They recognized as well that to gastritis vs gallbladder disease purchase ranitidine 300mg without prescription o many people in the world suffer needlessly from psoriasis due to chronic gastritis what not to eat buy ranitidine 150mg lowest price with psoriasis gastritis symptoms dizziness buy discount ranitidine on line. They recognized as well that to gastritis diet menu safe 300mg ranitidine o many people in the world suffer needlessly from incorrect or delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment options and insuffcient access to care. The resolution also encouraged Member States to engage in advocacy efforts, to raise awarenessthe public health impact of psoriasis. The resolution also encouraged Member States to engage in regarding the disease of psoriasis and fghting off stigmatization suffered by those with psoriasis. It aims at empowering policy-disease of psoriasis and to fight stigmatization suffered by those with psoriasis. This report is written makers with practical solutions to improve the health care and the social inclusion of individuals with to help raise awareness of the range of ways that psoriasis can impact on people’s lives. It affects men and women of all ages, regardless of ethnic origin, in all coun tries (1). There is also evidence to sug gest that the prevalence of psoriasis may be increasing (3). Incidence and prevalence There are very few studies on the incidence1 of psoriasis. Registration of psoriasis cases is not compulsory, meaning reliable data are diffcult to fnd. A review of published literature revealed only a handful of credible studies on the incidence of psoriasis. One study showed that the overall sex and age-adjusted incidence rate of psoriasis in Minnesota in the United States, between 1980 and 1983, was estimated at 0. A study of 511 532 individuals in Italy between 2001 and 2005 reported an incidence of psoriasis (adults receiving a frst-ever diagnosis of psoriasis) of 2. In 2012, a 2-week psoriasis screening study via medical consultation was performed in three countries simultaneously – Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, where incidence of psoriasis was estimated at 10. A review of published literature found 68 full articles and reports estimating prevalence rates for 20 countries (Table 1). It should be noted, how ever, that the data they contain are extremely diffcult to compare with each other, due to the different methodologies of the studies and their limitations. The main problems are differences in the defnition of prevalence (point prevalence, cumulative prevalence, period prevalence), case defnition of psoriasis (self reported, physician diagnosed), the population ages studied (children only, adults only, any age group) and the sampling techniques (questionnaires, clinical examination, combination of clinical examination and questionnaire, registry data). A very weak correlation between geographic latitude and psoriasis prevalence was found (35). Psoriasis appears to occur most commonly in populations of northern Europe (3,36) and least in populations of eastern Asia (37–45) Some studies investigated the ethnic differences in the prevalence of psoriasis. According to a 2001 study in the United States, people with Caucasian or Black ancestry and others had a prevalence of 2. In another United States study from 2009–2010, these differences were higher, with the prevalence for Caucasians, Blacks, Hispanics and oth ers at 3. Prevalence refers to the proportion in a population found to have a condition out of the to tal number of people studied, while incidence refers to new cases within a specifed period (usually one year) divided by the size of the population. Summary of studies on the prevalence of psoriasis Geographic location Year(s) of the study Sample size Estimate Female Male Ages of subjects (years) Children China, Taiwan (39) 2004 4 067 0. However, out of all studies that reported prevalence by sex (Figure 2), some studies indicated that psoriasis is more common in men. This issue needs further investigation, in particular, the differentiation of genetic and behavioural fac to rs. Prevalence of psoriasis by sex (year of data survey given; not of publication) 14. While some studies indicated the average age of onset for psoriasis was 33 years of age, and 75% of cases occurred before 46 years of age (93), others suggested that the onset of psoriasis was bimodal with two peaks of the disease – the frst between 16 and 22 and the second between 57 and 60 years of age (100). However, there are few studies on the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in children, and those that do exist reveal variations between almost absence of juvenile psoriasis in Taiwan, China (38,39) and 1. The largest study on prevalence