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As a cycle of 260 days qivana sleep aid purchase sominex online, the 13 x 20 timing matrix is the fourth-dimensional the Nineteen Code insomnia hormones cheap 25 mg sominex visa. Known by the traditional and ancient Maya as the Tzolkin or "sacred count insomnia zoloft cheap sominex 25mg fast delivery," the 13 x 20 gauge or Harmonic Module is the key to vantage sleep aid 50mg buy sominex now the mathematics of the fourth dimension, or the "Hereafter. Thirteen, which is a function of the 7 factor, is the proportion that complements the 0-19 vigesimal proportion of 20. Hence the Tzolkin consists of twenty horizontal orders and thir teen vertical orders = 260 kin, which are also arranged in twenty sets of thirteen-kin wavespells, all numbered 1-13 in dot-bar notation. All of the kin in the 260-unit matrix are also individually numbered: kin 1, kin 2. Within the 13:20 order of260 kin, 13 sets of20 or 20 sets of 13, only two of the numbers in the vigesimal code 0-19 occur thirteen times: the number 19 and the number 20 (= positional zero). While 20 occurs precisely thirteen times, 19 occurs thirteen times with a remainder of thirteen (13 x 19 = 247 = 260 13). The position and notational order of the thirteen occurrences of the number 19 in the 260-unit Tzolkin create a perfect strand of thirteen units. This 19 x 13 (19 = 260) strand demonstrates the supreme invariability and inviolability of the number 19 in the vigesimal code of fourth-dimensional time. The purity of the movement of the 13 x 19 strand of the Tzolkin is further augmented by the vigesimal or 20-count manner of writing numbers. Even as trans literated into the Arabic system of writing numbers, it will be seen that in the vigesimal code every multiple of 19 always adds up to 19, a similar power held by all multiples of 9 in the decimal code. In vigesimal notation, the second order units are always multiples of 20 and not 10. Finally, while the sequence 1-13 defines the thirteen galactic tones of fourth dimensional time, the 0-19 matrix is represented by twenty icons and a four-color (4 x 5 = 20) permutation sequence. The combination of color, icon, and tone gives each of the 260 kin a "galactic signature. We now present the thirteen multiples of 19 as defined by the 13 x 19 strand running from lower left to upper right in a perfect cross-stitch sequence that reverses the horizontal order of the 0-19 code frequencies. In other words, the first order represented is the order of (1 x 19) 19 (frequency 19, icon Storm), and the last is the 236. The Nineteen Code order of (13 x 19) 7 (frequency 7, icon Hand), showing again the intimate relation between 19, 13,6, 7, and 20, the key integers of the codes of fourth-dimensional time. Khalifa, probability analysis of mathematical con stituents based on the assumption that certain numbers will be self-verifying, we start our program with the six suras that are multiples of nineteen: Sura 19 "Maryam" 98 verses Sura 38 "Saad" 88 verses Sura 57 "Iron" 29 verses Sura 76 "The Human" 31 verses Sura 95 "The Fig" 8 verses Sura 114 "People" 6 verses =399, total of sura numbers =260 verses in six suras that are multiples of nineteen. The unique qualities of this most unique of multiples of 19 also indicates why the Quran consists of exactly six times nineteen suras. Six is the differ ence between the Quranic 19 and 13, the prime number of the Law of Time. This is incontro vertible evidence for the formulation 19 = 260, and substantiates the mathematical patterning of the Quran to include the principle factor of the Law of Time, 260 (= 13 x 20). Khalifa added the verses of these same suras and may have been perplexed at the meaning of the resultant number, 260. Khalifa did not know that 260 is the sum factor of the two proportions that create the natural timing frequency, 13:20. It is also interesting that discovery of the 13:20 timing frequency, December 10, 1989, was made at almost the precise moment as Dr. Khalifa had completed the introduction to the Pinal Testament, the summation of his research on the Quranic nineteen code, Ramadan 26, 1409 (December, 1989). The Nineteen Code movement of the Divine Will in establishing the mathematical proof of the