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Cross References Bell’s palsy; Bell’s phenomenon; Facial paresis zyprexa allergy symptoms quality promethazine 25 mg, Facial weakness Lambert’s Sign Lambert’s sign is a gradual increase in force over a few seconds when a patient with Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome is asked to allergy medicine and cold medicine safe 25 mg promethazine squeeze the examiner’s hand as hard as possible allergy medicine during first trimester promethazine 25mg on-line, re ecting increased power with sustained exercise penicillin allergy symptoms joint pain order 25 mg promethazine free shipping. Cross Reference Facilitation Lasegue’s Sign Lasegue’s sign is pain along the course of the sciatic nerve induced by stretching of the nerve, achieved by exing the thigh at the hip while the leg is extended at the knee (‘straight leg raising’). This is similar to the manoeuvre used in Kernig’s sign (gradual extension of knee with thigh exed at hip). The test may be positive with disc protrusion, intraspinal tumour, or in ammatory radiculopathy. Pain may be aggravated or elicited sooner using Bragard’s test, dorsi exing the foot while raising the leg thus increasing sciatic nerve stretch, or Neri’s test, exing the neck to bring the head on to the chest, indicating dural irritation. A positive straight leg raising test is reported to be a sensitive indicator of nerve root irritation, proving positive in 95% of those with surgically proven disc herniation. Crossed straight leg raising, when the complaint of pain on the affected side occurs with raising of the contralateral leg, is said to be less sensitive but highly speci c. Femoral stretch test or ‘reverse straight leg raising’ may detect L3 root or femoral nerve irritation. Infarction due to vertebral artery occlusion (occasionally posterior inferior cerebellar artery) or dissection is the most common cause of lateral medullary syndrome, although tumour, demyelination, and trauma are also recognized causes. Cross Reference Torticollis 208 Levitation L Lateropulsion Lateropulsion or ipsipulsion is literally pulling to one side. The term may be used to describe ipsilateral axial lateropulsion after cerebellar infarcts prevent ing patients from standing upright causing them to lean towards the opposite side. Lateral medullary syndrome may be associated with lateropulsion of the eye towards the involved medulla, and there may also be lateropulsion of saccadic eye movements. This spinal re ex manifests as exion of the arms at the elbow, adduction of the shoulders, lifting of the arms, dystonic posturing of the hands, and crossing of the hands. Causes include retinoblastoma, retinal detachment, toxocara infection, congeni tal cataract, and benign retinal hypopigmentation. It is most often seen in corti cobasal (ganglionic) degeneration, but a few cases with pathologically con rmed progressive supranuclear palsy have been reported. Movement Disorders 1995; 10: 132–142 Cross Reference Alien hand, Alien limb 209 L Lhermitte’s Sign Lhermitte’s Sign Lhermitte’s sign, or the ‘barber’s chair syndrome’, is a painless but unpleasant tingling or electric shock-like sensation in the back and spreading instanta neously down the arms and legs following neck exion (active or passive). Although most commonly encountered (and originally described) in multiple sclerosis, it is not pathognomonic of demyelination and has been described with other local pathologies such as: • subacute combined degeneration of the cord (vitamin B12 de ciency); nitrous oxide (N2O) exposure; • traumatic or compressive cervical myelopathy. Pathophysiologically, this movement-induced symptom may re ect the exquisite mechanosensitivity of axons which are demyelinated or damaged in some other way. A ‘motor equivalent’ of Lhermitte’s sign, McArdle’s sign, has been described, as has ‘reverse Lhermitte’s sign’, a label applied either to the aforementioned symptoms occurring on neck extension, or in which neck exion induces electri cal shock-like sensation travelling from the feet upward. Les douleurs a type de decharge electrique consecutives a la exion cephalique dans la sclerose en plaques: un case de forme sensitive de la sclerose multiple. Conduction properties of central demyelinated axons: the generation of symptoms in demyelinating disease. The neurobiology of disease: contributions from neuroscience to clinical neurology. Cross References McArdle’s sign; Myelopathy Lid Lag Lid lag is present if a band of sclera is visible between the upper eyelid and the corneal limbus on attempted downgaze (cf. Recognized causes of lid retraction include • Overactivity of levator palpebrae superioris: Dorsal mesencephalic lesion (Collier’s sign) Opposite to unilateral ptosis. Ectropion may also be seen with