among children was carried out in Germany in 2007 (49). In 2008–2009, a study of 2194 children in Egypt (47) found that the prevalence of psoriasis among people 18 years of age and younger was 0. Tracking trends in incidence and prevalence of psoriasis is diffcult, due to the different methodologies of research on this issue. Data on the prevalence in the United States from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated an increase in prevalence from 1. However, different methodologies of conducting these studies, especially in view of the various case defnitions of psoriasis, do not allow for a clear assessment of the increasing trend. The most instructive study of trends in prevalence is a 30-year follow-up of a population-based cohort in Tromso, Norway (3). Analyses of trends in prevalence during 1979–2008 indicate that self reported lifetime prevalence of psoriasis (in the same cohort) has increased from 4. Global disability burden from psoriasis the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010 (1) was an attempt at measuring the extent of disability or loss of health due to different diseases. The global burden of disease estimates for individual countries are presented on the map in Figure 3. In the Global Burden of Disease Study, the specifc patient burden of chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis may have been underestimated since the underlying disease weights were not derived from the affected patients. Several studies have shown that chronic skin diseases with high stigmatization are perceived in a signifcantly more negative manner by the patients than by the public. Thus, the limitations of the Global Burden of Disease Study refect a major psychosocial problem for patients with psoriasis in general: the lack of awareness of their specifc burden by others. Recent publications on the global burden of disease of psoriasis and skin diseases have outlined this discrepancy accordingly (101,102). For this, any comparative analysis of disease burden between conditions needs to better balance between objective and subjective burden. Gaps in data Good epidemiological data are essential for disease control and appropriate health-care planning. This chapter illustrates the many gaps in psoriasis data, and derma to logy remains one of the most neglected felds of epidemiological study. There is a need for better quality data on incidence and prevalence of psoriasis to understand better the size and distribution of the problem. The available prevalence data come from only 20 countries, meaning there are huge geographic gaps in knowledge, especially from low and middle-income settings. In order to compare the incidence and prevalence of psoriasis between regions and to track their trends over time, data must be obtained in the same way in different places, reproducibly. Standardized measurements are needed, including uniform diagnostic assessment, defnition of adulthood and case-fnding methods, in order to provide further insight in to derma to logical problems such as psoriasis. The estimation of disease burden from psoriasis such as the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study should be based on improved, more patient-centred methods. Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, noncommunicable, painful, disfguring Female, South Africa: “I have had psoriasis from and disabling disease for which there is no cure, presenting the age of 26 and I am now 54. In addition to the involvement of skin My colleagues at work will suggest all sorts of and nails, infamma to ry arthritis (psoriatic arthritis) may shampoos as it was visible (‘the dandruf’). I felt like an outcast cause in most work In assessing the severity of psoriasis, more than 40 different environments you were not allowed to wear a to ols are being used (104). It still happens account the degree of scaling, redness, thickness of the skin to day. Skin and nails Based on the type of skin lesions, location, the age of onset and course of disease, several clinical classifcations of psoriasis are used (Table 2). The most frequently reported symp to ms connected to psoriasis are (105): n scaling of the skin in 92% n itching in 72% n erythema in 69% n fatigue in 27% n swelling in 23% n burning in 20% n bleeding in 20% of individuals. According to another study, faking or scaling in the non-scalp area occurred in 89% and faking or scaling of scalp areas in 62% of patients. Itching or scratching were observed in 87%, rash in 74%, skin pain in 62%, bleeding in 58%, redness in 57%, fare-ups in 49%, joint pain in 42%, skin cracking in 39%, dry skin in 34%, physical discomfort in 32%, burning in 28% and nail problems in 22% (7). Nail psoriasis may occur with the involvement of the skin or it may occur alone, being the only symp to m of psoriasis.