Quran. Khalifa was terminated within a month of his completing the Final Testament, so the Law of Time, which would substantiate and vindicate the Quranic nineteen code, was ordained and propelled into its process of manifestation at exactly the same moment. Just as there are six suras that are multiples of 19 within the Holy Quran, so the key factor of the Law of Time, the number 260, is coded into the sum of the verses of these six suras. The door is opened for entirely new comprehension of the meaning and purpose of the Holy Quran. The Law of Time and the Holy Quran in mutual resonance will establish the proof of the advent and triumph of the Religion of Truth. For the prophetic tradition of the Chilam Balam, see the Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel, edited and translated by Ralph L. However, as it is written in the Quran, "In truth we are always sending messengers. In my case, I have been able to trace back the prophetic lineage of the Chilam Balam to Pacal Votan, from whom I have received direct transmission. Terma, or "hidden treasure," is left by a sage or prophet to be "discovered" at a precise moment much later in time by one designated to do so. See Tulku Thondup Rinpoche, Hidden Teachingsof Tibet:An Explanation of the Terma Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1997). Rashad Khalifa (1935-1990), whose groundbreaking translation and research of the Quran through the aid of the computer led to the discov ery of the intricate nineteen-based mathematical code that underlies this unique text. His work is summarized in his translation of the Quran with its numerous appendices, Quran: the Final Testament(Fremont: Universal Unity, 1992). My own studies on this topic have resulted in two works: PacalTfJtIlnandJudgement Day (portland, Oreg. John ofPatmos, "Book of Revelation," Chapter 18, "The Fall of Babylon," verses 10, 16-17, 19-20, the Holy Bible, New International Version(Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible Publishers, 1989), 1419-20. Jose ArgUelles, the Call ofPacal Votan:Time is the Fourth Dimension (Glasgow: Altaea, 1996), 37. Laptev, the Planet of Reason:A SociologicalStudy of the Man-Nature Relationship (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1973; English translation, 1977),220. Vernadsky, the Biosphere(1926), abridged version (Oracle, Arizona and London: Synergetics Press, 1986), 22. Vernadsky, "Some Words about the Noosphere" (1944), quoted in Andrey Lapo, Tracesof Bygone Biospheres(Moscow and London: Mir Publishers and Synergetic Press, 1987),69. Tango Snyder, editor in chief, the BiosphereCatalogue (London and Forth Worth: Synergetic Press, 1985), 103. Vernadsky, "Scientific Thought as a Planetary Phenomenon," quoted in Lapo, Tracesof Bygone Biospheres,73-74. Maria Maroushkina, "Is a Path Beyond Technology Possible for the Western Cul ture? Dogen, "The Time Being," from Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen, edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi (New York: North Point Press, 1985), 76-77. Kozyrev, "Possibility of Experimental Properties of Time," unpublished paper, 1967, 35. Kaznacheev, "The General Pathology: Consciousness and Physics," Novosibirsk: Russian Academy of Medical Science, unpublished paper, 2000, 28. Christos Koneatis, the History of the World-A 6,000 Year Chronicleof Time (London: Christos Koneatis, 1997), no pagination. Jose and Lloydine Argiielles, Dreamspell: the Journey of Timeship Earth 2013, (Hong Kong: Interlink Productions, 1991), 35. Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by Caravan of Dreams Theater, quoted in the Biosphere Catalogue, 116. See Jose Argiielles, the Transformative Vision: Reflections on the Nature and History of Human Expression (Berkeley: Shambhala Publications, 1975),249. Jim Hoagland, "The Faithful Come and Wars Erupt Worldwide," the Oregonian, December 24,2001, p. All numera tion refers to sura number and verse, which are henceforth indicated in parentheses following the quote. See Broughton Richmond, Time Measurement and Calendar Construction (Lei den, Netherlands: J. Alexander Philip, Reform of the Calendar (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the Phenomenon of Man (New York: Harper & Row, 1955),288 2.

