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By: John Walter Krakauer, M.A., M.D.

  • Director, the Center for the Study of Motor Learning and Brain Repair
  • Professor of Neurology

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/profiles/results/directory/profile/9121870/john-krakauer

The range of styles and subject matter represented in this list should encourage active student response in reading virus clothing cheap cefaclor online, writing antibiotics for acne success rate purchase cefaclor 500mg with amex, speaking antibiotics for sinus infection bronchitis order cheap cefaclor on line, representing or perhaps shaping a text for performance virus x book purchase cefaclor 500 mg on line. A text may appear on the list for a number of stages as it can appeal to a wide age range and ability of readers. Treatment of the text will be determined by the needs of the students and stage requirements. For instance, the aspects of racism raised in To Kill a Mockingbird are still as urgent as when the book was written. Modern classics such as Robert C O’Brien’s Z for Zachariah and Mrs Frisby and the Rats of Nimh, Michelle Magorian’s Goodnight Mr Tom, Katherine Paterson’s Bridge to Terabithia, Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins, Theodore Taylor’s the Cay, Colin Thiele’s Storm Boy and Ruth Park’s Playing Beatie Bow have found willing audiences in many classrooms. The brevity of some of the classic short stories makes them particularly accessible to students and includes the short stories of Anton Chekhov, Guy de Maupassant, W Somerset Maugham, O Henry, Edgar Allan Poe, Katherine Mansfield and Ray Bradbury. The long short story, or novella form, as practised by John Steinbeck, could also be considered. Fiction: Early Stage 1 this list of texts includes texts that have also been suggested for other stages. Title Author Syllabus mapping Alfie Gets in First Hughes, Shirley Picture book Belinda Allen, Pamela Picture book Beware of the Storybook Wolves Child, Lauren Picture book Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do Martin, Jr Bill Picture book You See. Butler, John Australian Clancy & Millie and the Very Fine Gleeson, Libby Picture book House Australian Collecting Colour Dunstan, Kylie Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Dear Zoo Campbell, Rod Picture book Don’t Forget the Bacon Hutchins, Pat Picture book Ahlberg, Allan and Each Peach Pear Plum Picture book Ahlberg, Janet Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 6 Title Author Syllabus mapping Henry and Amy King, Stephen Michael Picture book I Went Walking Machin, Sue Picture book I’m Not Scared Allen, Jonathan Picture book I’m the Best Cousins, Lucy Picture book Invisible Me Binks, Wendy Picture book Picture book Australian Is Your Grandmother a Goanna. Allen, Pamela Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Knock, Knock, Who’s There. Grindley, Sally Picture book Picture book Australian literature Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain Ardizzone, Edward Literary text from other countries and times Picture book Australian literature Look See, Look at Me Norrington, Leonie Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Gleeson, Libby and Look, a Book!. Picture book Blackwood, Freya Maisy Goes on Holiday Cousins, Lucy Picture book Maisy’s Bus Cousins, Lucy Picture book Maudie and Bear Omerod, Jan Picture book Mr Archimedes’ Bath Allen, Pamela Picture book Mr Gumpy’s Outing Burningham, John Picture book Mr McGee and the Biting Flea Allen, Pamela Picture book Mr McGee Goes to Sea Allen, Pamela Picture book Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Australian literature Night-Time Tale Brown, Ruth Picture book Olivia Falconer, Ian Picture book Otto, the Book Bear Cleminson, Katie Picture book Pearl Barley and Charley Parsley Blabey, Aaron Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Picture book Sebastian Lives in a Hat Catterwell, Thelma Australian Australian literature Stradbroke Dreamtime Noonuccal, Oodgeroo Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book Picture book Ten Blue Wrens Honey, Elizabeth Australian the Deep End Dubosarsky, Ursula Australian literature Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 7 Title Author Syllabus mapping the Rain Train De Roo, Elena Picture book Picture book the Story About Ping Flack, Marjorie Literary text from other countries and times Champion, Tom Niland the Tall Man and the Twelve Babies Picture book and Niland, Kilmeny the Very Cranky Bear Bland, Nick Picture book the Very Hungry Caterpillar Carle, Eric Picture book the Very Itchy Bear Bland, Nick Picture book Violet Mackerel’s Brilliant Plot Branford, Anna Picture book When I Was a Baby Niland, Deborah Picture book Who Sank the Boat. Allen, Pamela Picture book Fiction: Stage 1 this list of texts