A pericardial friction rub Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences xenadrine gastritis discount ranitidine 300 mg visa, or distant heart sounds with pulsus paradoxus Wardha gastritis diet oatmeal ranitidine 150mg low cost. Sudden death has been attributed • Partial or complete pericardiec to gastritis symptoms in toddlers buy genuine ranitidine on line my may be to gastritis diet 7 day buy ranitidine 300mg without prescription a fatal ventricular arrhythmia or a conduction required when constrictive pericarditis defect. It affects the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and nervous Investigation systems. The clinical manifestations are ventricular tachycardia or atrioventricular categorized in to early disease, disseminated and block. Low-voltage Stage 2 (disseminated infection) starts 2 to complexes are seen in pericarditis with 12 weeks after the tick bite and neurologic pericardial effusion (10% to 15%) and cardiac (10%) manifestations occur in this stage. The classic triad of • Echocardiography may show an echogenic Lyme neuroborreliosis includes aseptic immobile mass in the ventricular meningitis, cranial nerve palsies (Bell’s palsy) myocardium in the case of a calcified and peripheral radiculoneuropathy. Acid-fast block can change to complete heart block within smear of the fluid rarely reveals the minutes. Complete heart block typically resolves organism, but cultures are positive in 30 within one week, and more minor conduction 70% of cases. Less common cardiac Treatment manifestations have included arrhythmias (supraventricular tachycardia and premature • Corticosteroids can help relieve symp to ms ventricular contractions) and myopericarditis and constriction associated with acute with transient cardiomegaly and left ventricular tuberculous pericardial effusion. Stage 3 (persistent infection) 1–2 mg/kg/day in 1–2 divided doses orally manifests as large-joint arthritis weeks to years for 4–6 wk, followed by gradual tapering. This reveals at least a four-fold increase in Treatment influenza A virus titers using paired sera. Echo shows global hypokinesia age <8years: Amoxicillin 25 to 50 mg/kg bd, for of left ventricle. Use of oral oseltamivir in those with serious For patients allergic to penicillin, cefuroxime illness or pneumonia may be beneficial. Swine flu is a respira to ry disease of pigs 6 Dengue fever caused by type A influenza. Humans do not normally get swine flu however in the recent past Dengue fever is an acute febrile infectious person to person spread is reported. It is disease, caused by any of the four serotypes contagious and spreading fast particularly among (1, 2, 3 or 4) of a virus from the genus flavivirus, young people. Dengue is transmitted by myocarditis which can lead to significant mosqui to es of the genus Aedes, which are widely impairment of cardiac function and mortality. It is characterized by biphasic fever, symp to ms include: fever, cough, sore throat, myalgia or arthralgia, rash, leucopenia, and nasal congestion or rhinorrhea, headache, muscle lymphadenopathy. The World Health Organization pain, and malaise, gastrointestinal illness, such criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever are fever, as diarrhoea and/or vomiting. Complicated or minor or major hemorrhagic manifestations, severe influenza may present with lower thrombocy to penia (<100,000/mm3) and respira to ry tract infection, encephalitis, or objective evidence of increased capillary secondary complications, such as renal failure, permeability (hema to crit increased by >20%), multiorgan failure and septic shock. Dengue infection can occur through direct effects of the shock syndrome criteria include those for dengue virus on the myocardium or through exacerbation hemorrhagic fever as well as hypotension or of existing cardiovascular disease. Cardiac involvement occurred between 4 and 7 days after manifestations are uncommon. All patients had rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks preceding flu-like symp to ms and fever. Fulminant myocarditis is characterised these cardiac manifestations are invariably by profound left ventricular dysfunction and benign, transient and have a self limiting course. In some cases, pericardial They tend to resolve as infection subsides and effusions may result in cardiac tamponade. Risk fac to rs for cardiac intravascular volume depletion consequent to complications include rapid progression of capillary fragility and leakage. Pathogenesis is believed to be the extension of dengue uncertain may be related to au to immunity, myocarditis in to the pericardium rather than au to nomic dysfunction and abnormal ventricular circulating immune complex. Virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) • Left