Isolation can differentiate viable virus from nonviable viral antigen or nucleic acid insomnia journals buy sominex 25mg without a prescription. Technical expertise is needed in evaluating cell culture monolayers microscopically insomnia by faithless buy sominex 25mg with visa. Many viruses of clinical importance cannot be cultivated in routine cell cultures insomnia funny order sominex visa. Thus sleep aid light bulb cheap 25mg sominex amex, the application of centrifugation cultures to rapid diagnosis in the clinical laboratory constituted a signi? Although the mechanism remains unclear, low-speed centrifugation of monolayers enhances the infectivity of viruses as well as Chlamydia (34). When the inoculum is standardized, semiquantitative results can be obtained by counting the number of virus-positive cells (44). However, labor savings accrue since negative cultures are usually terminated and reported at two days for shell vial cultures, compared to 7 to 14 days for conventional cultures (Table 4) (45). To facilitate high volume testing, centrifugation cultures can be performed using 24 or 48-well tissue cul ture plates, instead of individual shell vials. In general, the use of young cell cultures and inoculation of multiple shell vials enhances the recovery rate (48,49). In contrast, conventional isolation using a spectrum of cell cultures can detect a variety of virus types, including the unexpected (50). When optimal recovery is needed, both conventional culture and centrifugation cultures should be performed in parallel (41,51?53). Mixed Cell Cultures and Monoclonal Antibody Pools To apply shell vial cultures to the detection of the spectrum of viruses potentially present in a clinical sample requires multiple cell lines and antibodies. Consequently, some laboratories have eliminated conventional cell culture tubes and converted to shell vials with mixed cells (59). There are a variety of mixed cell cultures to choose from, according to the viruses sought (Table 5). The protocols for inoculation, incubation, and staining for commercially obtained mixed cell cultures are generally those recommended by the supplier and modi? If the screening reagent is positive, the eight-well slide is then stained with individual antibodies to identify the unknown virus. Alternatively, the second shell vial can be stained with the screening reagent in situ and if positive, the third shell vial used to prepare an eight-well slide for identi? Samples that contain high titers of virus, such as stools, are generally positive by day two, but up to? Genetic elements derived from viral, bacterial, or cellular sources can be introduced into a cell for a different approach. When the target virus enters the cell, the viral replication cycle triggers the production of a measurable enzyme. The application of a simple histochemical assay results in infected cells staining a characteristic color. Even untrained observers can recognize infected cells stained in the inducible system and the earliest stages of infection can be detected. In the process of shipment, the cultures may be stressed by extremes in temperature, mishandled as they are packed, stacked, and loaded, or compromised by delays in delivery due to bad weather, holiday closures, and many other uncontrollable circumstances (79). In addition, laboratories must determine the number of cell cultures needed in advance. If there is an unexpected surge in demand, such as an outbreak of a viral illness in the hospital or community, the laboratory may not have suf? These can be stored frozen for up to six months from the date of shipment and prepared for use when there is a need for additional cell cultures or for a type of cell culture that is not routinely kept on hand in the laboratory. These vials are ready to be inoculated with clinical samples after thawing for four minutes in a 35? When samples are shipped a distance or are mishandled, virus may lose viability, leading to falsely negative results. The advantages culture offers include detection of a broad spectrum of viruses at lower cost than similar detection by molecular assays, greater sensitivity and speci? With sensitive molecular assays, clinically irrelevant infections can be detected and lead to unnecessary treat ment. Detection of infectious virus in culture may have a better predictive value for clinical disease, and is used by some physicians as a test of cure. Recent cell culture innovations have shortened turnaround times to one to two days in most cases, and signi? Since most hospitals still have limited in-house molecular diagnostic capability, the time to result with rapid culture can be faster than molecular methods that are not performed daily or are sent to a distant reference laboratory. However, a variety of cell culture methods are now available to choose from, and culture remains essential for validating rapid methods and for patient management, especially when performed on-site in hospital laboratories. Jennerian prophylaxis by means of intradermal injections of culture vaccine virus. Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues. Cytopathogenic effect of poliomyelitis viruses in vitro on human embryonic tissues. Physical and chemical methods for enhancing rapid detection of viruses and other agents. Update: Chikungunya fever diagnosed among interna tional travelers?United States, 2006. Transmission of monkeypox among persons exposed to infected prairie dogs in Indiana in 2003, 2007. Latent virus infections in primate tissues with special reference to simian viruses. Development of serum-free media for cell growth and production of viruses/viral vaccines?safety issues of animal products used in serum-free media. A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Cytomegalovirus infectivity: Analysis of the phenomenon of centrifugal enhancement of infectivity. Use of murine monoclonal antibodies for laboratory diag nosis of varicella-zoster virus infection. Rapid shell vial culture technique for detection of enteroviruses and ade noviruses in fecal specimens: comparison with conventional virus isolation method. Isolation of seven respiratory viruses in shell vials: a practical and highly sensitive method. Comparison of multiple shell vial cell lines for isolation of enteroviruses: a national perspective. Detection of cytomegalovirus infections in specimens other than urine by shell vial assay and conventional tube cell cultures. Monoclonal antibody for rapid laboratory detection of cytomegalovirus infections: characterization and diagnostic application. Evaluation of number of shell vial cultures per clinical specimen for rapid diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection. Effect of age of shelf vial monolayers on detection of cytomegalovirus from urine specimens. Routine viral culture for pediatric respiratory specimens submitted for direct immuno? Rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections by using a shell vial assay and monoclonal antibody pool. Simultaneous detection of and differentiation between herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster viruses with two? Laboratory diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in 24 hours by utilizing shell vial cultures. Simultaneous culture for adenovirus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in same shell vial by using three-color? Evaluation of R-mix fresh cells in shell vials for detection of respiratory viruses. R-mix cells are faster, at least as sensitive and marginally more costly than conventional cell lines for the detection of respiratory viruses. Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus infections for directed antiviral treatment using R-mix cultures. Evaluation of R-mix shell vials for the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections.