includes texts that have also been suggested for other stages. Title Author Syllabus mapping Alfie Gets in First Hughes, Shirley Picture book Literary text from other Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Caroll, Lewis countries and times April Underhill, Tooth Fairy Graham, Bob Picture book Belinda Allen, Pamela Picture book Beware of the Storybook Wolves Child, Lauren Picture book Clancy & Millie and the Very Fine Gleeson, Libby Picture book House Australian Collecting Colour Dunstan, Kylie Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Small, Mary; Huxley, Country Cousin Australian literature Dee (illustrator) Australian Discovery at Paradise Island Boyce, Sharon Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Don’t Forget the Bacon Hutchins, Pat Picture book Drac and the Gremlin Baillie, Allan Picture book Ahlberg, Allan and Each Peach Pear Plum Picture book Ahlberg, Janet Picture book For All Creatures Millard, Glenda Aspects of environmental and social sustainability I’m the Best Cousins, Lucy Picture book Invisible Me Binks, Wendy Picture book Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 8 Title Author Syllabus mapping Lennie’s Ride Small, Mary Australian literature Picture book Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain Ardizzone, Edward Literary text from other countries and times Gleeson, Libby and Look, a Book!. Picture book Blackwood, Freya Maudie and Bear Omerod, Jan Picture book Picture book Intercultural experiences Mirror Baker, Jeannie Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Mr Archimedes’ Bath Allen, Pamela Picture book Mr McGee and the Biting Flea Allen, Pamela Picture book My Dad Thinks He’s Funny Germein, Katrina Picture book Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Australian literature Otto, the Book Bear Cleminson, Katie Picture book Nicoll, Helen and Owl at School Picture book Pienkowski, Jan Pearl Barley and Charley Parsley Blabey, Aaron Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Picture book Sebastian Lives in a Hat Catterwell, Thelma Australian Picture book Stellaluna Cannon, Janell Australian Australian literature Stradbroke Dreamtime Noonuccal, Oodgeroo Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book the Deep End Dubosarsky, Ursula Australian literature the Rain Train De Roo, Elena Picture book Picture book the Story About Ping Flack, Marjorie Literary text from other countries and times Literary text from other the Tale of Despereaux DiCamillo, Kate countries and times Champion, Tom Niland the Tall Man and the Twelve Babies Picture book and Niland, Kilmeny the Very Cranky Bear Bland, Nick Picture book the Very Itchy Bear Bland, Nick Picture book Who Sank the Boat. Allen, Pamela Picture book Zoola Palooza: A Book of Barretta, Gene Picture book Homographs Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 9 Fiction: Stage 2 this list of texts includes texts that have also been suggested for other stages. They have also been listed, with other picture books, under the heading Picture books and graphic novels. Title Author Syllabus mapping A Banner Bold: the Diary of Rosa Wheatley, Nadia Australian literature Aarons (My Australian Story) Literary text from other Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Carroll, Lewis countries and times Amazing Grace: An Adventure at Reeder, Stephanie Australian literature Sea Owen Literary text from other Anne of Green Gables Montgomery, Lucy Maud countries and times Australian Collecting Colour Dunstan, Kylie Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Small, Mary; Huxley, Country Cousin Australian Dee (illustrator) Australian Discovery at Paradise Island Boyce, Sharon Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Drac and the Gremlin Baillie, Allan Picture book Literary text from other Dragon Rider Funke, Cornelia countries and times Literary text from other Flat Stanley Browne, Jeff countries and times Picture book Australian Cultural, social and gender Fox Wild, Margaret perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Literary text from other Frindle Clements, Andrew countries and times Picture book Into the Forest Browne, Anthony Cultural, social and gender perspectives Just a Dog: Some Dogs Change Bauer, Michael Gerard Australian literature Everything Lennie’s Ride Small, Mary Australian literature Picture book Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain Ardizzone, Edward Literary text from other countries and times Australian Reeder, Stephanie Lost!. A True Tale From the Bush Aspects of environmental Owen and social sustainability Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 10 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Malu Kangaroo: How the First Morecroft, Judith and Australian Children Learnt to Surf Bancroft, Bronwyn Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Maudie