ventricular dysfunction is antibodies only become detectable after 5-7 days. Rapid intravenous • Myocarditis can be the result of infection replacement of fluids and electrolytes can of the myocardium with viruses such as frequently sustain patients until spontaneous parvovirus, cy to megalovirus, enterovirus, recovery occurs. Common cardiac abnormalities • Pericardial effusions is related to include cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pericardial opportunistic infections, malignancies effusion and pulmonary hypertension. The mechanism opportunistic viral and bacterial infections, of cardiac complication associated malaria is not including mycobacteria. It may present with clear and proposed pathogenesis is the a pericardial friction rub and distant heart mechanical blockage of capillaries by malarial sounds on cardiac auscultation or signs of parasites and parasitized red blood cells. Pericardial effusion, bundle branch Investigations block, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis have been reported as cardiac complications. They may produce simple skin infection to very dreadful local and systemic diseases. Antibiotics are indicated in spite of appropriate treatment, and peripheral when there is a bacterial infection of the embolization as well as presence of large pericardium. Emergency pericardiocentesis may vegetations or perivalvular aggressive invasion be required when tamponade is present. The majority of the organisms include the following: Candida morbidity and mortality from malaria is caused species, Aspergillus species, His to plasma 39 Indian Journal of Practical Pediatrics 2011; 13(3): 270 capsulatum, Blas to myces dermatitidis, in to pericardial space. Cryp to coccus neoformans, Mucor species, Chest x-ray shows abnormal shape of the heart Torulopsis glabrata, Fusarium species (rare). Echocardiography reveals endocarditis remains a rare infection, although a unilocular cyst with well-defined margins and its incidence is increasing because more neonates internal trabeculations corresponding to daughter are in intensive care and more neonates are cysts is diagnostic of a hydatid cyst. On rare recommended that: for patients with operable occasions, fungal endocarditis presents as typical disease, surgical resection of the parasitic lesion, bacterial endocarditis, with fever, weight loss, followed by medical therapy for a limited time splenomegaly, splinter hemorrhages, Roth spots, (minimum of 2 years), long-term medical therapy Osler nodes, petechiae, Janeway lesions, (Albendazole 10–15 mg/kg or 400 mg twice a arthritis and a new or changing heart murmur. It is an occupational hazard for granulosus is endemic in cattle and sheep raising people who work with animals. The cyst occurs mainly in acquired by direct or indirect contact with urine the liver and lungs and rarely involving the heart. Left ventricular myocardium is Clinical manifestation the most common site for cardiac echinococcosis because of its relatively greater blood supply. The spectrum of human lep to spirosis ranges Patients may be asymp to matic or having from asymp to matic infection to a severe nonspecific complaints such as fever, chest pain, syndrome of multiorgan dysfunction with weakness, and eruptions. Symp to matic infection may present as and cardiac tamponade due to sudden cyst rupture an acute febrile illness with nonspecific signs and 40 2011; 13(3): 271 symp to ms (70%), as aseptic meningitis (20%), Treatment or as hepa to renal dysfunction (10%). Some patients for 7 days) as an alternative for patients allergic have bradycardia and hypotension but circula to ry to penicillin. Conjunctival suffusion with pho to phobia and orbital pain, generalized the rickettsiae are a heterogeneous group lymphadenopathy, and hepa to splenomegaly may of small, obligately intracellular, gram-negative also be present. A transient rash, lasting <24 hour, coccobacilli and short bacilli, most of which are may occur in 10% of cases, and usually consists transmitted by a vec to r tick, mite, flea, or louse. Then it causes increased vascular include pharyngitis, pneumonitis, arthritis, permeability, platelet aggregation and polymorph carditis, cholecystitis and orchitis. Icteric Lep to spirosis (Weil Syndrome): this process especially affects the brain, cardiac this severe form of lep to spirosis occurs in and skeletal muscle, the skin, lungs and kidneys, <10% of cases and is less common in children. The clinical manifestations are: fever, those described for anicteric lep to spirosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Generalised lymphadenopathy and lep to spirosis represent definite involvement of hepa to splenomegaly are also seen. Cardiac the myocardium and are