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Physical examination will usually show an increased pulse and conjunctival injection sleep aid breastfeeding sominex 25mg with mastercard. Comorbidity Cannabis has been commonly thought of as a "gateway" drug because individuals who frequently use cannabis have a much greater lifetime probability than nonusers of using what are commonly considered more dangerous substances insomniax clothing trusted sominex 25 mg, like opioids or cocaine insomnia 33rd st discount sominex online mastercard. Can? nabis use and cannabis use disorder are highly comorbid with other substance use disor? ders insomnia lan kwai fong buy sominex us. Cannabis use has been associated with poorer life satisfaction; increased mental health treatment and hospitalization; and higher rates of depression, anxiety disorders, suicide attempts, and conduct disorder. Individuals with past-year or lifetime cannabis use disorder have high rates of alcohol use disorder (greater than 50%) and tobacco use disorder (53%). Rates of other substance use disorders are also likely to be high among individuals with cannabis use disorder. Among those seeking treatment for a cannabis use disorder, 74% report problematic use of a secondary or tertiary substance: alcohol (40%), cocaine (12%), meth amphetamine (6%), and heroin or other opiates (2%). Among those younger than 18 years, 61% reported problematic use of a secondary substance: alcohol (48%), cocaine (4%), meth amphetamine (2%), and heroin or other opiates (2%). Cannabis use disorder is also often observed as a secondary problem among those with a primary diagnosis of other substance use disorders, with approximately 25%-80% of those in treatment for another substance use disorder reporting use of cannabis. Individuals with past-year or lifetime diagnoses of cannabis use disorder also have high rates of concurrent mental disorders other than substance use disorders. Major de? pressive disorder (11%), any anxiety disorder (24%), and bipolar I disorder (13%) are quite common among individuals with a past-year diagnosis of a cannabis use disorder, as are antisocial (30%), obsessive-compulsive, (19%), and paranoid (18%) personality disorders. Approximately 33% of adolescents with cannabis use disorder have internalizing disor? ders. Although cannabis use can impact multiple aspects of normal human functioning, in? cluding the cardiovascular, immune, neuromuscular, ocular, reproductive, and respira? tory systems, as well as appetite and cognition/perception, there are few clear medical conditions that commonly co-occur with cannabis use disorder. The most significant health effects of cannabis involve the respiratory system, and chronic cannabis smokers exhibit high rates of respiratory symptoms of bronchitis, sputum production, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Two (or more) of the following signs or symptoms developing within 2 hours of canna? bis use: 1. The signs or symptoms are not attributable to another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder, including intoxication with another substance. Specify if: With perceptual disturbances: Hallucinations with intact reality testing or auditory, vi? sual, or tactile illusions occur in the absence of a delirium. Specifiers When hallucinations occur in the absence of intact reality testing, a diagnosis of substance/ medication-induced psychotic disorder should be considered. Diagnostic Features the essential feature of cannabis intoxication is the presence of clinically significant prob? lematic behavioral or psychological changes that develop during, or shortly after, canna? bis use (Criterion B). Intoxication typically begins with a 'high" feeling followed by symptoms that include euphoria with inappropriate laughter and grandiosity, sedation, lethargy, impairment in short-term memory, difficulty carrying out complex mental pro? cesses, impaired judgment, distorted sensory perceptions, impaired motor performance, and the sensation that time is passing slowly. Occasionally, anxiety (which can be severe), dysphoria, or social withdrawal occurs. These psychoactive effects are accompanied by two or more of the following signs, developing within 2 hours of cannabis use: conjuncti? val injection, increased appetite, dry mouth, and tachycardia (Criterion C). Intoxication develops within minutes if the cannabis is smoked but may take a few hours to develop if the cannabis is ingested orally. The effects usually last 3-4 hours, with the duration being somewhat longer when the substance is ingested orally. The magnitude of the behavioral and physiological changes depends on the dose, the method of adminis? tration, and the characteristics of the individual using the substance, such as rate of absorp? tion, tolerance, and sensitivity to the effects of the substance. Prevalence the prevalence of actual episodes of cannabis intoxication in the general population is un? known. However, it is probable that most cannabis users would at some time meet criteria for cannabis intoxication. Given this, the prevalence of cannabis users and the prevalence of individuals experiencing cannabis intoxication are likely similar. Functional Consequences of Cannabis Intoxication