lower lid tumour or chalazion, trauma with scarring, and ageing. The most common cause of the locked-in syndrome is basilar artery throm bosis causing ventral pontine infarction (both pathological laughter and patho logical crying have on occasion been reported to herald this event). Bilateral ventral midbrain and internal capsule infarcts can produce a similar picture. The locked-in syndrome may be mistaken for abulia, akinetic mutism, coma, and catatonia. The locked-in syndrome: what is it like to be conscious but paralyzed and voiceless Cross References Echolalia; Festination, Festinant gait; Palilalia; Perseveration Logopenia Logopenia is a reduced rate of language production, due especially to word nding pauses, but with relatively preserved phrase length and syntactically complete language, seen in aphasic syndromes, such as primary non uent aphasia. Cross Reference Aphasia Logorrhoea Logorrhoea is literally a ow of speech, or pressure of speech, denoting an excessive verbal output, an abnormal number of words produced during each utterance. The term may be used for the output in the Wernicke/posterior/sensory type of aphasia or for an output which super cially resembles Wernicke aphasia but in which syntax and morphology are intact, rhythm and articulation are usually normal, and paraphasias and neologisms are few. Moreover, comprehension is better than anticipated in the Wernicke type of aphasia. Patients may be unaware of their impaired output (anosognosia) due to a failure of self-monitoring. Logorrhoea may be observed in subcortical (thalamic) aphasia, usually fol lowing recovery from lesions (usually haemorrhage) to the anterolateral nuclei. Similar speech output may be observed in psychiatric disorders such as mania and schizophrenia (schizophasia). Following the standard order of neurologi cal examination of the motor system, the signs include • Appearance: muscle wasting; fasciculations (or ‘ brillations’) may be observed or induced, particularly if the pathology is at the level of the anterior horn cell. It is often possible to draw a clinical distinction between motor symptoms resulting from lower or upper motor neurone pathology and hence to formulate a differential diagnosis and direct investigations accordingly. It may be seen in cerebellar disease, possibly as a re ection of the kinetic tremor and/or the impaired checking response seen therein (cf. Brief report: macrographia in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. Cross References Micrographia; Tremor Macropsia Macropsia, or ‘Brobdingnagian sight’, is an illusory phenomenon in which the size of a normally recognized object is overestimated. This may occur because anastomoses between the middle and pos terior cerebral arteries maintain that part of area 17 necessary for central vision after occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery. Cortical blindness due to bilateral (sequential or simultaneous) posterior cerebral artery occlusion may leave a small central eld around the xation point intact, also known as macula sparing. Macula splitting, a homonymous hemianopia which cuts through the verti cal meridian of the macula, occurs with lesions of the optic radiation. Hence, macula sparing and macula splitting have localizing value when assessing homonymous hemianopia. Common causes include • Diabetes mellitus: oedema and hard exudates at the macula are a common cause of visual impairment, especially in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Cross References Cherry red spot at the macula; Retinopathy; Scotoma; Visual eld defects Magnetic Movements Movements may be described as magnetic in varying contexts: • the following or tracking movements of an alien hand in corticobasal degen eration, reaching out to touch or grasp the examiner’s hand or clothing, as in forced groping; also known as compulsive tactile exploration; • in a hesitant gait (ignition failure), with seeming inability to lift the feet (‘stuck to the oor’) in gait apraxia. Cross References Alien hand, Alien limb; Forced groping; Gait apraxia; Grasp re ex Main d’accoucheur Main d’accoucheur, or carpopedal spasm, is a posture of the hand with wrist exion in which the muscles are rigid and painful. Main d’accoucheur is so called because of its resemblance to the posture of the hand adopted for the manual delivery of a baby (‘obstetrical hand’). This tetanic posture may develop in acute hypocalcaemia (induced by hyperventilation, for instance) or hypomagnesaemia and re ects muscle hyperex citability. Development of main d’accoucheur within 4 min of in ation of a sphyg momanometer cuff above arterial pressure (Trousseau’s sign) indicates latent tetany. Cross Reference Charcot joint Man-in-a-Barrel ‘Man-in-a-barrel’ is a clinical syndrome of brachial diplegia with