possibly caused by complications are seen in 5-25% of patients interstitial myocarditis; they indicate a poor including hypotension due to shock, myocarditis prognosis. Pericardial effusion has been Diagnosis reported as a manifestation of scrub typhus. Myocarditis and pericarditis are usually Warthin-Starry silver staining, polymerase associated with Rickettsia rickettsii and chain reaction, and immunofluorescent and Rickettsia conorii. Hemorrhagic pericardial immunohis to chemical methods permit effusion occurs due to vasculitis because of identification of lep to spires in infected tissue or endothelial cell invasion by rickettsia during body fluids. The other complications include demonstrated by phase-contrast or dark-field secondary bacterial infection, leading to microscopy, but these are insensitive. A concern on cardiac involvement venous thromboembolism; disseminated in swine flu. Cardiac test, involving the demonstration of heterophile involvement in dengue haemorrhagic fever. Left ventricular hydatid cyst with myocardial infarction in a References patient with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis. The cost of treatment has also Abstract: the role of interventional techniques substantially reduced due to reuse of balloons, in pediatric cardiology is increasing by the day.
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The distinctive involvement of multiple internal organs, most notably the lungs, 1,2,5 gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidneys Diagnostic criteria by the American College of Rheuma to logy: thickened and symmetric induration of the skin of the fingers proximal to metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints (major criteria) or at least two of the following: 4,5,6,7 sclerodactyly, digital pitting scar, bibasilar pulmonary fibrosis (minor criteria). Patient can be classified in to two main subsets: Diffuse cutaneous scleroderma; rapid development of symmetric skin thickening, starting in the fingers and ascending from distal to proximal extremites, face, and the trunk. Incidence 20 new patients per million/ year in the United States, 4–5 3,8 times more common in women than men, the average age of diagnosis is 30-50 years. There is no cure for scleroderma, but many of its problems and 1,2,3 complications can be treated. Stiffness and painful joints in the hands, feet and hip joint for 2 year, Limitation of motion and mouthfish 1 year. The distinctive involvement of multiple internal organs, most 1,2,5 notably the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidneys. The word scleroderma literally means "hard skin" and describes the most dramatic clinical feature of the disease namely, 3 skin fibrosis. The early stage of the disease, associated with prominent inflamma to ry features, is followed by the development of widespread functional and structural alterations in multiple vascular beds and progressive visceral organ dysfunction due to fibrosis. Scleroderma cases were first reported by Carlo Curzio in 1753 in Naples that affects women 17 years of age. Then in the following year is known that the disease also attacks to the visceral organs. In 1945, Goetz proposes the term progressive systemic sclerosis lesions which describes a broad, both in the skin and visceral organs. Incidence 20 new patients per million per year in the United States, 4–5 times more common in women than men. Complex interplay between these processes is thought to initiate and then amplify and sustain 1,2,3 the fibrotic process. Diagnostic criteria by the American College of Rheuma to logy: thickened and symmetric induration of the skin of the fingers proximal to metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints (major criteria) or at least two of the following: sclerodactyly, 4,5,6,7 digital pitting scar, bibasilar pulmonary fibrosis (minor criteria). Dwi Handayani Nasution Rhema to logy Division Universitas Sumatera Utara Scleroderma can be classified in to Two main subsets: 1. There is no cure for scleroderma, but many of its problems and complications can be 1,2,3 treated. Adam Malik general hospital Medan on november 2015 with the main complaints digital ulcers that doesn’t healed, along with hard lumps for 1 year. Fingers blanch when weather and cold air and return to normal after 1 hour when heated for 3 year. On status present found compos mentis sensorium, blood pressure 139/77 mmHg, 0 pulse 86 x/minute; regular, respiration 18 x/minute, and temperature 37 C. The labora to ry found Hb 10,7 g/dl, leucocyte 14,790/mm3, platelet count 474,000/mm3. Radiology on pelvic we found narrow joint space on the femoro acetabulum dextra, with conclusion: OsteoArthritis on right hip joint. Dwi Handayani Nasution Rhema to logy Division Universitas