system. Catecholamines stimulate lipolysis via the fi with increased incidence of cardiovascular-related events adrenergic recep to r while fi2-adrenorecep to rs inhibit lipol and diabetes mellitus type 2 . Hormones afiect the catecholamine recep to rs of the deprivation of men with prostate cancer induces a worsening adipocytes. Tes to sterone stimulates the fi-adrenergic recep to r of elements of the metabolic syndrome reveals a role for while estrogens/progesterone stimulate preferentially fi2 tes to sterone in its etiology [15, 22]. The Metabolic Syndrome dependent fat distribution serves (or from this millennium on has servedfi The visceral fat preferential accumulation of fat in the abdominal region is depot constitutes a quickly available source of calories and associated with an increased risk of noninsulin-dependent energy. By its close ana to mical proximity to the liver, it diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, not only in delivers fatty acids through the portal system . A may have served a useful function in evolution when there large number of cross-sectional studies have established a was a more pronounced labour division between the sexes relationship between abdominal obesity and cardiovascular suiting the needs of men in their manual labour and quick risk fac to rs such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia (elevated physical action. The Paradoxical Relationships of known as the “insulin resistance syndrome” or “metabolic Tes to sterone and Fat Distribution in syndrome” [24–27]. There is a debate in the literature whether combining these components or conditions has an added While the evidence that pubertal sex steroids induce a sex diagnostic or prognostic value . In recent years, three specific fat distribution with preferential abdominal/visceral main definitions of the metabolic syndrome were used. The definition of the National of paradoxes occur in the relationship between sex steroids Cholesterol Education program places equal emphasis and fat distribution. The value to insulin resistance as a required component of the Rancho-Bernardo Study based in California demonstrated metabolic derangements . Increasingly, professional a significant inverse correlation between baseline to tal organizations have now proposed definitions. The tes to sterone with long-term (8-year follow-up) fasting International Diabetes Federation has drafted a singly glucose and insulin levels as well as glucose in to lerance unifying definition in 2005. Recently, several scientific societies have arrived at a bioavailable (but not to tal tes to sterone) were approximately joint interim statement to harmonize the approach to the four times more likely to have prevalent diabetes compared metabolic syndrome . Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Interestingly, there is a significant difierence in plasma tes to sterone levels between men with diabetes type 1 (who Numerous studies have found inverse associations between have normal levels) and type 2 (who have subnormal levels) the severity of features of the metabolic syndrome and . There is an circulating levels of insulin (low in type 1 and high in type inverse relationship between waist circumference, a reliable 2). Men with levels, obesity, and serum leptin in men with type 2 diabetes diabetes have lower tes to sterone levels compared to men . A systematic review and the Metabolic Syndrome meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies indicated that tes to sterone level was significantly lower in men with type Adiposity with its associated hyperinsulinism suppresses sex 2 diabetes (mean difierence, fi76.
The range of possible use of active immunization is rapidly expanding to heart attack zippy order lanoxin with paypal include vaccines against infectious diseases that require cellular responses to arteria opinie 2012 lanoxin 0.25 mg online provide protection blood pressure kit walgreens purchase lanoxin 0.25 mg amex. In the developed world the paediatric immunization schedule is becoming crowded hypertension journal buy 0.25mg lanoxin amex, with pressure to administer increasing numbers of antigens simultaneously in ever simpler forms. The available epidemiological and labora to ry to ols to address the issues outlined above are somewhat limited. However, this will only happen if the human and financial resources needed for moni to ring and studying vaccine safety stay in step with the accelerating pace of vaccine development. Keywords: adverse drug reaction reporting systems; antigens, bacterial and immunology; drug moni to ring; immunization schedule; vaccination trends; vaccine, adverse effects. For those who support immunization programmes, there During the past century of increasing use of vaccines, is considerable irony in the observation that the very those who support and promote immunization have success of the vaccines introduced to date has been in the large majority. However, there have been contributed significantly to the growing rumble of and still are a few who oppose individual vaccines or anti-vaccination sentiment. So that the ideas outlined below data on the risk and incidence