Metastatic deposits from tumours in other parts of the the prognosis of retinoblastoma anxiety workbook order 150mg bupron sr mastercard, if untreated anxiety united generic 150mg bupron sr overnight delivery, is always body are usually from primary malignancies of the breast depression quest review buy bupron sr 150mg overnight delivery, bad mood disorder episodes buy 150mg bupron sr overnight delivery, and the patient invariably dies. Success with chemore lung, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, prostate, thyroid duction for retinoblastoma, defned as avoidance of exter and testes and are most commonly located in the choroid, nal-beam radiation and enucleation, was 100% for group A, but can also be seen in the iris. The metastatic tumours 93% for group B, 90% for group C and 47% for group D in are, however, radiosensitive so they do respond to local the International Classifcation. Online multimedia database endorsed by the International Council of Ophthalmology. The David G Cogan Ophthalmic Pathology Collection: A tumours arise from the uveal tract or retina. Retinoblastoma study and teaching collection of clinical ophthalmic cases and their is the commonest intraocular malignancy in children pathology. Chapter 24 Injuries to the Eye Chapter Outline Chemical Injuries 383 Wounds of the Conjunctiva 393 Alkalis 383 Wounds of the Cornea and Sclera 393 Acids 384 Wounds of the Lens 393 Mechanical Injuries 384 Open Globe Penetrating Wounds with the Retention of Foreign Superfcial Foreign Bodies 385 Bodies 394 Closed Globe, Concussion or Contusion Injury 386 Mechanical Effects 394 Cornea 387 Infection 395 Sclera 388 Reaction of the Ocular Tissues to a Foreign Body 395 Iris and Ciliary Body 388 Diagnosis 396 Lens 389 Treatment 397 Vitreous 391 Sympathetic Ophthalmitis 397 Choroid 392 Aetiology 398 Retina 392 Pathology 398 Optic Nerve 392 Clinical Features 398 Intraocular Pressure 392 Treatment 398 Open Globe Penetrating Injuries 392 the eye is protected from direct injury by the lids, eye Immediately after the accident there is intense conjuncti lashes and the projecting margins of the orbit. Nevertheless, vitis and chemosis, but the cornea often looks clear, and it is therefore diffcult to ascertain the severity of the injury. Prognosis should therefore be guarded, care being taken Alkalis to impress upon the patient the gravity of the injury and Injuries by caustics such as lime usually occur from fresh the necessity for supervision. In the worst cases, the cornea mortar or whitewash entering the eye or from laboratory is dull or opaque. The cell membranes, destroying collagen and proteoglycans in corneal changes should be treated as an ulcer. These may cause considerable damage to the lime burns the entire cornea may be destroyed, perforation eye because they penetrate and cause necrosis of the sur takes place and the eye shrinks. In less severe cases a por face epithelium in a few seconds with occlusion of the celain-like, dense, vascularized leucoma forms and sight limbal vasculature. The chief danger resulting from the condition of of the anterior segment, corneal opacifcation and melting, the conjunctiva is damage to the ocular surface, with severe cataract and symblepharon. It is most ide are particularly harmful, as they cause necrosis of the likely to occur in the lower lid where the lower fornix is cornea. Corticosteroids are potent agents in reducing the in fammatory reaction and prevent the formation of exces sive granulation tissue, which determines the development of symblepharon. They can be used topically as drops or ointment for the frst 10 days, together with acetazol amide tablets to lower the intraocular pressure. Thereafter, steroids are stopped as they impair healing and may pre cipitate corneal melting. Ascorbic acid and tetracyclines are given topically and systemically to enhance collagen formation. To inhibit collagenolysis and stromal damage, 10% sodium citrate, 5% N-acetylcysteine or 1% medroxy progesterone eye drops are useful adjuncts. Ischaemia can be seen in the inferior 180° of the limbus and the cornea appears hazy. The ftting of a contact lens sepa Chemical Burns rates the two mucosal surfaces and prevents their adhesion. Epithelial Perilimbal Revascularization of the limbus and re-epithelialization Grade Damage Stroma Ischaemia Prognosis of the ocular surface can be stimulated by a limbal cell transplant or amniotic membrane graft. They should also be treated by copious irriga tion with normal saline or any clean fuid at hand. Limbal Trauma Classifcation Group has attempted to develop a ischaemia leads to severe damage of the limbal stem cells. Open-globe—full-thickness defects in the corneoscleral coat of the eye; and In injury caused by caustics the excess of deleterious mate 2. Closed-globe—ocular injury without a full-thickness rial must be removed at the earliest by a copious and im defect of the coats. An intravenous infu sion line is useful in directing a steady, controlled fow of A number of types of injury are included in each cate saline onto the ocular surface. All fornices