Sumatera Utara Pulmonary Arterial Presure 33 mmhg (>25mmhg), with conclusion early Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. The word scleroderma literally means "hard skin" and describes the most 3 dramatic clinical feature of the disease—namely, skin fibrosis. The early stage of the disease, associated with prominent inflamma to ry features, is followed by the development of widespread functional and structural alterations in multiple vascular beds and progressive 1,2,3,5 visceral organ dysfunction due to fibrosis. Clinical Manifestation of scleroderma; Skin: Patients are at risk for the development of rapidly progressive acral and trunk skin thickening and early visceral abnormalities. Skin and visceral changes tend to parallel each other in severity, but not always. Some patients have rapid progression for 2 to 3 years and then arrest of the disorder, allowing for some improvement of the disorder. The vasospasm in the hands can be associated with reduced perfusion to the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. If Raynaud phenomenon is not present but skin findings are suggestive of scleroderma, another disease such as eosinophilic fasciitis should be considered. Dwi Handayani Nasution Rhema to logy Division Universitas Sumatera Utara Articular: Non deforming symmetric polyarthritis similar to rheuma to id arthritis may precede cutaneous manifestations by 12 months. Patients can have both articular erosions and nonarticular bony resorptive changes of ribs, mandible, radius, ulna, and distal phalangeal tufts which are unique to systemic sclerosis. Pulmonary: A considerable decrease in diffusing capacity can be present with a normal chest radiograph. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis occurs in approximately 70% of patients and is the most common pulmonary abnormality. Gastrointestinal: Esophageal dysfunction is the most frequent gastrointestinal abnormality. Lower esophageal sphincter incompetence with acid reflux may produce esophageal strictures or ulcers. Reduced esophageal motility may respond to therapy with me to clopramide, cisapride, or erythromycin. Small bowel hypomotility may be associated with pseudo-obstruction, bowel dilatation, bacterial overgrowth, and malabsorption. Treatment with tetracycline may be helpful, but promotility agents are less effective. Renal: Renal involvement may result in fulminant hypertension, renal failure,and death if not treated aggressively. Proteinuria, newly diagnosed mild hypertension, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, vascular changes on renal biopsy, and rapid progression of skin thickening may precede overt clinical findings of renal crisis. Anti to poisomerase I antibody (anti 1,2,3,4,7 Scl-70) is found in approximately 25% of patients with scleroderma. Counseling and psychosocial support Patients should know the diagnosis of the disease and systemic problems. Dwi Handayani Nasution Rhema to logy Division Universitas Sumatera Utara is no drug that is effective and can make symp to ms healed and looks normal, but treatment can be done so that the complications of the disease can be prevented and better quality of life. Counseling and psychological support plays a very important in the management of the disease because the disease is long and progressive. Management of the skin and joints the skin of scleroderma patients often dry and itchy. Patient should be advised not to scratch, do not wear tight shoes and easily cause irritation. If pain persists, it can be considered a local steroid injections or small doses of systemic steroids (prednisone <10 mg/day) for a short time. Physiotherapy can be performed in patients with contractures of periarticular fibrosis that causes disability flex and straighten the fingers. In severe circumstances, such as when accompanied by ulcers on the fingertips or interfere with daily activities, can be attempted use of vasodila to rs, such as nifedipin, prazosin, or to pical nitroglycerin. In addition, nifedipine also can improve myocardial perfusion in systemic sclerosis. The drug is administered at a dose perdrip 0,5-2 ng/kg/min, 5-8 hours/day for 6 h (iv) 5-10 days. Drug Agent Various classes of drugs that can be given to scleroderma patients are: Antifibrotik Therapy (D-penicillamine, penecilin G). D-Penicillamine, showed good results to tackle skin disorders in systemic scleroderma, although treatment is needed in the long term. In vitro, interferon gamma can inhibit fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Immunomodulation (Immunotherapy): Activation of the immune system plays a role in the onset of disease and organ damage. Methothrexate (dose: 10-15 mg/week) can reduce the spread of damage to the skin, in the case of scleroderma-myositis and inflamma to ry arthritis.