of adverse reactions are are not taken out of context and add to the anti relatively difficult to obtain, vaccines certainly vaccination rumble, it is crucial that the reader should compare favourably with other pharmaceutical keep in mind the difference between hypothesis and agents in terms of adverse reactions (Table 1) scientific confirmation. Extraordinarily high safety standards have hypotheses rather than established scientific ``facts', been imposed on vaccines, as a result of several and are meant to generate discussion. These hypotheses may appropriately be considered for characteristics include the fact that most vaccines are testing at the present time. Others are more given to otherwisehealthyindividuals(usually speculative and are likely to be proved (or disproved) children, and often repeatedly), the widely held view only with the passage of time. Frequency of known adverse events with selected vaccines and pharmaceutical agents (2, 12±14) Vaccine/pharmaceutical agent Adverse event Death Anaphylaxis Other Measles±mumps±rubella Case reportsa 1±20 per 1 000 000 2±5 % rash approximately 40 per 100 000 thrombocy to penia 13±15% arthritis (in adults) b Diphtheria±pertussis±tetanus None 2 per 100 000 0±10. Furthermore, the broad challenging by the very safety and efficacy of the spectrum of adverse events linked to vaccines is vaccines introduced to date. Although the strength of these unlikely to fully understand some of the adverse associations ranges from definite to highly ``creative', events associated with measles vaccination. In many cases, we have only limited paralytic poliomyelitis) (4) before these diseases understanding of the correlates of immune protec follow smallpox in to vaccine-induced oblivion (15). Of Typically, the safety data accumulated during this stage course, it should be acknowledged that the task of of vaccine development have actively been acquired 206 Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78 (2) Vaccine adverse events in the new millennium over the 15±30-day period immediately after vaccina Table 2. Although there is great variability, it has or serious disability his to rically been unusual to enrol and actively moni to r more than 5000±10 000 subjects at this stage of Smallpox 1800±1900s Bacterial sepsis and transmis vaccine evaluation (16). As a result, the to tal number of sion of syphilis with early subjects studied prior to licensing is often un arm- to -arm inoculation (15) der 10 000. Although an attempt is now being made to increase the power of Many Apparent ability to transmit post-marketing surveillance by combining databases prions with bovine and/or nationally and internationally. However, even this excellent system is rapidly accepted for ``universal' administration since limited by its focus on childhood vaccines and events investiga to rs are often reduced to using epidemiolo serious enough to merit hospitalization, the relatively gical to ols based upon ``his to rical' or other suboptimal small size of the population base (annual birth cohort control groups for comparison. It has recently been of about 400 000), the absence of data on the expected suggested that the detection limit of such epidemio frequency to permit the calculation of attributable risk, logical to ols is in the range of 1event per 1±2 million and the bias to wards ``acute' events associated with vaccinations under ideal circumstances (20). Although the likely to be added in the coming decade as vaccines occurrence of such late events with some vaccines is become more complex. Vaccine-associated adverse events that occur more than 30 days after vaccination Vaccination for Adverse event Measles Atypical and severe measles developed in some individuals upon exposure to wild type measles months to years after receipt of the inactivated vaccine. Although the precise cause remains unknown, it is possible that a formalin-induced change in the protein resulted in an unbalanced immune response to measles proteins and variable susceptibility to atypical disease (13). Measles Recipients of measles vaccine formulations containing 100±1000-fold higher numbers of viral particles than the standard titre vaccine (approximately 10), appear to have suffered increased mortality (relative risk 1. Respira to ry syncytial virus In early vaccine trials, enhanced respira to ry syncytial virus disease was reported in children who received inactivated vaccines when exposed to wild-type virus months to years later. Similar effects can be induced in mice due to vaccine-induced changes in the Th1-Th2 pattern of response to wild type virus challenge (8). It is the changing vaccine environment highly likely (indeed certain) that reac to genicity is also influenced by our polymorphic immune response Despite the limitations to our knowledge outlined genes. As we deliver above, the last decade has witnessed enormous immunogenic quantities of ever-simpler antigens (see advances in basic immunology, molecular biology below), the profile of adverse events for an identical and genetics that have opened a wide range of 208 Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78 (2) Vaccine adverse events