should be washed gory, which may occur alone or in various combinations and irrigation continued till the pH returns to normal or for (see Flowchart 24. There should be no delay in in these categories, from the anterior segment backwards, and stituting therapy and, if saline is not immediately available, the injury is further graded with regard to visual acuity and the eye should be copiously irrigated at once with water. The wing cases of insects and husks of inside-to-outside break in the ocular coats. Open-globe seeds may adhere to the cornea by their concave surfaces, injuries may also be caused by sharp objects. Larger particles of steel the coats only once, or a perforating injury (earlier known or, less commonly, stone, glass, etc. If not Closed-globe injuries generally follow blunt trauma removed they expose the cornea to the dangers of infection and are then known as contusion or concussional injuries. The ulcer thus formed may heal, but if Lamellar laceration, as the name implies, refers to a virulent organisms are present a spreading ulcer, with or partial-thickness injury of the coats. Superfcial Foreign Bodies Foreign bodies, which are usually small particles of dust, emery, steel, etc. The foreign body sticks to the palpebral conjunctiva and is liable to be dragged across the cornea, which it excoriates. It may be washed by tears towards the inner canthus, and then into the nasal duct; more frequently, it becomes lodged at about the middle of the upper sulcus subtarsalis where it is most likely to irritate the cornea, or in the upper fornix, or it may occasionally become embed ded in the bulbar conjunctiva. Apart from the use of fuorescein will nearly always reveal the position endangering the sight of the worker, there is great economic of a foreign body. In case of doubt, the eye should be anaes loss due to expenditure of time and compensation. In addi thetized and the cornea thoroughly examined under oblique tion to banning tools with overhanging edges, ftting of illumination with a slit-lamp. The nature, position and guards on machines for grinding and other available depth of an embedded foreign body can be estimated by the preventive measures, such accidents can be entirely pre length of the shadow which it casts, using a slit-lamp. Every attempt Treatment should be made to protect the eye by educative notices and Foreign bodies must be removed as soon as possible. The particle will generally be found in the sulcus subtarsalis and can be Mode of Injuries occurring during blunt trauma to the removed in the same manner. Injuries by blunt objects tiva, it should be removed by a foreign body spud or vary in severity from a simple corneal abrasion to rupture fne forceps under topical anaesthesia. Moreover, in some cases, the magnifcation using the slit-lamp or operating microscope. An attempt Mechanism of blunt trauma eye: As a general rule, may frst be made to remove the foreign body by dislodging either the anterior segment of the eye in front of the it with a sterilized spud. If repeated efforts fail a disposable iris–lens diaphragm, or the posterior half, is preferentially hypodermic (26 or 27 gauge) needle should be used. When a force im greatest care should be taken not to scrape the epithelium pinges upon the cornea this tissue is thrust inwards and more than is absolutely necessary. Emery, steel and iron may even be forced against the lens and iris; the wave of particles leave behind a little ring of brown stain, which aqueous pushes these structures backwards and as the com should be scraped off if possible without too much trauma. Special attention wave of pressure striking the retina and choroid as well as should be paid to particles of stone, which show a greater tendency than metal to cause infective ulceration, probably because metallic particles are often hot and therefore sterile when they enter the eye. Occasionally, sharp steel and other particles penetrate deep into the cornea without perforating it. The efforts made to remove them may push them in still deeper or even into the anterior chamber. If the particle is magnetizable, magnetic removal should be tried, but it is usually necessary to incise the cornea overlying the foreign body. If the foreign body escapes into the ante rior chamber it must be removed by other methods. Chapter | 24 Injuries to the Eye 387 the angle of the anterior chamber, which may do consider examination. Antibiotic drops should glaucoma, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage, retinal detach be used to prevent infections. Recurrent Erosion (Recurrent Traumatic Keratalgia) this may occur spontaneously but is particularly liable to Cornea happen after scratches especially with babies’ fngernails. The cornea may suffer an abrasion, deep opacities may the abrasion, however produced, usually heals quickly, but develop, or partial or complete rupture may occur.