Impairment from cannabis intoxication may have serious consequences, including dys? function at work or school, social indiscretions, failure to fulfill role obligations, traffic ac? cidents, and having unprotected sex. In rare cases, cannabis intoxication may precipitate a psychosis that may vary in duration. D ifferential Diagnosis Note that if the clinical presentation includes hallucinations in the absence of intact reality testing, a diagnosis of substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder should be con? sidered. However, in contrast to carmabis intoxication, alcohol intoxica? tion and sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic intoxication frequently decrease appetite, in? crease aggressive behavior, and produce nystagmus or ataxia. Hallucinogens in low doses may cause a clinical picture that resembles cannabis intoxication. Phencyclidine, like can? nabis, can be smoked and also causes perceptual changes, but phencyclidine intoxication is much more likely to cause ataxia and aggressive behavior. Cannabis intoxication is distinguished from the other cannabis-induced disorders. Three (or more) of the following signs and symptoms develop within approximately 1week after Criterion A: 1. At least one of the following physical symptoms causing significant discomfort: ab? dominal pain, shakiness/tremors, sweating, fever, chills, or headache. It is not permissible to code a comorbid mild cannabis use disorder with cannabis withdrawal. Diagnostic Features the essential feature of cannabis withdrawal is the presence of a characteristic withdrawal syndrome that develops after the cessation of or substantial reduction in heavy and pro? longed cannabis use. In addition to the symptoms in Criterion B, the following may also be observed postabstinence: fatigue, yawning, difficulty concentrating, and rebound periods of increased appetite and hypersomnia that follow initial periods of loss of appetite and in? somnia. For the diagnosis, withdrawal symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion C). Many cannabis users report smoking cannabis or taking other substances to help re? lieve withdrawal symptoms, and many report that withdrawal symptoms make quitting difficult or have contributed to relapse. The symptoms typically are not of sufficient se? verity to require medical attention, but medication or behavioral strategies may help alle? viate symptoms and improve prognosis in those trying to quit using cannabis. Cannabis withdrawal is commonly observed in individuals seeking treatment for can? nabis use as well as in heavy cannabis users who are not seeking treatment. Among indi? viduals who have used cannabis regularly during some period of their lifetime, up to one third report having experienced cannabis withdrawal. Among adults and adolescents en? rolled in treatment or heavy cannabis users, 50%-95% report cannabis withdrawal. These findings indicate that cannabis withdrawal occurs among a substantial subset of regular cannabis users who try to quit. Development and Course the amount, duration, and frequency of cannabis smoking that is required to produce an associated withdrawal disorder during a quit attempt are unknown. Most symptoms have their onset within the first 24-72 hours of cessation, peak within the first week, and last approximately 1-2 weeks. Withdrawal tends to be more common and severe among adults, most likely related to the more persistent and greater frequency and quantity of use among adults. Most likely, the prevalence and severity of cannabis withdrawal are greater among heavier cannabis users, and particularly among those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. Withdrawal severity also appears to be positively related to the se? verity of comorbid symptoms of mental disorders. Functional Consequences of Cannabis W ithdrawal Cannabis users report using cannabis to relieve withdrawal symptoms, suggesting that withdrawal might contribute to ongoing expression of cannabis use disorder. A substantial proportion of adults and adolescents in treatment for moderate to severe cannabis use disorder acknowledge mod? erate to severe withdrawal symptoms, and many complain that these symptoms make ces? sation more difficult. Cannabis users report having relapsed to cannabis use or initiating use of other drugs. Last, individuals living with cannabis users observe significant withdrawal effects, suggesting that such symptoms are disruptive to daily living. D ifferential Diagnosis Because many of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal are also symptoms of other sub? stance withdrawal syndromes or of depressive or bipolar disorders, careful evaluation should focus on ensuring that the symptoms are not better explained by cessation from an? other substance. Other Cannabis-Induced Disorders the following cannabis-induced disorders are described in other chapters of the manual with disorders with which they share phenomenology (see the substance/medication-induced mental disorders in these chapters): cannabis-induced psychotic disorder ("Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders"); cannabis-induced anxiety disorder ('Anxiety Disorders"); and cannabis-induced sleep disorder ("Sleep-Wake Disorders").