in the new millennium possibilities for the development of new vaccines (24). Many of these new multivalent, multi-organism Compared with the currently available vaccines, these vaccines will also induce immune responses which are new products are also extraordinarily heterogeneous in quantitatively and qualitatively different from those their form. While enormously exciting, this immune balance between Th1-type versus Th2-type impending flood of new products and novel uses of responses (32), original antigenic ``sin'. Indeed, the particular importance as investiga to rs target organisms same level of resources and up- to -date science applied that require Th1-type responses for protection. To commitment is important both for the evaluation of some extent, we have been fortunate to date with our the new vaccines and to protect the ``reputation' of the combined vaccines in that the targeted organisms/ global vaccination effort as a whole. It is public conscience and any serious breach in safety is interesting that the possible exception to this ``rule' is likely to have far-reaching repercussions. Neither the correlates of protection Are there particular reasons for nor reac to genicity are well unders to od for Bordetella pertussis, although it appears that some degree of cell concern with the coming vaccinesfi To date, pertussis antigens have schedule certainly been the most problematic component of the next generation of physicians will probably look multivalent vaccines in terms of both efficacy and back at the 15±20 vaccines currently available as the reac to genicity. Even with this limited number of vaccines, there is already More subtle consequences of pressure considerable pressure to combine antigens to mini to develop polyvalent vaccines mize vaccine-related visits as well as the number of In addition to the immunological concerns regarding injections required (25). Simpler vaccines hepatitis A and B), quadrivalent and pentavalent that provide the same degree of protection are widely vaccines. Furthermore, there are active efforts to build chance of malignant antigen±antigen interactions, on these successes by creating ever more complex fewer non-essential antigens to elicit unwanted mixes of microbial antigens. On the one hand, responses, and tremendous cost savings in many cases multivalent vaccines can have great advantages such through the application of modern molecular tech as reduced administration costs, increased coverage, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78 (2) 209 Special Theme ± Immunization Safety niques. When a complex vaccine is replaced by a simple antigen or a defined antigen cocktail. However, we often do certain typical characteristics: not know the precise concentrations of the compo ± illnesses with severe morbidity and/or significant nent protein antigens in the original vaccine. Such a hypothesis is these organisms exist as multiple serotypes and biologically plausible since immunopathology asso enhanced pathology can occur in the presence of sub ciated with natural infections can vary enormously optimal or imbalanced antibody titres (7, 47). Infectious agents have played a major role in diarrhoeal and respira to ry diseases in the developing driving the polymorphism of immune response world), preventative vaccines for the chronic infec genes. Young children are typically vaccine targets are those that cause significant exposed to a large number of antigens in a relatively morbidity and mortality in limited circumstances short period of time, but very few children have ever. The component vaccine capable of completely preventing pro-inflamma to ry nature of the Th1-type cy to kines infection with one of these ubiqui to us organisms associated with cellular responses. Note that this discussion that vaccines specifically designed to elicit this type of should not be misconstrued as an argument against the response will be quite reac to genic. These microorganisms have and societal costs repeatedly or persistently infected essentially 100% the latest aspect of the paradigm shift currently of humans from an early age through a large part of underway is the move to use parental/societal costs our evolution as a species. Theoretical and actual examples of such products Indeed, Margulis & Sagan make the eloquent include rotavirus and other gastroenteral virus argument that humans would not even exist as a vaccines in the developed world, and varicella and species had such intimate co-evolution not occurred rhinovirus vaccines. Scientists have only just effort over the last 3±4 decades, the relative lack of begun to analyse how microbial pressure may have organized opposition has been quite extraordinary. The consequences for human health of understanding of parents that smallpox, tuberculosis, ``removing' some of this microbial pressure are pertussis, measles and poliomyelitis are fatal or unknown. Similarly, adults who consider by 20±30 pathogens is trivial compared with the to tal themselves to be at high risk of acquiring rabies antigen exposure that human infants experience typically line up for the vaccination. Although capacity to reinfect/persist, or