Complications with glycolic peels are very Salicylic acid has been formulated in a hy rare depression full definition discount bupron sr 150mg on line. Status post third salicylic acid peel and 30% for use as a superficial peeling agent  depression symptoms major purchase 150 mg bupron sr visa. It is a lipophilic agent depression joint definition bupron sr 150mg amex,which produces des quamation of the upper lipophilic layers of the stratum corneum  mood disorder home remedy cheap 150 mg bupron sr mastercard. Salicylic acid peels are the preferred therapy for comedonal acne as it is lipophilic and concentrates in the piloseba ceous apparatus. It is effective as adjunctive treatment for open and closed comedones and at resolving postacne erythema and hyperpig mentation . Because it is a lipid-soluble co medolytic, salicylic acid acts by decreasing cor neocyte cohesion at the follicular opening and assists in comedone plug extrusion [35, 36]. Status post eight salicylic acid peel As with all superficial peeling agents, prior the majority of patients tolerate this proce to applying the wounding agent, the face is dure without side effects. Side effects,which are cleansed with alcohol or acetone-soaked seen, include transient dryness and hyperpig sponges. Then the salicylic acid agent (20% or mentation, which resolve within 1–2 weeks; and 30% in a hydroethanolic solution) is applied to temporary superficial crusting (Fig. Salicylism ing with an intensity that is greater than that of has not been seen as a side effect postpeel since 70% glycolic acid, but this ceases rapidly. In addition,Kligman burning will cease within a couple of minutes tested serum levels of subjects after peeling, . The agent should be applied to cosmetic and the concentrations were far below levels of units of the face in any order. Uniformity of ap salicylate toxicity and were below anti-inflam plication is easily observed as a white precipi matory levels . Of note,more peeling is seen tate of salicylic acid is seen in the areas where in areas of prepeel inflammation. Then the face is washed usually begins 2 days postpeel and can extend with water or a mild cleanser. This agent causes sig hydroethanolic vehicle has volatilized leaving a nificantly more desquamation than glycolic ac white precipitate of salicylic acid on the surface id peels . The efficacy of salicylic acid peels of the skin,there is very little penetration of the is directly correlated to the degree of desqua active agent. Postoperative day 3 salicylic acid peel with epidermal necrosis avoidance of excessive sun exposure, and the Prior to applying the wounding agent, the daily application of a moisturizer. Then Jessner’s solution is applied to the skin with 2”2” gauze or a sable brush, which produces erythema and a very light frost within 4. The depth of Jessner’s peel is a solution that combines resor penetration of the peeling agent is related to the cinol (14 g), salicylic acid (14 g), 85% lactic acid number of coats applied. Chemexfoliation and Superficial Skin Resurfacing Chapter 4 65 neum hydration . Treatment use of sunscreen,avoidance of excessive sun ex intervals between applications of this superfi posure, and the daily application of a moistu cial chemical peeling agent are generally within rizer. Scarring in the absence of order to optimize the rejuvenating effects of supervening infection is highly unlikely . To avoid skip is applied to the face with short, gentle strokes areas and to ensure an even application of acid, using only light pressure. Proceeding clockwise some manufacturers add sodium fluorescein to or counterclockwise is according to preference, the solutions, rendering the preparation visible but returning to an already painted area must under a Wood’s lamp. This technique helps to occur before 2 min have passed to allow the ac detect skip areas and avoids overcoating . Of note, topical mended waiting period before repeating a blue anesthetics should be avoided because they can peel is 6–8 weeks, and two to three blue peels increase peel depth by increasing stratum cor may be required for maximum benefit . It is a ical modality for peeling and not a true chemi stable agent (shelf life greater than 6 months) cal peeling agent. The dry ice is wrapped in a that is not light sensitive and requires no refrig small hand towel and dipped, as needed, in a eration. Jessner’s solution is composed of 14% i Primary effects on papillary dermis lactic acid/14% resorcinol/14 g salicylic acid in 100 ml of ethanol. Following the chem ical peel, the process of wound healing is re Medium-depth peels by definition are chemical sponsible for the smoothening and tightening peeling agents used to exert a controlled injury effect on the skin. The pro In the immediate postprocedure phase, in totypical medium-depth peeling agent, 50% flammation and coagulation are present. Scarring and granulation tissue production, and probable fi postpeel dyschromias are possible sequelae of broblast growth. Although Collagen remodeling ensues,a process that may comparative data is not yet available, pyruvic take 3–4 months after a medium-depth chemi acid is a new addition to the medium-depth cal peel . Histologic studies taken 3 months chemical peel armamentarium showing many following a medium-depth peel