and Bear Omerod, Jan Picture book Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Australian literature Pearl Barley and Charley Parsley Blabey, Aaron Picture book Potato Music Booth, Christina Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Rowan of Rin Rodda, Emily Australian literature Picture book Australian Stellaluna Cannon, Janell Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Australian literature Stradbroke Dreamtime Noonuccal, Oodgeroo Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book Fienberg, Anna and Tashi series: Tashi and the Ghosts Australian literature Fienberg, Barbara Literary text from other the Black Stallion Farley, Walter countries and times Literary text from other the Eighteenth Emergency Byars, Betsy countries and times Gleeson, Libby and the Great Bear Picture book Greder, Armin Literary text from other the Iron Man Hughes, Ted countries and times Literary text from other the Magician’s Elephant DiCamillo, Kate countries and times the Rabbit Problem Gravett, Emily Picture book the Riddle of the Trumpalar Bernard-Waite, Judy Australian literature Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Sneetches Dr Seuss perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other the Tale of Despereaux DiCamillo, Kate countries and times Champion, Tom Niland the Tall Man and the Twelve Babies Picture book and Niland, Kilmeny the Unforgotten Coat Boyce, Frank Cottrell Intercultural experiences Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 11 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Where the Forest Meets the Sea Baker, Jeannie experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Why I Love Australia Bancroft, Bronwyn experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Literary text from other Young Fredle Voigt, Cynthia countries and times Picture book Zen Shorts Muth, Jon J Literary text from other countries and times Zoola Palooza: A Book of Barretta, Gene Picture book Homographs Fiction: Stage 3 this list of texts includes texts that have also been suggested for other stages. Title Author Syllabus mapping A Banner Bold: the Diary of Rosa Wheatley, Nadia Australian literature Aarons (My Australian Story) Literary text from other Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland Caroll, Lewis countries and times Reeder, Stephanie Amazing Grace: An Adventure at Sea Australian literature Owen Montgomery, Lucy Literary text from other Anne of Green Gables Maud countries and times Cervantes, Miguel Literary text from other Don Quixote De; Jenkins, Martin countries and times (retold by) Literary text from other Dragon Rider Funke, Cornelia countries and times Dragonkeeper Trilogy Book I: Insights about the peoples Wilkinson, Carole Dragonkeeper and cultures of Asia Picture book Australian Cultural, social and gender Fox Wild, Margaret perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 12 Title Author Syllabus mapping Literary text from other Frindle Clements, Andrew countries and times Picture book Into the Forest Browne, Anthony Cultural, social and gender perspectives Literary text from other It’s a Book Smith, Lane countries and times Insights about the peoples Japan Diary White, Trudy and cultures of Asia Intercultural experiences Just a Dog: Some Dogs Change Bauer, Michael Australian literature Everything Gerard Insights about the peoples Little Brother Baillie, Allan and cultures of Asia Picture book Literary text from other Mbobo Tree Millard, Glenda countries and times Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Intercultural experiences Mirror Baker, Jeannie Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Motormouth Clark, Sherryl Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book My Mother’s Eyes: the Story of a Boy Australian Wilson, Mark Soldier Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book Australian literature Insights into Aboriginal My Place Wheatley, Nadia experiences in Australia Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender perspectives Literary text from other My Story series by Scholastic Various countries and times Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Australian literature Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Murphy, Sally; Potter, Pearl Verses the World Cultural, social and gender Heather (illustrator) perspectives Popular and youth cultures Wolfer, Dianne and Australian Photographs in the Mud Harrison-Lever, Brian Intercultural experiences Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 13 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Cultural, social and gender Piggybook Browne, Anthony perspectives Popular and youth cultures Potato Music Booth, Christina Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Picture book Literary text from other Innocenti, Roberto