immunomodula to ry many infectious diseases remain for which vaccines actions due to cy to kine genes, superantigens, etc. To date, only two vaccines cussed by Rook & Stanford (57), it is virtually certain targeting such hypothetical co-evolutionary pathogens that we have evolved to ``expect' a certain number of have been licensed. In the case of varicella zoster virus, the these exposures may not benefit the individual or the vaccine strain virus appears to share many character species in the long run. This type Conclusions of vaccine would appear to be the least likely to cause the hypothetical problem of loss of an infection Recent advances in our understanding of basic induced ``advantage'. In contrast, an inactivated or immunology as well as of vaccine immunology are Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78 (2) 211 Special Theme ± Immunization Safety leading the vaccine community in to relatively precise incidence and immunopathogenesis of uncharted waters. We now appear to have the Guillain±BarreA syndrome occurring after natural capacity to make vaccines against a wide range of influenza A infection (21). Of course, there is a organisms that have frustrated 3±4 decades of simultaneous need to learn a great deal more about sustained effort. Many of these Despite the difficulties inherent in evaluating products are either in, or rapidly approaching, clinical the potential, long-term, adverse effects of vaccines trials.
Cardiovascular deter- Penile colour duplex ultrasonography as a screening to prehypertension blood pressure treatment purchase genuine lanoxin line ol minants of carotid artery disease: the Rotterdam Elderly for venogenic erectile dysfunction blood pressure hypotension purchase lanoxin amex. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative cavernosometry-a simple diagnostic test for cavernosal Research Group arrhythmia guidelines 2014 lanoxin 0.25 mg visa. Vlachopoulos C blood pressure for seniors buy lanoxin cheap, Aznaouridis K, Ioakeimidis N, Rokkas K, pharmaco-cavernosometry and analysis of intracavernous Tsekoura D, Vasiliadou C, et al. Foresta C, Palego P, Schipilliti M, Selice R, Ferlin A, Caretta cavernosometry: assessing the need for cavernosography. Asymmetric development of peripheral atherosclerosis Int J Impot Res 2004;16:146-9. Guidelines for theultrasound assess- ment of endothelial-dependent low-mediated vasodilation of 93. Post traumatic high-low arterial ultrasonic measurements of pos to cclusive alterations in the priapism. High-low priapism: treatment and long dilatation and carotid artery intima-media thickness term follow-up. Penile revascu- volvement of sympathetic nerve activity in skin blood low larization for treatment of erectile dysfunction second- oscillations in humans. An objective approach by using sildenail Comparison of nocturnal penile tumescence moni to ring citrate test. Is there a role Electrophysiological analysis of pudendal neuropathy of radial rigidity in the evaluation of erectile dysfunctionfi Int J analysis of penile erections: penile buckling behaviour Impot Res 2000;12:279-83. Nocturnal penile tumescence is diminished but not ablated in postproctec to my impotence. Computerized sleep, on nocturnal erectile activity: a double-blind, placebo classiication of corpus cavernosum electromyogram sig- controlled, crossover study. J Sex Med 2007;4:191-8 port instrument for the assessment of female sexual func- 156. The use of the Sexual Func- tion questionnaire as a screening to ol for women with sexual 161. J Jap Soc Sex Science 2008; 26:16-26 Clinical Manual of Sexual Medicine Sexual Dysfunctions in Men. Leiblum S, Symonds T, Moore J, Soni P, Steinberg S, Sis- struct validity of the Changes in Sexual Functioning ques- son M. M, Rico Villadermoros F, Banus S: Evaluating changes in sexual functioning in depressed patients: Sensitivity to 188. J Sex Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version Mar Ther 2000;26:119-131. Althof S, Rosen R, Symonds T, Mundayat R, May K, Abra- Marital Ther 2007;23:291-304. Patient and partner satisfaction with of self-reported outcome measures for research and prac- Viagra (sildenail citrate) treatment as determined by the tice. Patient Reported Outcome Newsletter 2007;39:1-4 of four-item version of Male Sexual Health questionnaire to 205. Early conceptual and linguistic development of a ated with erectile dysfunction and its treatment. The treat- form of the psychological and interpersonal relationship ment satisfaction scale: a multidimensional instrument for scales. Int J Impotence Res 2005;18:82-88 the assessment of treatment for the assessment of treat- 207. Psychometric valida- ment satisfaction for erectile dysfunction patients and their tion of sexual quality of life questionnaire for use in men partners. The problems with your sexual function is: (mark one or more) 1 Problems with little or no interest in sex 2 Problems with erection 3 Problems ejaculating to o early during sexual activity 4 Problems taking to o long, or not being able to ejaculate or have orgasm 5 Problems with pain during sex 6 Problems with penile curvature during erection 7 Other. The problems with your sexual