preservation of brainstem function and of muscle strength in the legs. This most usually occurs as a result of bilateral borderzone infarcts in the ter ritories between the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (‘watershed infarction’). Acute central cervical cord lesions may also produce a ‘man-in-a-barrel’ syndrome, for example, after severe hyperextension injury or after unilateral vertebral artery dissection causing ante rior cervical spinal cord infarction. A neurogenic man-in-a-barrel syndrome has been reported (‘ ail arm syn drome’), which is a variant of motor neurone disease. Likewise, bilateral neural gic amyotrophy can produce an acute peripheral man-in-a-barrel phenotype. Peripheral “man-in-the-barrel” syndrome: two cases of acute bilateral neuralgic amyotrophy. Cross References Flail arm; Quadriparesis, Quadriplegia Marche a Petit Pas Marche a petit pas is a disorder of gait characterized by impairments of balance, gait ignition, and locomotion.

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People with these disorders have experienced conflict or trauma during their lives and circumstances have created strong emotional reactions that they could not integrate in to allergy kansas city discount 25mg promethazine fast delivery their memory allergy medicine yorkie buy promethazine online, personality and self-concept allergy medicine brand names discount promethazine 25mg line. The symptoms seen in somatisation disorder and dissociative states represent not a loss of contact with reality but a translation of various emotions in to allergy link discount promethazine 25 mg otc terms that are less painful to acknowledge than is the original conflict or trauma. Stressful events in many individuals trigger maladaptive responses in physical functioning, ranging from variety of physical conditions to sleep dysfunctions and various somatic complaints which are often vague. Currently the most prevalent view is that stress related factors and not repressed sexuality is central to understanding somatoform disorders. Besides stress, learning seems to play a strong role, especially in cases where individuals have developed secondary gains from their symptoms. Cognitive behavioural therapists have also offered their perspective on this group of disorders. According to them low feelings of self-efficacy, lack of assertiveness and faulty ideas about the self can all be contributing factors to somatoform and dissociative disorders. For example believing that one must be sick to be worthy of attention is a dysfunctional attitude that underlie the development of somatoform disorders. Similarly faulty beliefs about the self and the role of the self in past experiences of trauma seem to be important cognitive factors that may contribute to an individual‘s vulnerability to developing these maladaptive thoughts or susceptibility to trauma. We have attempted to understand as to how these group of disorders are an extreme form of psychological disturbance involving anxiety and conflict in which part of an individual‘s personality actually separates from the rest of his or her conscious functioning. The various characteristics of Dissociative Identity Disorders as well as its theories and treatment were discussed. Many different types of dissociative disorders that we would discuss in brief include Dissociateive Amnesia and its variants, Dissociative Fugue, Depersonalisation Disorder. Theories and treatment of these various dissociative disorders were also briefly discussed. Towards the end of the unit we have discussed the biopsychsocial perspective of various Somatoform Disorder, Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Conditions and Dissociative Disorders. Write a note on the Biopsychosocial Perspective of Somatoform Disorders, Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Conditions and Dissociative Disorders. In this unit we will discuss about the concept of sexual disorder, its types and treatments. First one is paraphilias or sexual deviation, second is sexual dysfunction and third is gender identity disorder. Different treatments such as biological therapies, psychological approaches and cognitive therapies, etc. But inability to enjoy sexual relationship and experiencing difficulty at any stage is considered sexual disorder. For example, complete lack of sexual desire, active avoidance of sexual activity, inability to be aroused or maintaining erections or absence of orgasm are few sexual disorders. Paraphilias are disorders that involve non-human objects, non-consenting adults, children, etc. Gender Identity disorder is wrong perception of one‘s own gender resulting in transsexual or transgender individuals. Fetishism: Fetishism involves the use of inanimate objects as the preferred source of sexual arousal or