countries and times Rose Blanche and Gallaz, Cultural, social and gender Christophe perspectives Popular and youth cultures Rowan of Rin Rodda, Emily Australian literature Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia Samurai Kids: White Crane Fussell, Sandy Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Intercultural experiences Soraya the Storyteller Hawke, Rosanne Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia Stormbreaker Horowitz, Anthony Graphic novel Australian literature Noonuccal, Stradbroke Dreamtime Insights into Aboriginal Oodgeroo experiences in Australia Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book Australian literature Intercultural experiences Taj and the Great Camel Trek Hawke, Rosanne Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other the Black Stallion Farley, Walter countries and times Picture book the Book that Jack Wrote Scieszka, Jon Literary text from other countries and times Australian literature the Burnt Stick Hill, Anthony Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Literary text from other the Carpet People Pratchett, Terry countries and times Literary text from other the Eighteenth Emergency Byars, Betsy countries and times Intercultural experiences the Garden of Empress Cassia Wang, Gabrielle Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia Gleeson, Libby and the Great Bear Picture book Greder, Armin Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 14 Title Author Syllabus mapping Literary text from other the Iron Man Hughes, Ted countries and times Literary text from other the Magician’s Elephant DiCamillo, Kate countries and times the Rabbit Problem Gravett, Emily Picture book the Riddle of the Trumpalar Bernard-Waite, Judy Australian literature Picture book Australian literature the Road to Goonong Cox, David Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Sneetches Dr Seuss perspectives Popular and youth cultures the Unforgotten Coat Boyce, Frank Cottrell Intercultural experiences Picture book Literary text from other the Whale’s Song Sheldon, Dyan countries and times Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Toppling Murphy, Sally Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Two Hands Together Kidd, Diana Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Walk Twenty, Run Twenty Disher, Garry Australian literature Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Where the Forest Meets the Sea Baker, Jeannie experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Why I Love Australia Bancroft, Bronwyn experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Literary text from other Young Fredle Voigt, Cynthia countries and times Picture book Zen Shorts Muth, Jon J Literary text from other countries and times Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 15 Fiction: Stage 4 this list of texts includes texts that have also been suggested for other stages. Jennings, Paul perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Walk Two Moons Creech, Sharon Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other Watership Down Adams, Richard countries and times Literary text from other countries and times Cultural, social and gender Wildwood Meloy, Colin perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Literary text from other countries and times Wonder Palacio, R J Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times World Shaker Harland, Richard Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Wringer Spinelli, Jerry Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 22 Fiction: Stage 5 this list of texts includes texts that have also been suggested for other stages. Title Author Syllabus mapping Graphic novel Mairowitz, David A Tale of Two Cities Literary text from other Zane countries and times Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Against the Tide Savvides, Irini Cultural, social and gender perspectives Australian literature Cultural, social and gender All I Ever Wanted Wakefield, Vicki perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Beast Napoli, Donna Jo Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Black Juice Lanagan, Margot perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Blue Noise Oswald, Debra perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Borrowed Light Fienberg, Anna perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Intercultural experiences Chaos Walking Trilogy Book 1: the Cultural, social and gender Ness, Patrick Knife of Never Letting Go (2008) perspectives Popular and youth cultures Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Australian literature Intercultural experiences Insights about the peoples Chenxi and the Foreigner Rippin, Sally and cultures of Asia Cultural, social and gender perspectives Australian