demonstrate of the same clinical benefits as the traditional an increased grenz zone, parallel aggregates of medium-depth peeling agents . The combi new collagen, mucin deposition, and activated nation peels can achieve the same depth of pen fibroblast . Chemexfoliation and Superficial Skin Resurfacing Chapter 4 67 Other less popular chemicals used to achieve 4. Pyruvic acid at for the treatment of superficial epidermal le concentrations of 40–70% is a potent peeling sions, lentigines, actinic keratosis, pigmentary agent. It physiologically converts to lactic acid, dyschromias, textural irregularities due to acne and with a pKa of 2. Use of this agent has lead to increased pro cal peel is also used as an adjunct to laser resur duction of collagen, elastin, and glycoproteins facing or deep chemical peels,to blend the lines . The depth of penetration of a phenol peel, of demarcation between treated and untreated as a photocoagulant, has an inverse relation skin. A phenol peel at tal and perioral rhytids, the deeper penetration 88% causes a barrier to be formed by precipi of laser may be indicated for improvement, but tated epidermal proteins, which subsequently medium-depth peels may be sufficient for the protects against deep dermal penetration . Additionally, fewer warts, and facial skin aging are among the con drops of the vesicant croton oil limit the pene ditions treated successfully by the pyruvic acid tration by decreasing the epidermolytic or dry peel . Patients with mild to moderate the end points for the blue peel can be gauged facial rhytids and minimal pigmentary distur by the appearance of the skin following its ap bances achieve the best outcomes with medi plication. The Glogau classification is characterized by an even blue appearance system for photoaged skin can be quite useful without evidence of a sustained frost. The phy when deciding the appropriate peel type and sician assumes that the papillary dermis has depth for a particular patient (Table 4. Penetration to the skin types, medium-depth chemical peels are immediate reticular dermis is confirmed when now being safely and successfully performed in the pink background to the frost lessens or dis these patients with some pre and posttreat appears completely, giving way to a solid white ment precautions. This is the maximum depth recommend applied safely to isolated lesions, full-face, me for the blue peel on facial skin . The wait 4 Regimen following isotretinoin therapy can be anywhere from 12 to 24 months. Retinoic acid, hydroquinone, glycolic acid, or lactic acid and sunscreens are among the prod ucts used in the pre and posttreatment phase 4. Their effects of the Wounding Agent on corneocyte adhesion, the stratum corneum and melanin production help ensure even ab Before application of the peeling agent,patients sorption of the peel and reduce postoperative are usually given a short, active sedative. In addition, the use of oral Valium 5–10 mg) and a mild analgesia (meperi prophylaxis for herpes simplex before the peel dine and hydroxyzine hydrochloride). Fre and throughout the period of re-epithelializa quently, aspirin is given before the peel and tion has become the standard, even in patients continued throughout the first 24 h, not only to without a known history of herpetic infection. The Although some degree of variation in clinical area to be peeled is cleansed vigorously with an management between cosmetic surgeons ex antiseptic cleanser using a 4 by 4 gauze pad, ists, the basic treatment protocol is similar. Once frosting is achieved, the Jessner’s so from 2 to 12 weeks prior to the procedure. As can be influenced at this stage by the method of mentioned earlier,retinoic acid also speeds epi application. Using large cotton-tipped applica dermal healing and independently has a pro tors allows for more solution application and, nounced effect on collagenesis . Repeat rubbing with 4 hydroquinone interferes with tyrosinase, the inch by 4-inch gauze or the application of mul enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyro tiple layers are two techniques for enhancing sine to L-dopa (a melanin precursor) , the penetration. This is particu ceases upon complete frosting, which is notice larly important in darker skin types (Fitzpa able at 30 s to 2 min. Judicious the day of the peel, most patients are ad placement of the peeling agent to eyelids and vised to start antiviral prophylaxis (some are lips in imperative, and having an assistant to Chemexfoliation and Superficial Skin Resurfacing Chapter 4 69 protect the ocular canthi and stretch the skin need to be timed, and with longer duration of over the lip along the vermillion is essential. Frosting represents high patient satisfaction and low rate of com keratocoagulation and may take several differ plications in a series of 3,100 patients treated ent forms as defined by Rubin (see below). Level 2 frosting refers to the entire body, but because it can be used on skin that is frosted but with background pink most parts of the body.