gratification. Fetishistic arousal can be associated with different classes of objects or activities. An elaborate form of fetishism is Transvestism, also referred as cross dressing, in which hetro sexual men dress in women‘s clothing as their primary means of becoming sexually aroused. The complete cross dresser, fully clothes himself in women‘s garments, applies make up and a wig, etc. Sexual Sadism and Sexual Masochism: Sexual sadism and sexual masochism are two separate diagnoses, although sadistic and masochism sexual practices are considered together as a pattern of sadomasochism. Both are associated with either inflicting pain or humiliation (Sadism) or being made to suffer pain or humiliation (masochism). Some people occasionally engage in modestly sadistic or masochistic behaviours 114 during sex or stimulate such behaviours without actually inflicting pain or suffering. One partner is bound, gagged and immobilised and is subjected to sexual acts of other partner. Apart from sexual, acts, beating, whippings, electrical shock, burning, cutting, stabbing, strangulation, torture or even death. Few other partners can find it exciting, many give their consent to please their partner, few do because they are paid for it and few are unconsenting victims. They get excited to see fear and disgust on the women‘s face if they know that they are being watched. Frotteurism: It is another paraphilia that often occurs with voyeurism and exhibitionism. The frotteuist gains sexual pleasure by rubbing against and fondling parts of the body of a non-consenting person. They engage in this behaviour in public places such as on a bus, subway, market place, etc. Pedophilia and Incest the most tragic deviant pattern of arousal is a sexual attraction to children called pedophilia. Pedophilics often threaten children, harm them physically, restrain them or tell them that they will punish them or their loved one‘s if the 115 children do not obey the pedophilics order. But most of them are not physically abusive because there is no harm or threats from their victims. Children may participate in the molestation without seeming to protest, yet, they may be scared and unwilling without expressing it. Some develop elaborate plans for gaining access to the children, such as winning the trust of their mothers, marrying their mothers, or in rare cases abducting children or adopting children from other countries. Sometimes the activities can go out of control, for example, Autoerotic asphyxiation. In this activity, sexual arousal in gained by oxygen deprivation caused by hanging or chest compression. Voyeurism and Exhibitionism: Voyeurism refers to the practice of observing an unsuspecting person undressing or naked in order to experience sexual orousal. Exhibitionism refers to sexual arousal and gratification associated with exposing one‘s genitals to unsuspecting strangers. A vast majority of cases, the exhibitionists are men who bares all to surprise women at public places such as parks, roads, etc. He experiences excitement, fear, restlessness and sexual arousal and feels compelled to get relief by masturbating himself. Because of the public nature of their behavior, they get caught but they are likely to continue their behaviour after having been caught. Voyeurism – this type of paraphilia involves secretly watching another individuals nude, bathing in sexual positions. If the children are from pedophilics own family, such as daughters or son, then it is called incest. Incestors relation may have more to do with availability and other inter personal ongoing issues in the family. This may be because paraphilic behaviour often involves hostile or aggressive impulses, which may be more common in males than in females. Psychological Causes: a) Freud viewed paraphilias as a result of arrested psychological development or regression to childhood forms of sexual arousal. Behavioural Causes: a) Behavioural theories view them as the result of chance classical conditioning. An adolescent male might be masturbating and notice a panty kept on the chair in the room. Next time he masturbates, he might be more drawn to the panty because it aroused him a day before. If this fantasy becomes strongly associated with sexual arousal for him, he may develop a fetish for panties. Children whose parents engaged in aggressive, sexual behaviours with them learn to engage in impulsive, aggressive, sexualised acts towards others. Others have strong hostility toward women and carry out this hostile antisocial acts towards children, 117 Cognitive Causes: a) Cognitive theories says that a number of distortions and assumptions that paraphilics have about their behaviours and the behaviours of their victims. These distortions may have been learned from parent‘s deviant messages about sexuality.