function is: (mark one or more) 1 Problems with little or no interest in sex 2 Problems with decreased genital sensation (feeling) 3 Problems with decreased vaginal lubrication (dryness) 4 Problems reaching orgasm 5 Problems with pain during sex 6 Other. Each question can be answered by circling the condition that best characterizes your personal experience. Sexual activity includes any kind of activity aimed at experiencing sexual satisfaction and enjoyment. The term sexual activity does not necessarily include sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal penetration). Has this happened to you during the last 6 1b) Has this been a personal problem for youfi A very great problem 2a) Some men ind that they need much more sexual stimulation to achieve an erection than they needed in the past. Has this happened to you during the last 6 2b) Has this been a personal problem for youfi A very great problem 3a) Some men have dificulties in obtaining and/or main taining hard erections lasting long enough for sexual activity. Has this happened to you during the last 6 4b) Has this been a personal problem for youfi A very great problem 5a) Some men have dificulty ejaculating or reaching orgasm with sexual activity. A very great problem 6a) Some men are concerned about the size and/or shape of their penis. For those who have not been sexually active during the last 6 months please explain why you have been sexually inactive. Sexual activity includes any activity aimed at experiencing sexual satisfaction and enjoyment. A very great problem 2a) Some women do not experience physical sexual excitement (eg genital swelling, vaginal wetness, tingling sensation) during sexual stimu- lation and/or sexual activity. A very great problem 3a) Some women do not feel sexually turned on or do not have pleasurable sexual feelings when engaging in sexual activity. Has this happened to you during the last 6 3b) Has this been a personal problem for youfi A very great problem 5a) Some women experience genital pain during or shortly after sexual activity. Has this happened to you during the last 6 5b) Has this been a personal problem for youfi A very great problem 6a) Some women experience dificulties allowing vaginal penetration despite their wish to do so. A very great problem 7a) Some women experience persistent and unwanted genital arousal (tingling, throbbing, pulsating) in the absence of any sexual interest. Has this happened to you during the last 6 7b) Has this been a personal problem for youfi Very satisfying 9) Is there anything else you would like to tell us with respect to your sexual lifefi Scientiic ality research was divided in to to camps, clinicians blinders limit the nature of the questions we ask, the who studied people, and behavioral neuroendocri- approaches we take, and research is normally con- nologists who studied animals. These camps rarely strained by research review committees pressured to shared common insights at scientiic meetings. There is much that all, human copula to ry behavior doesn’t really re- we simply cannot study in humans, either because semble copula to ry behavior in animals. In labora to ry of ethical concerns, impracticality, or the lack of suf- animals commonly used to study sexual behavior, icient technology. These constraints are most obvi- such as rodents, gonadal hormones serve two pri- ous when we ask questions about the neurobiology mary functions: to make it physically possible for a of sexual behavior. Although studies have viewed male or female to engage in sex, and to motivate human brain activation in sexual circumstances and them to engage in sex (Wallen, 1990). By contrast, have moni to red the sexual responses of individu- in humans and other anthropoid primates, only the als following drug treatments, there are signiicant latter function of hormones remains, with hormonal limitations on what can be studies experimentally inluences on the capability to mate having largely in humans. Most people will not knowingly allow disappeared for evolutionary reasons which are still themselves to be rendered sexually dysfunctional by unclear. Thus unlike in labora to ry rodents, there is some experimental manipulation, and few would al- no human equivalent of the lordosis, which is un- low moni to ring of their copula to ry behavior irsthand, der tight hormonal regulation and whose execution even if review boards would allow such research.