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In both cases sleep aid unisom dosage sominex 25 mg amex, participants reported their confidence in each prediction insomnia uws best buy for sominex, and accuracy was determined by the responses of the people themselves sleep aid video buy generic sominex pills. The results were clear: Regardless of whether they judged a stranger or a roommate insomnia vs mania 25mg sominex sale, the participants consistently overestimated the accuracy of their own predictions. Eyewitnesses to crimes are also frequently overconfident in their memories, and there is only a small correlation between how accurate and how confident an eyewitness is. The witness who claims to be absolutely certain about his or her identification. I am sure that you have a clear memory of when you first heard about the 9/11 attacks in 2001, and perhaps also when you heard that Princess Diana was killed in 1997 or when the verdict of the O. This type of memory, which we experience along with a great deal of emotion, is known as a flashbulb memory?a vivid and emotional memory of [20] an unusual event that people believe they remember very well. People are very certain of their memories of these important events, and frequently [21] overconfident. Talarico and Rubin (2003) tested the accuracy of flashbulb memories by asking students to write down their memory of how they had heard the news about either the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks or about an everyday event that had occurred to them during the same time frame. Then the participants were asked again, either 1, 6, or 32 weeks later, to recall their memories. The participants became less accurate in their recollections of both the emotional event and the everyday events over time. But the participants? confidence in the accuracy of their memory of learning about the attacks did not decline over time. After 32 weeks the participants were overconfident; they were much more certain about the accuracy of their flashbulb memories than [22] they should have been. Schmolck, Buffalo, and Squire (2000) found similar distortions in memories of news about the verdict in the O. Heuristic Processing: Availability and Representativeness Another way that our information processing may be biased occurs when we use heuristics, which are information-processing strategies that are useful in many cases but may lead to errors when misapplied. In many cases we base our judgments on information that seems to represent, or match, what we expect will happen, while ignoring other potentially more relevant statistical information. Boy Using the representativeness heuristic may lead us to incorrectly believe that some patterns of observed events are more likely to have occurred than others. In this case, list B seems more random, and thus is judged as more likely to have occurred, but statistically both lists are equally likely. Most people think that list B is more likely, probably because list B looks more random, and thus matches (is representative of?) our ideas about randomness. But statisticians know that any pattern of four girls and four boys is mathematically equally likely. The problem is that we have a schema of what randomness should be like, which doesn?t always match what is mathematically the case. Similarly, people who see a flipped coin come up heads? five times in a row will frequently predict, and perhaps even wager money, that tails? will be next. Imagine, for instance, that I asked you to indicate whether there are more words in the English language that begin with the letter R? or that have the letter R? as the third letter. You would probably answer this question by trying to think of words that have each of the characteristics, thinking of all the words you know that begin with R? and all that have R? in the third position. Because it is much easier to retrieve words by their first letter than by their third, we may incorrectly guess that there are more words that begin with R,? even though there are in fact more words that have R? as the third letter. We may think that our friends are nice people, because we see and remember them primarily when they are around us (their friends, who they are, of course, nice to). And the traffic might seem worse in our own neighborhood than we think it is in other places, in part because nearby traffic jams are more easily retrieved than are traffic jams that occur somewhere else. Salience and Cognitive Accessibility Still another potential for bias in memory occurs because we are more likely to attend to, and thus make use of and remember, some information more than other information. For one, we tend to attend to and remember things that are highly salient, meaning that they attract our attention. Things that are unique, colorful, bright, moving, and unexpected are more salient [24] (McArthur & Post, 1977; Taylor & Fiske, 1978). In one relevant study, Loftus, Loftus, and [25] Messo (1987) showed people images of a