literature Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Deadly, Unna. Gwynne, Phillip Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 23 Title Author Syllabus mapping Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Dogs Condon, Bill perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Don’t Call Me Ishmael Bauer, Michael perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Insights about the peoples Eon (also published as the Two Pearls Goodman, Alison and cultures of Asia of Wisdom) Cultural, social and gender perspectives Literary text from other countries and times Eva Dickinson, Peter Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Every You, Every Me Levithan, David Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Provoost, Anne; Intercultural experiences Falling Nieuwenhuizen, John Cultural, social and gender (translator) perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Fighting Ruben Wolfe Zusak, Markus perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Finding Grace Brugman, Alyssa perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Graceling Cashore, Kristin Cultural, social and gender perspectives Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Graffiti Moon Crowley, Cath perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times In the Sea There Are Crocodiles Geda, Fabio Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender perspectives Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 24 Title Author Syllabus mapping Cultural, social and gender Inside My Head Carrington, Jim perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Jinx Wild, Margaret Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Liar Larbalestier, Justine Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Lonesome Howl Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Intercultural experiences Looking for Alibrandi Marchetta, Melina Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Love, Ghosts and Nose Hair: A Verse Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender Novel for Young Adults perspectives Popular and youth cultures Graphic novel Macbeth the Graphic Novel: Original McDonald, John Shakespeare Text (script adaptation) Shakespearean tragedy Graphic novel Literary text from other Medusa 3000 Maher, David countries and times Intercultural experiences Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Merryll of the Stones Caswell, Brian perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Mice Reece, Gordon Cultural, social and gender perspectives Literary text from other countries and times Montana 1948 Watson, Larry Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 25 Title Author Syllabus mapping Literary text from other countries and times Northern Lights Pullman, Philip Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Poison Under Their Lips Svendsen, Mark Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Red Gleeson, Libby perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Rough with the Smooth: Stories of Cultural, social and gender Coffey, Brian Australian Men perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Sabriel Nix, Garth perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Shakespeare’s Apprentice Bennett, Veronica Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Cultural, social and gender Some Girls Are Summers, Courtney perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other Stone Cold Swindells, Robert countries and times Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Stripes of the Sidestep Wolf Hartnett, Sonya perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Tehanu Le Guin, Ursula Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature (short stories) Hathorn, Libby the Blue Dress Cultural, social and gender (editor) perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 26 Title Author Syllabus mapping Cultural, social and gender perspectives the Bridge Higgins, Jane Popular and youth cultures Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Australian literature Intercultural experiences the Divine Wind Disher, Garry Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Intercultural experiences the Dons Fusillo, Archimede Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Intercultural experiences the House that was Eureka Wheatley, Nadia Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures the Hunger Games Trilogy: Cultural, social and gender the Hunger Games (2008), the Hunger perspectives Games Book 2: Catching Fire (2009) Collins, Suzanne Popular and youth cultures and the Hunger Games Book 3: Aspects of environmental Mockingjay (2010) and social sustainability Bondoux, Literary text from other the Killer’s Tears Anne-Laure countries and times Literary text from other countries and times the Looking Glass Wars Beddor, Frank Cultural, social and gender perspectives Literary text