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Brokers and transporters should not transport animals that are showing obvious signs of illness or that come from a farm known to heart attack remix order 0.25 mg lanoxin with mastercard be affected by a disease blood pressure medication that starts with m cheap 0.25mg lanoxin overnight delivery, unless they follow instructions from the veterinary services and appropriate measures are taken before and after transportation blood pressure news lanoxin 0.25 mg with mastercard. Vehicles may transmit pathogens when manure containing disease agents is attached to pulse blood pressure relationship discount lanoxin generic their bodywork or tyres (although recent studies indicate that tyres are usually decon taminated by heat when the vehicle is driven) or has contaminated the vehicle cab. The driver should be responsible for cleaning and disinfecting the wheels (wheel arches and mudflaps), vehicle bodywork and inside of the cab. Pig industry service providers should not have to enter pig buildings; if they do so, they must wear specific protective clothing and footwear and follow all visi to r pro to cols. Commercial incentives must not override biosecurity, and practices such as having visi to rs document their previous farm visits help to ensure compliance with biosecurity pro to cols. Slaughterhouses Hygiene and biosecurity standards vary widely in slaughtering facilities. In addition, many pigs are slaughtered on-farm, for local consumption and with no meat inspection. Slaugh terhouse workers, butchers providing services to individuals, and producers who slaughter their own pigs are all at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases. On premises where pigs are slaughtered, visi to rs’ access and the entry of animals other than those slaughtered must be controlled. By-products from slaughterhouses, such as blood and offal, are sometimes used to feed pigs in the vicinity, thereby creating significant risk of disease transfer. Public invest ment in environmental protection, urban sanitation, water supply and drainage or hygiene in slaughterhouses is often inadequate, thus increasing the risk of disease transmission. Animals from differ ent species and of different origins are all concentrated in one location and there is impor tant movement of people and vehicles. All incoming animals must be carefully observed for any signs of disease; many notifiable diseases are first detected at the time of slaughter. Animals with clinical signs of disease, such as a fever, should not enter the food chain. Slaughterhouse management involves the enforcement of measures for strict hygiene and biosecurity, including: 1. The animals sold are mainly piglets or young replacement breeding s to ck, such as gilts. Live-animal markets are clear mixing points and a potential source of disease spread. Moreover, as traders are often intermediaries/collec to rs who collect animals from different locations, pig producers do not have any assurance about the health and sanitary status of the animals. Bio-containment of infection is vital at these sites, and contacts among animals of different origins must be controlled. As far as possible, animals that have been taken to the market but not sold should not be reintroduced in to the home herd without a quarantine period. Live-animal markets could play a positive role in the control of pig diseases as places where information can be disseminated and collected. Active surveillance for diseases can also be carried out at the marketplace, but its efficiency depends on having a traceability system with farm or pig identification. Exhibitions where high-value animals are shown to the public are also key risk points for animal disease transmission; particular attention must be paid to observing an appropriate quarantine period for the exhibited animals before they re-enter the home herd. Farmers’ ability to implement on-farm biosecurity measures depends on the character istics of the production system they operate, their knowledge of technical matters and the availability of cash. Controlling diseases in pig farms is a continuous process, which requires investments. The introduction of new biosecurity measures to a farm may also require important changes in husbandry practices. Global biosecurity issues are relevant to all environments, but may be particularly challenging in developing and transition countries. Social and economic fac to rs the pig production systems in a given area are largely determined by the demands that people and society place on them. Knowledge of the diversity of systems and understand ing of the people involved in pig production and their motivations for keeping animals will help the development of strategies for implementing sustainable biosecurity measures on-farm and along production and marketing chains. Each of the systems described in the previous sections entails a set of regulations and specific economic and social fac to rs that influence whether people are likely or able to adopt the proposed measures. Important issues for producers and other stakeholders involved in pig production are their asset bases, their perceptions of risk, their interactions with the wider com munity (including their own roles and responsibilities within the community and with the government), and prevalent consumer demands. Tools such as livelihood analysis, value chain mapping and cost/benefit or cost-effectiveness analysis are beneficial in helping to understand these issues. Farmers’ motivations and the degree to which pigs contribute to farmers’ income portfolios are identified through livelihood analyses; this increases under Section 4: Biosecurity issues and good practices in the pig sec to r 35 standing of the resources available and the drivers for or against investment in biosecurity measures. Value chain mapping and institutional analyses provide