customer walking up to a bank teller and pulling out either a pistol or a checkbook. By tracking eye movements, the researchers determined that people were more likely to look at the gun than at the checkbook, and that this reduced their ability to accurately identify the criminal in a lineup that was given later. The salience of the stimuli in our social worlds has a big influence on our judgment, and in some cases may lead us to behave in ways that we might better not have. You tell her that you were thinking of buying a Zune, and she tells you that you are crazy. She says she knows someone who had one and it had a lot of problems?it didn?t download music correctly, the battery died right after the warranty expired, and so forth?and that she would never buy one. If you think about this question logically, the information that you just got from your friend isn?t really all that important. You now know the opinion of one more person, but that can?t change the overall rating of the two machines very much. On the other hand, the information your friend gives you, and the chance to use her iPod, are highly salient. The information is right there in front of you, in your hand, whereas the statistical information from Consumer Reports is only in the form of a table that you saw on your computer. The outcome in cases such as this is that people frequently ignore the less salient but more important information, such as the likelihood that events occur across a large population (these statistics are known as base rates), in favor of the less important but nevertheless more salient information. People also vary in the schemas that they find important to use when judging others and when thinking about themselves. Cognitive accessibility refers tothe extent to which knowledge is activated in memory, and thus likely to be used in cognition and behavior. For instance, you probably know a person who is a golf nut (or fanatic of another sport). Because he loves golf, it is important to his self-concept, he sets many of his goals in terms of the sport, and he tends to think about things and people in terms of it (?if he plays golf, he must be a good person! Other people have highly accessible schemas about environmental issues, eating healthy food, or drinking really good coffee. When schemas are highly accessible, we are likely to use them to make judgments of ourselves and others, and this overuse may inappropriately color our judgments. If we can easily imagine an outcome that is better than what actually happened, then we may experience sadness and disappointment; on the other hand, if we can easily imagine that a result might have been worse than what actually happened, we may be more likely to experience happiness and satisfaction. The tendency to think about and experience events according to what might have been? is known ascounterfactual thinking (Kahneman & Miller, 1986; Roese, [26] 2005). Imagine, for instance, that you were participating in an important contest, and you won the silver (second-place) medal. Certainly you would be happy that you won the silver medal, but wouldn?t you also be thinking about what might have happened if you had been just a little bit better?you might have won the gold medal! If you were thinking about the counterfactuals (the what might have beens?) perhaps the idea of not getting any medal at all would have been highly accessible; you?d be happy that you got the medal that you did get, rather than coming in fourth. They videotaped the athletes both as they learned that they had won a silver or a bronze medal and again as they were awarded the medal. Then the researchers showed these videos, without any sound, to raters who did not know which medal which athlete had won. The raters were asked to indicate how they thought the athlete was feeling, using a range of feelings from agony? to ecstasy. In a follow-up study, raters watched interviews with many of these same athletes as they talked about their performance. The raters indicated what we would expect on the basis of counterfactual thinking?the silver medalists talked about their disappointments in having finished second rather than first, whereas the bronze medalists focused on how happy they were to have finished third rather than fourth. I really wanted to make it home when I got near the end of my journey; I would have been extremely disappointed if the car broke down only a few miles from my home. Perhaps you have noticed that once you get close to finishing something, you feel like you really need to get it done. Jurors who were asked to award monetary damages to others who had been in an accident offered them substantially more in compensation if they barely avoided injury than they offered if the accident seemed inevitable (Miller, Turnbull, & McFarland, [29] 1988).

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Generation Y and plastic surgery: the rise of cosmetic (Unpublished doctoral thesis).

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