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Tube Tympanic Cavity the examination instructions that follow this section use the Welch Allyn otoscope juvenile depression test purchase 150mg bupron sr with mastercard, which incorporates many features that aid Stapes in achieving an accurate depression definition signs and symptoms buy bupron sr without a prescription, thorough examination anxiety 5 point scale order bupron sr with visa. Welch Allyn’s traditional diagnostic is fastened securely and patient’s ear canal mood disorder for children buy bupron sr with a mastercard. Apply Adults 4 mm or 5 mm light transmission provides a 360 ring of light without visual positive and negative air pressure Traditional obstruction or specular reflection. This distal light results in and view tympanic membrane Children 3 mm or 4 mm Otoscope glare-free viewing and an easier examination. A focusing wheel, conveniently located on each side of the otoscope and the back eyepiece, is available to the the first type of speculum is reusable and made of lightweight, durable practitioner for adjusting the focal length. KleenSpec tips are made of nontoxic When examining tympanic membrane mobility, the plastic and are available in two sizes: 2. The third type of speculum, available for traditional Welch Allyn otoscopes, is SofSpec. SofSpec fits snugly into the the Welch Allyn MacroView otoscope features external ear canal. These specula are available in three sizes: 3 mm, 5 mm, a unique specula attachment and removal design, and 7 mm and may be cleaned or sterilized by conventional methods. After the examination is complete, the tip can be released from the otoscope For improved seal and comfort during pneumatic otoscopy, the by turning the TipGrip counterclockwise or by simply twisting off the tip SofSeal™ can be placed on the end of either a disposable or reusable with one hand, as is the technique with traditional otoscope models. The first way is to hold the otoscope like a hammer by gripping the top of the power handle between your thumb and forefinger, close to the light source. You can conveniently hold the bulb of the pneumatic attachment between the palm of the same hand and the power handle. It is recommended that you extend the middle and ring finger outward so they come into contact with the person’s cheek. This way, any sudden flinch by the patient will not cause the otoscope to be jammed into the ear canal. The otoscope can also be held like a pencil, between the thumb and the forefinger, with the ulnar aspect of the hand resting firmly but gently against the patient’s cheek. If the patient turns or moves, the otoscope will move in unison with the patient’s head. It is very important that the otoscope be held correctly, particularly when examining children. A sudden movement by the patient could cause the skin on the inside of the ear canal to be pierced by the end of the speculum. It may be necessary to adjust the line of sight and the position of the speculum to get a complete view of the entire ear canal and all areas of the tympanic membrane. If the tympanic membrane or desired area in view is not in focus, the practitioner has the option to adjust the focal length of the optics system of the MacroView otoscope. Gently palpate the pinna to either side of the focusing wheel or on the back eyepiece of the otoscope. To shorten the focal length or zoom in, rotate the focusing wheel towards the smaller dashes on the side of the otoscope. Inspect the entrance to the ear canal for debris or pus, which might interfere or zoom out, rotate the focusing wheel towards the longer dashes. Choose the largest speculum that can comfortably be inserted into the ear removed from the otoscope. TipGrip feature (MacroView only) by rotating the TipGrip counter For adults, this is accomplished by retracting the pinna upwards and backwards. For children, this is accomplished by retracting the pinna horizontally backwards. The handle of the malleus is seen extending downwards and backwards, ending at the apex of the It is the pneumatic capability and insufflator attach triangular “cone of reflected light. Gently squeezing the insufflator attachment produces small changes in the air pressure of the canal. By observing the relative movements of the tympanic membrane in response to the induced changes in pressure, the practitioner can obtain valuable diagnostic information about the mobility of the tympanic membrane. The pneumatic otoscope may the introduction of a speculum into the external auditory canal also be useful in distinguishing between a thin atrophic intact may cause a reflex dilatation of the circumferential and manubrial tympanic membrane adherent to the medial wall of the middle blood vessels supplying the tympanic membrane. This procedure provides a simple method for Following a prolonged examination of the ear or in a crying child, determining tympanic membrane mobility and is of value in this vasodilatation may produce an appearance mimicking that of the recognition of many middle ear disorders. Exostoses in the ear canal are more often multiple than single and are usually bilateral. They are usually asymptomatic, extremely