insight in to the people involved in pig production, and therefore in to who should be involved in developing biose curity measures. When designing and implementing measures at the household level, it is important to undertake a financial evaluation using, for instance, cost-effectiveness or cost/benefit analysis. Cost-effectiveness enables the stakeholder to define the acceptable level of risk and then look for the most economical method of achieving this. This means considering the set-up and recurrent costs for the proposed biosecurity interventions, and the costs of disrupting the production system. When designing interventions, their socio-cultural and religious acceptability should be considered, as should the new measures’ impacts on the roles and responsibilities of men and women. Cost/benefit analysis also requires an estimate of the potential benefits to the producer, such as increased production, increased efficiency or decreased risk of losing investment. This process requires producers to have reasonably accurate records of costs and income over a sufficient period. Understanding the impacts of disease on society and communicating these effectively throughout the production and marketing chains will be essential for improving the uptake of biosecurity measures. Sharing of responsibilities between the private and public sec to rs the maintenance of good health in lives to ck through appropriate biosecurity measures is important to both the private and public sec to rs: all the private stakeholders involved in the production and marketing chain, the ministries of health and agriculture, and national/ regional trade organizations. When recommending the implementation of biosecurity measures, it is necessary to consider which sec to r should pay for what and to determine the appropriate balance between incentives for voluntary implementation and regulations. In recent years, a debate on whether to classify animal health as a public or a private good has emerged. There is now consensus that prevention and control of major diseases, particularly those that are transboundary and those that have an impact on human health, should be to tally or partially considered as a public good. For optimal implementation of biosecurity measures, the private and public sec to rs need to collaborate closely and with mutual trust. Prevention and control programmes should be supported by public funds or by a combination of public and private funds. The public sec to r has a strong motive for decreasing the risk of disease introduction and spread, because of the imperative to limit impacts on the national economy. Private animal producers have an equally strong motive for decreasing risk, as they bear the brunt of the impacts (at least initially). Producers also face recurrent losses due to endemic diseases, and this may be the strongest reason for them to apply biosecurity measures. Positive examples of public-private partnerships are disease eradication programmes; the eradication of pseudorabies in the United States and other countries are recent exam ples of State-producer partnerships that achieve long-term benefits. Animal health systems and veterinary services Developed countries have progressively improved the health status of their national herds through advances in veterinary science and the establishment of appropriate animal health 36 Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sec to r systems comprising public and private veterinary infrastructure and services to the lives to ck sec to r. Important lives to ck diseases have been eradicated at the national level; measures to safeguard against their reintroduction have been initiated. Other endemic diseases are under surveillance or targeted for eradication, where possible. Farmers have access to both public and private veterinary services, while research institutions and public and private extension services foster continuous improvements in lives to ck industries. The lives to ck sec to r is characterized by a large number of small producers, for whom lives to ck rearing is a major source of livelihood. There is an absence of influential lives to ck owners’ associations and there is often a need to enhance the capacity and resources of public veterinary services so as to improve the quality and coverage of services provided to lives to ck owners. Investments in effective control of the animal diseases that can endanger human health are often inadequate. The importance of subsistence lives to ck production, market failures, the dynamics of conta gious diseases, economic constraints and institutional weaknesses all need to be considered and unders to od when programmes to improve animal health systems are designed. Education and extension services the availability of an appropriately trained and skilled workforce is a critical requirement in developing a lives to ck sec to r, and education and extension must be undertaken for all stakeholders, after their needs have been identified. In many regions, animal farming is considered a speculative side-activity, especially in urban and peri-urban areas.
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