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Recurrent substance use may result in a failure to allergy now buy promethazine 25mg amex fulfill major role obligations at work allergy medicine ok for breastfeeding purchase promethazine 25mg fast delivery, school allergy treatment cost cheap promethazine online mastercard, or home (Crite­ rion 5) allergy forecast los angeles buy 25mg promethazine. The individual may continue substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance (Cri­ terion 6). Important social, occupational, or recreational activities may be given up or re­ duced because of substance use (Criterion 7). The individual may withdraw from family activities and hobbies in order to use the substance. This may take the form of recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (Cri­ terion 8). The individual may continue substance use despite knowledge of having a per­ sistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (Criterion 9). Tolerance (Crite­ rion 10) is signaled by requiring a markedly increased dose of the substance to achieve the desired effect or a markedly reduced effect when the usual dose is consumed. The degree to which tolerance develops varies greatly across different individuals as well as across substances and may involve a variety of central nervous system effects. For example, tol­ erance to respiratory depression and tolerance to sedating and motor coordination may develop at different rates, depending on the substance. Tolerance may be difficult to de­ termine by history alone, and laboratory tests may be helpful. Tol­ erance must also be distinguished from individual variability in the initial sensitivity to the effects of particular substances. For example, some first-time alcohol drinkers show very little evidence of intoxication with three or four drinks, whereas others of similar weight and drinking histories have slurred speech and incoordination. Withdrawal (Criterion 11) is a syndrome that occurs when blood or tissue concentra­ tions of a substance decline in an individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance. After developing withdrawal symptoms, the individual is likely to con­ sume the substance to relieve the symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms vary greatly across the classes of substances, and separate criteria sets for withdrawal are provided for the drug classes. Marked and generally easily measured physiological signs of withdrawal are common with alcohol, opioids, and sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics. Withdrawal signs and symptoms with stimulants (amphetamines and cocaine), as well as tobacco and cannabis, are often present but may be less apparent. Significant withdrawal has not been documented in humans after repeated use of phencyclidine, other hallucinogens, and in­ halants; therefore, this criterion is not included for these substances. Neither tolerance nor withdrawal is necessary for a diagnosis of a substance use disorder. However, for most classes of substances, a past history of withdrawal is associated with a more severe clinical course. Symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal occurring during appropriate medical treat­ ment with prescribed medications. The appearance of normal, expected pharmacological tolerance and withdrawal during the course of medical treat­ ment has been known to lead to an erroneous diagnosis of "addiction" even when these were the only symptoms present. Individuals whose only symptoms are those that occur as a result of medical treatment. However, prescription medications can be used inappropriately, and a substance use disorder can be correctly diagnosed when there are other symptoms of compulsive, drug-seeking behavior. Severity and Specifiers Substance use disorders occur in a broad range of severity, from mild to severe, with se­ verity based on the number of symptom criteria endorsed. As a general estimate of sever­ ity, a mild substance use disorder is suggested by the presence of two to three symptoms, moderate by four to five symptoms, and severe by six or more symptoms. The following course specifiers and descrip­ tive features specifiers are also available for substance use disorders: "in early remission," "in sustained remission," "on maintenance therapy," and "in a controlled environment. Recording Procedures for Substarice Use Disorders the clinician should use the code that applies