slow growing and seldom enlarge sufficiently to occlude the meatus. Multiple exostoses appear to result from the prolonged stimulation of the bony external canal with cold water and are consequently seen more commonly in persons who swim frequently. In this case, a large piece of sponge rubber was cream colored, thickish debris which may have a fluffy appear removed. In adults, a forgotten piece of cotton wool is frequently ance due to the presence of tiny mycelia. The foreign body or an unsuccessful attempt to remove caused by Aspergillus niger, it may be possible to identify the tiny it can both product secondary otitis externa or damage to the grayish-black conidiophores. In young children, it is sometimes is often inflamed and granular from invasion by fungal mycelia. In the early stages of acute otitis media, the tympanic the skin of the ear canal is painful, infected and swollen, and it membrane varies according to the stage of the disease. There is tympanic membrane is retracted and pink with dilatation of the often a considerable amount of keratin debris in the canal which manubrial and circumferential vessels. Gram negative gresses, the tympanic membrane bulges, becoming fiery red and anaerobic bacteria are the most common pathogens; however, in color and may eventually perforate, releasing pus into the a culture of material should be a clinical consideration. The handle Keratosis obturans is more frequently seen in patients with of the malleus is usually foreshortened, chalky-white in color, and bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis. The presence of a thin, serous extremely difficult because of its consistency and its frequent effusion within the middle ear gives the tympanic membrane a adherence to the underlying canal skin; a general anesthetic yellowish or even bluish appearance, and in cases of incomplete may be required in some patients. Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Coliforms are in the tympanic membrane with its lumen patent and free of any the three most commonly isolated bacteria; however, fungal exudate or debris. They occur as a Perforations of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane can result of a postinflammatory deposition of thickened hyalinized result from infection or trauma. In this case the large central collagen fibrils in the middle fibrous layer of the tympanic perforation resulted from repeated middle ear infections. This photograph shows tympanosclerotic deposits transparent pseudomembrane resembling an open perforation enveloping the incudostapedial joint. This thinned segment of a ossicular chain by tympanosclerosis is responsible for some healed tympanic membrane lacks the strength of a normal drum cases of acquired conductive hearing loss. In this case, a thin atrophic tympanic membrane washing is a proven method to remove cerumen, and is one of the most commonly is draped over the head of the stapes and the tip of the long performed procedures in the primary care office. It can sometimes be provides an effective device using suction and irrigation to remove cerumen from difficult to differentiate an atrophic, immobile, retracted tympanic patients of all ages. This easy-to-use system allows for cleaner and safer irrigation membrane from a large central perforation. Tympanometric results can indicate otitis media with effusion, perforated tympanic membrane, patent tympanostomy tube, ossicular disruption, tympanosclerosis, cholesteatoma, as well as other middle ear disorders. An audiometer is an electronic instrument for generating sounds that can be used to measure an individual’s hearing sensitivity. Audiometric measurement of auditory function can determine the degree of hearing loss, estimate the location of the lesion within the auditory system that is producing the problem, and help establish the cause of the hearing problem. With this instrument, the practitioner can obtain the within a postero-superior perforation indicates the presence of precise threshold of patients’ hearing to better identify specific patterns of hearing loss. Serious intracranial complications may result from the expansion and erosion of the Otoacoustic emissions is a response generated by structures (outer hair cells) in the cholesteatoma sac. The patient is asked to look at the fixation target (a flashlight should never be used as a fixation target because it fails to control accommodation—an accommodative fixation tar get held at 33 cm is used for near and the Snellen 6/9 visual acuity symbol is used for distance fixation). The apparently fixating eye is then covered and the behav ior of the uncovered eye is noted. If there is no movement of the uncovered eye, that eye is then covered and the other eye observed. The findings vary depending on the diagnosis: In a person with normal vision, covering either eye will not produce any move ment of the other eye. On removing the occluder, there is no movement of the uncovered eye, which continues to look straight ahead. On uncovering, it will move in the opposite direction to rees tablish binocular fixation.