The chondrocytes are small and contain single gastritis nsaids symptoms order ranitidine 150mg with mastercard, ration gastritis diet 5 small buy ranitidine 150mg mastercard, or local symp to gastritis diet 6 pack order ranitidine with a mastercard ms might suggest the possibility of regular nuclei gastritis diet x garcinia order ranitidine online pills. In some cases, his to pathologic distinction from one area to another within the chondroma. The princi between desmoplastic fbroma and well-diferentiated pal diagnostic problem rests in microscopically distinguish fbrosarcoma may be difcult. Some similarities are noted his to logically with atypical and irregularly spaced chondrocytes. Any recurrence should be cause for reconsidering the original diagnosis in favor of the possibility of low-grade malignancy. The tumor typically presents as a solitary radiolucent lesion of the mandible or maxilla. Note that stromal cells stain Tought initially to represent a reparative response to intra positive (red). Sec ondary cells, which are microscopically the most promi nent, are multinucleated giant cells with osteoclast-like features. Tumor fbroblasts are also believed to be responsible for recruitment and retention of monocytes and their subsequent transformation in to multi nucleated giant cells (Figures 12-19 and 12-20). Females are afected more often than males and young adults, with most cases (75%) presenting before in a ratio of 2:1. Clinical Features Lesions are seen more commonly in the mandible than in Most patients younger than 30 years of age; females affected the maxilla (Figure 12-22). Tese lesions tend to involve the more often than males jaws anterior to the permanent molar teeth, with occasional Radiolucency; mandible. Rarely, lesions involve the pos Recurrences unpredictable (10%-50%) terior jaws, including the mandibular ramus and condyle. Cortical plates are thinned; however, Giant cells variable (size, number, distribution) perforation with extension in to soft tissues is uncommon. The margins of the lesion are relatively well demarcated, often presenting a scalloped border. They exhibit rapid growth, root resorption, perfora tion of cortical bone, and a higher recurrence rate. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and extravasated erythrocytes are usually evident, although capillaries are small and incon spicuous. Multinucleated giant cells are present through out the connective tissue stroma, and they may be seen in focal aggregates or patches (zonation phenomenon) or distributed evenly (Figures 12-24 and 12-25). Foci of oste oid may be present, particularly around the peripheral margins of the lesion. Numbers of mi to tic fgures, cel lularity, giant cell numbers, giant cell nuclei numbers, and giant cell pattern are not useful in predicting behavior or outcome. For patients in the characteristic young age range for • Figure 12-23 Central giant cell granuloma showing loculations • Figure 12-24 Central giant cell granuloma demonstrating charac and cortical expansion. Tese patients have many phenotypic noma to id odon to genic tumor might be added to this list. This process must be Treatment and Prognosis diferentiated on the basis of biochemical tests. An ele Surgical management of these lesions is the treatment of vated serum level of parathyroid hormone indicates pri choice. Diagnosis of aneurysmal lesional injections of corticosteroids have been proposed, bone cyst is made by identifcation of sinusoidal blood but results are varied and the rationale of this therapy is spaces within the tumor mass. Interferon-alpha has been who develop multiple giant cell lesions may represent a proposed as an additional treatment modality on the basis rare syndrome known as Noonan-like/multiple giant cell of an antiangiogenic mode of action. Elevated serum parathormone and alkaline phosphatase Multiple bone lesions; loss of lamina dura Giant Cell Tumor Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Blood-flled sinusoids present Giant cell tumors are true neoplasms that arise most com monly in long bones, especially in the area of the knee joint. Cherubism Tese tumors exhibit a wide spectrum of biological behav Symmetric lesions ior from benign to malignant. Difcult- to control hemorrhage is a notable complication of surgical intervention. Clinical Features More than half of central hemangiomas of the jaws occur in the mandible, especially the posterior region. A frm, slow-growing, asymmetric expansion of the mandible or maxilla is the most common patient com plaint. Spontaneous gingival bleeding around teeth in the area of the hemangioma may also be noted. Paresthesia or • Figure 12-26 Giant cell tumor showing particularly large giant cells pain, as well as vertical mobility