to the class of substances but record the name of the specific substance. If criteria are met for more than one substance use disorder, all should be diagnosed. In the above example, the diagnostic code for moderate alprazolam use disorder, F13. Note that the word addiction is not applied as a diagnostic term in this classification, although it is in common usage in many countries to describe severe problems related to compulsive and habitual use of substances. The more neutral term substance use disorder is used to describe the wide range of the disorder, from a mild form to a severe state of chron­ ically relapsing, compulsive drug taking. Substance-Induced Disorders the overall category of substance-induced disorders includes intoxication, withdrawal, and other substance/medication-induced mental disorders. Substance Intoxication and Withdrawal Criteria for substance intoxication are included within the substance-specific sections of this chapter. The essential feature is the development of a reversible substance-specific syndrome due to the recent ingestion of a substance (Criterion A). The clinically significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes associated with intoxication. The symptoms are not attributable to another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder (Criterion D). Substance intoxi­ cation is common among those with a substance use disorder but also occurs frequently in individuals without a substance use disorder. The most common changes in intoxication involve disturbances of perception, wake­ fulness, attention, thinking, judgment, psychomotor behavior, and interpersonal behav­ ior. Short-term, or "acute," intoxications may have different signs and symptoms than sustained, or "chronic," intoxications. For example, moderate cocaine doses may initially produce gregariousness, but social withdrawal may develop if such doses are frequently repeated over days or weeks. When used in the physiological sense, the term intoxication is broader than substance intoxication as defined here. Many substances may produce physiological or psychologi­ cal changes that are not necessarily problematic. For example, an individual with tachy­ cardia from substance use has a physiological effect, but if this is the only symptom in the absence of problematic behavior, the diagnosis of intoxication would not apply. Intoxica­ tion may sometimes persist beyond the time when the substance is detectable in the body. This may be due to enduring central nervous system effects, the recovery of which takes longer than the time for elimination of the substance. These longer-term effects of intoxi­ cation must be distinguished from withdrawal. Criteria for substance withdrawal are included within the substance-specific sections of this chapter. The essential feature is the development of a substance-specific problematic be­ havioral change, with physiological and cognitive concomitants, that is due to the cessation of, or reduction in, heavy and prolonged substance use (Criterion A). The substance-specific syn­ drome causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other im­ portant areas of functioning (Criterion C). The symptoms are not due to another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder (Criterion D). Most individuals with withdrawal have an urge to re-administer the substance to reduce the symptoms. Route of Administration and Speed of Substance Effects Routes of administration that produce more rapid and efficient absorption into the blood­ stream. Similarly, rapidly acting substances are more likely than slower-acting substances to produce immediate intoxication. Duration of Effects Within the same drug category, relatively short-acting substances tend to have a higher potential for the development of withdrawal than do those with a longer duration of ac­ tion. The half-life of the substance parallels aspects of withdrawal: the longer the duration of action, the longer the time between cessation and the onset of withdrawal symptoms and the lon­ ger the withdrawal duration. In general, the longer the acute withdrawal period, the less intense the syndrome tends to be. Use of iVluitipie Substances Substance intoxication and withdrawal often involve several substances used simultane­ ously or sequentially. Associated Laboratory Findings Laboratory analyses of blood and urine samples can help determine recent use and the specific substances involved.

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The process includes ask this usually occurs when a person is forced by ing witnesses to allergy forecast midland mi buy promethazine 25 mg without prescription recall by reinstating the con circumstances into the acknowledgment of an text allergy shots given to cats 25 mg promethazine visa, prompting not to allergy forecast cincinnati buy 25 mg promethazine hold back any detail inconsistency that has some importance to allergy forecast ann arbor purchase generic promethazine the no matter how inconsequential it may seem, individual, who is then motivated to resolve altering the sequence of recollection, asking the dissonance. This can be done by reducing witnesses to say what other witnesses could the importance of the perceived contradic and could not see, and then fnally prompting tion in one’s understanding of things; altering for details. A mental representation of an environ the work of Jean Piaget, who examined cog ment or locale that is mentally scannable for nitive development in children; and the distance, location, and other relationships of writings of Noam Chomsky, who initiated importance to the individual. The term was the movement toward the study of language coined by Edward Tolman to describe the in terms of mental processes. Cognitive psy relative ease rats had in fnding a new route chologists seek to understand the mental to a reward site after their usual route was representations and structures that lead indi blocked. In the area of memory, research cognitive miser ers seek to understand how information is n. One of several competing theories among encoded, stored, and retrieved in the mind. According to the mind (mental structures or abstract rep the cognitive miser perspective, which is sup resentations, and processes) and, second, to ported by a wealth of research, humans are provide experimental and quantitative evi inherently frugal with cognitive resources dence regarding mental functioning. An investigation of the mental rehearsals heuristics, or “mental shortcuts,” to make a person engages in while evaluating a piece our cognitive processes more effcient. By of persuasive information, with the supposi using such mechanisms as schemas and ste tion that the more positive mental rehearsals reotypes, we simplify our cognitive process a person engages in with regard to a particu ing of social situations. Rather than taking lar piece of persuasive communication the a thorough, data-driven, labor-intensive, more likely it will be that those rehearsals slower approach to understanding social situ will become part of the person’s repertoire ations, we tend to employ these mental short of responses and so the more effect the per cuts in order to conserve cognitive energy. A technique of examining one’s beliefs in the central nervous system, focusing on as em bodied in autom atic thoughts and relationships between mental functions and substituting more accurate beliefs for those the physiological functioning of neurons, found to be distorted or inaccurate. This which is an integration of the felds of neu technique was developed in cognitive therapy roscience and cognitive psychology. A mental representation of some aspect of past experience or some part of one’s general cognitive psychology knowledge. It psychology that examines mental processes is supposed by cognitive psychologists that involved in perception (both visual and schemas are constantly being created, modi auditory), reasoning and problem solving, fed, and imposed on perceptions, situations, language processing, memory, and the pro understanding, and processes. This therapy there is an attempt to change mal feld developed from the earlier Gestalt school adaptive cognitive schemas. The interdisciplinary science of mind which would not be predicted by an analysis which includes and attempts to integrate of the dyadic interactions of the individual approaches from psychology, linguistics, phi and individual group members, as well as losophy, anthropology, computer science, group members’ tendency to agree and to act and physiology. Sexual intercourse, usually involving the mation including perceiving, conscious rea insertion of the penis in the vagina coupled soning, remembering, solving problems, with rhythmic movements until ejaculation and understanding the world in general. It can also include insertion of Numerous typologies of mind have been the penis into other parts of the body such as suggested, frst by Carl Jung in 1923 and between the thighs or breasts of a partner. Sexual intercourse in which the penis is refectivity/impulsivity, tolerance/intolerance removed from the vagina before ejaculation of ambiguity, and abstract/concrete thinking. Any of a number of theories of emotion in control method as semen usually seeps out of which conscious thought, self-perceptions, the end of the penis long before ejaculation self-relevant appraisals, or some other infor occurs. Pain resulting from immersion of a limb or cognitive therapy part of a limb in iced water for the purpose of n. The pursuit of some goal or goals by more It includes a belief that thoughts, emotions, than one person in an at least partially coor and behavior are aspects of a single system in dinated way. The theory that emotion and bodily sen sations are used to adjust or select cognitive collective control processes appropriate for a situation. A type of control in which one attempts to person might select a heuristic approach in a re control the environment as a member of a laxed, cheerful situation and a more thorough group, and the group serves as the agent of analytical one in a tense, fearful situation. The part of the