of involved teeth, is occa with abundant nuclei. Bruits or pulsation of large lesions may be detected with careful auscultation or palpation of the thinned cortical plates. Trophic efects of the hemangioma Giant cell tumors, although rare, have been reported in the on adjacent hard and soft tissues are common. Other sites of involvement in the head and neck include hemangiomas may be present with no signs or symp to ms. Giant cell Radiographically, more than half of jaw hemangiomas tumors are most often seen in the third and fourth decades of occur as multilocular radiolucencies that have a characteris life. Lesions exhibit slow growth and bone expansion, or they tic soap bubble appearance (Figure 12-27). Radiographically, of these lesions consists of a rounded, radiolucent lesion in the giant cell tumor produces a radiolucent image. Less commonly, hemangio ence of numerous multinucleated giant cells dispersed mas appear as cystlike radiolucencies. The lesions may pro evenly among monocyte-macrophages and spindle cells duce resorption of the roots of teeth in the area. It has been proposed that the spindle cells represent the neoplastic cells in this tumor, and that the His to pathology monocyte-macrophages are reactive, giving rise to giant Hemangiomas of bone represent a proliferation of blood cells through recruitment and induction fac to rs. However, separa Stromal cellularity is usually prominent, with minimal tion of hemangiomas in to one of these two microscopic collagen production. Giant cells in giant cell tumors are usu subtypes is academic, because no diferences in biological ally larger and contain more nuclei than the corresponding behavior are noted. Signifcant variation is noted, however, such that any given lesion may present diagnostic difculty Diferential Diagnosis because of considerable his to logic overlap. Giant cell tumors The diferential diagnosis of multilocular hemangioma may contain infamma to ry cells and areas of necrosis while of bone includes ameloblas to ma, odon to genic myxoma, exhibiting a relative absence of hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition. Tese lesions exhibit a greater tendency to recur after treat ment than do giant cell granulomas. Although to o few cases have been reported in the jaws to predict recurrence rates, it is noteworthy that 30% of lesions in long bones recur after curettage. Hemangioma of Bone Hemangiomas of bone are rare intraosseous vascular mal • Figure 12-27 Hemangioma of bone showing honeycomb radio formations that, when seen in the jaws, can mimic both graphic pattern with associated root resorption. Note numerous vascular Hand-Schuller-Christian syndrome, or chronic disseminated channels surrounded by trabeculae of bone. Widespread organ, bone, and skin involve provides useful information in establishing the diagnosis of ment by the proliferative process in infants has been the com hemangioma. It is morphologically similar to normal Langerhans cells that imperative to perform needle aspiration of any central lesion reside in the epidermis and mucosa and share surface pro that may be of vascular origin before performing a biopsy. The vascular chronic forms are thought to represent a neoplastic trans supply of a given lesion, as well as its size and location, must be formation. A defciency of suppressor phenotypic characteristics of Langerhans cells, though the T cells, as well as low levels of serum thymic fac to r, suggests skin or mucosal Langerhans cell is not the cell of origin. Any age; three variants His to rically, the term histiocy to sis X was used to encom Radiograph shows punched-out noncorticated lesions or “foating pass three disorders: eosinophilic granuloma, Hand-Schuller teeth” Several treatment options Christian syndrome, and Letterer-Siwe disease (Box 12-11). Monos to tic and polyos to tic forms of the disorder may afect virtually any bone of the body. The skull, mandible, ribs, vertebrae, and long bones are often involved (Figure 12-29). Skin, mucosal, or bone involvement in the head and neck region was noted in more than 80% of children in one • Figure 12-31 Langerhans cell disease resulting in marked destruc tion of the mandible. Loosening of teeth in the area of the afected alveolar bone is a common occurrence. Bone lesions with a sharply circumscribed, sal lesions in the form of submucosal nodules, ulcers, and punched-out appearance may occur in the central aspect of leukoplakia have been described. Tese lesions occasionally are The jaws may exhibit solitary or multiple radiolucent located exclusively in a periapical site, where they may lesions (Figures 12-30 and 12-31). Jaw lesions may be alveolar bone, causing the teeth to appear as if they were accompanied by bone involvement elsewhere in the skele to n.