self or self-concept that is affective bonds both to the group as a whole shared by all the members of each group to 117 collective threat color constancy which the person belongs or believes he or she this cultural pattern is especially likely belongs and is distinguished from the private when the population density is high, among and public selves. In Jungian psychology, the totality of the to a small elevation (hill) above the surround inherited structure of the mind formed over ing parts of a structure. In the midbrain four the course of evolution of prehuman and elevations known as colliculi are found: two human ancestors which have left traces of superior colliculi and two inferior colliculi. Superior can also be considered as inherited potential colliculi are related to visual information and ities. In our capacities to perceive and has predeter humans superior colliculi participate in con mined categories into which experiences are trolling the eye movements. The inferior col ft, behavioral patterns and tendencies to re liculi are the principal midbrain nucleus of spond, and an impulse to develop all of the the auditory pathway. A decrease in sensitivity to a particular scious, which contains repressed, suppressed, color after prolonged stimulation with that weak, and forgotten memories, as well as indi color. This occurs as the retinal neurons vidually created organizations of perception attuned to that color have been stimulated and understanding. Also called the transper beyond their capacity to replace the photore sonal unconsciousness. A cultural pattern found in cultures that color blindness tend to be simple and traditional and have n. The inability to perceive a normal range of many rules and norms that are imposed colors, which may be total or partial. This cultural pattern is determined color blindness an individual perceives only by examining data across cultures. In partial data collectivism is the opposite of individ color blindness an individual can lack the ualism. Individuals in collectivist cultures capacity to distinguish red, blue, or green defne themselves as members of groups, colors, depending on which type of photo give priority to group goals, behave mostly receptors are absent form her/his eyes. Most according to group norms, and do not leave color blindness is inherited and is sex linked their groups even when they are dissatisfed but it may also be caused by trauma or dis with them. Inability to distinguish between red High levels of collectivism are found in and green is the most common form of color rural, homogeneous, isolated cultures with blindness. The vary with angle, illumination, movement, and corpus callosum (the largest white matter other variables. Thus when we see a red ball, structure in the human brain) is situated ven we perceive it as being the same color all over, tral to the cortex, connects the right and left although the actual light refected from it will hemispheres, and contains about 250 million vary over its surface. The anterior commissure is a neu ral pathway connecting the cerebral hemi color mixing spheres across the middle line, at the level of 1. The posterior commissure crosses more other colors, as in mixing paint colors the midline at the upper end of the cerebral for a house. Red, blue, and yellow or green, which can commissurotomy be mixed to obtain white. Commis of view of the human visual system, all four surotomy of the corpus callosum (calloso colors are primary as they correspond to the tomy) results in the so-called split-brain wavelengths of particular visual receptors. The ability to distinguish among lights of refractory types of epilepsy, but also to treat various wavelengths. Confnement to a mental institution to distinguish among lights of various wave usually without the consent of the person in lengths and the existence of primary colors, volved. In most states, involuntary commit complementary colors, and afterimages; the ment is possible only if a person presents a laws of color mixing; and different kinds of clear danger to herself/himself or to others. A cognitive or emotional state of inten Helmholtz, Hering, Ladd-Franklin, Granit, tion to follow a course of action regardless trichromatic, and opponent process theories. An abnormal state of unconsciousness resources in a person, group, idea, or activity marked by complete or nearly complete unre such that withdrawal entails costs and there sponsiveness to stimuli including the absence fore the investment is maintained. Physical or chemical brain trauma, interruption of blood fow or oxygen common fate to the brain, diabetes, hydroencephalitis, and n. A Gestalt principle that notes that objects brain tumors are the most common causes. In anatomy it is used to refer to the nerve path common in-group identity model ways crossing from one side to the other in n. A theoretical model of group interventions the brain (and also the spinal cord) as well as designed to reduce prejudice against an out to the site or point where two parts join, for group by bringing about a recategorization to example, in the lips. The commons dilemma, also known as social psychology of language and communi the tragedy of the commons, refers to the cation, its propositions receiving much empir confict of serving the interests of the self or ical support across an array of cultures and the interests of the common good. The theory, invoked within many individual chooses to serve the interests of disciplines, has also led to a range of satellite the self over those of the common good, the theories, including the intergroup model of outcome will be detrimental to everyone.

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