from other countries and times the Sterkarm Handshake Price, Susan Cultural, social and gender perspectives Literary text from other countries and times the Wind Singer Nicholson, William Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Intercultural experiences the Wrong Boy Zail, Suzy Cultural, social and gender perspectives Literary text from other countries and times To Kill a Mockingbird Lee, Harper Cultural, social and gender perspectives Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 27 Title Author Syllabus mapping Australian literature Poetry (verse novel) Tom Jones Saves the World Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Tomorrow When the War Began Marsden, John perspectives Popular and youth cultures Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Touch Me Moloney, James perspectives Popular and youth cultures Graphic novel Literary text from other countries and times Tyranny: I Keep You Thin Fairfield, Lesley Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Literary text from other countries and times Cultural, social and gender Where the Streets Had a Name Abdel-Fattah, Randa perspectives Popular and youth cultures Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Australian literature Cultural, social and gender Wolf on the Fold Clarke, Judith perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 28 Picture books and graphic novels Preface Picture books are a valuable range of enjoyable, thoughtful and imaginative fiction. They provide an opportunity for students to consider the effect of combining visual and printed texts to tell a story that might have a moral or allegorical level of significance. Many picture books are aimed at an older audience, while others are accessible at a number of levels. For that reason many picture books are considered appropriate for a number of stages. Classics Classic picture books include Maurice Sendak’s Where the Wild Things Are and Outside Over There. Picture books and graphic novels: Early Stage 1 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry A Monster Wrote Me a Letter Bland, Nick Picture book Alfie Gets in First Hughes, Shirley Picture book Poetry And Red Galoshes Millard, Glenda Picture book Belinda Allen, Pamela Picture book Beware of the Storybook Wolves Child, Lauren Picture book Poetry Big Words for Little People Curtis, Jamie Lee Picture book Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You Martin, Jr Bill Picture book See. Poetry Bubble Trouble Mahy, Margaret Picture book Picture book Can You Cuddle Like a Koala. Butler, John Australian Poetry Charlie Cook’s Favourite Book Donaldson, Julia Picture book Clancy & Millie and the Very Fine House Gleeson, Libby Picture book Dear Zoo Campbell, Rod Picture book Don’t Forget the Bacon Hutchins, Pat Picture book Ahlberg, Allan and Each Peach Pear Plum Picture book Ahlberg, Janet Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 29 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Kelly, Paul; Hudson, Australian From Little Things Big Things Grow Peter (illustrator) Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia King, Stephen Henry and Amy Picture book Michael I Went Walking Machin, Sue Picture book I’m not Scared!. Allen, Jonathan Picture book I’m the Best Cousins, Lucy Picture book Invisible Me Binks, Wendy Picture book Picture book Australian Is Your Grandmother a Goanna. Grindley, Sally Picture book Picture book Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain Ardizzone, Edward Literary text from other countries and times Picture book Australian literature Look See, Look at Me Norrington, Leonie Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Gleeson, Libby and Look, a Book!. Picture book Blackwood, Freya Picture book Lost and Found Jeffers, Oliver Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Maisy Goes on Holiday Cousins, Lucy Picture book Maisy’s Bus Cousins, Lucy Picture book Maudie and Bear Omerod, Jan Picture book Mr Archimedes’ Bath Allen, Pamela Picture book Mr Gumpy’s Outing Burningham, John Picture book Mr McGee and the Biting Flea Allen, Pamela Picture book Mr McGee Goes to Sea Allen, Pamela Picture book Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Australian literature Night-Time Tale Brown, Ruth Picture book Olivia Falconer, Ian Picture book Otto, the Book Bear Cleminson, Katie Picture book Factual One Arm Point Picture book Our World: Bardi Jaawi: Life at Remote Community Australian Ardiyooloon School Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 30 Title Author Syllabus mapping Temple, Jol and Poetry Parrot Carrot Temple, Kate Picture book Watts, Frances; Parsley Rabbit’s Book about Books Legge, David Picture book (illustrator) Pearl Barley and Charley Parsley Blabey, Aaron Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Fenton, Corinne; Picture book Queenie: One Elephant’s Story Gouldthorpe, Peter Australian (illustrator) Picture book Sebastian Lives in a Hat Catterwell, Thelma Australian Australian literature Noonuccal, Stradbroke Dreamtime Insights into Aboriginal Oodgeroo experiences in Australia Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book Picture book Ten Blue Wrens Honey, Elizabeth Australian the Deep End Dubosarsky, Ursula Australian literature Poetry the Ghost of Miss Annabelle Spoon Blabey, Aaron Picture book the Rain Train De Roo, Elena Picture book Picture book the Story About Ping Flack, Marjorie Literary text from other countries and times Champion, Tom the Tall Man and the Twelve Babies Niland and Niland, Picture book Kilmeny the Very Cranky Bear Bland, Nick Picture book the Very Hungry Caterpillar Carle, Eric Picture book the Very Itchy Bear Bland, Nick Picture book Picture book Sullivan, Rosemary; Australian Tom Tom Huxley, Dee Insights into Aboriginal (illustrator) experiences in Australia Violet Mackerel’s Brilliant Plot Branford, Anna Picture book When I Was a Baby Niland, Deborah Picture book Fox, Mem; Staub, Picture book Whoever You Are Leslie (illustrator) Australian Who Sank the Boat. Allen, Pamela Picture book Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Book Child, Lauren Picture book Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 31 Picture books and graphic novels: Stage 1 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry A Monster Wrote Me a Letter Bland, Nick Picture book Alfie Gets in First Hughes, Shirley Picture book Poetry And Red Galoshes Millard, Glenda Picture book April Underhill, Tooth Fairy Graham, Bob Picture book Musgrove, Margaret Picture book W; Dillon, Leo and Ashanti to Zulu: African Traditions Literary text from other Dillon, Diane countries and times (illustrators) Belinda Allen, Pamela Picture book Beware of the Storybook Wolves Child, Lauren Picture book Poetry Big Words for Little People Curtis, Jamie Lee Picture book Poetry Bubble Trouble Mahy, Margaret Picture book Poetry Charlie Cook’s Favourite Book Donaldson, Julia Picture book Clancy & Millie and the Very Fine House Gleeson, Libby Picture book Don’t Forget the Bacon Hutchins, Pat Picture book Drac and the Gremlin Baillie, Allan Picture book Ahlberg, Allan and Each Peach Pear Plum Picture book Ahlberg, Janet Poetry Picture book For All Creatures Millard, Glenda Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Kelly, Paul; Hudson, Australian From Little Things Big Things Grow Peter (illustrator) Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Poetry Yolen, Jane and Picture book Here’s a Little Poem Peters, Andrew Literary text from other Fusek (compilers) countries and times Poetry Hist Dennis, C J Picture book Australian literature I’m the Best Cousins, Lucy Picture book Invisible Me Binks, Wendy Picture book Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 32 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain Ardizzone, Edward Literary text from other countries and times Gleeson, Libby and Look, a Book!. Picture book Blackwood, Freya Picture book Lost and Found Jeffers, Oliver Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Maudie and Bear Omerod, Jan Picture book Picture book Intercultural experiences Mirror Baker, Jeannie Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Mr Archimedes’ Bath Allen, Pamela Picture book Poetry Mr McGee and the Biting Flea Allen, Pamela Picture book My Dad Thinks He’s Funny Germein, Katrina Picture book Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Australian literature Otto, the Book Bear Cleminson, Katie Picture book Factual One Arm Point Picture book Our World: Bardi Jaawi: Life at Remote Community Australian Ardiyooloon School Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Nicoll, Helen and Owl at School Picture book Pienkowski, Jan Temple, Jol and Poetry Parrot Carrot Temple, Kate Picture book Watts, Frances; Parsley Rabbit’s Book about Books Legge, David Picture book (illustrator) Pearl Barley and Charley Parsley Blabey, Aaron Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Fenton, Corinne; Picture book Queenie: One Elephant’s Story Gouldthorpe, Peter Australian (illustrator) Picture book Sebastian Lives in a Hat Catterwell, Thelma Australian Greenwood, Mark; Picture book Simpson and His Donkey Lessac, Frane Australian (illustrator) Picture book Australian Stellaluna Cannon, Janell Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 33 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry Stick Man Donaldson, Julia Picture book Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book Factual Picture book Swirl by Swirl: Spirals in Nature Sidman, Joyce Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry Tabby McTat Donaldson, Julia Picture book Picture book the Boy, the Bear, the Baron, the Bard Rogers, Gregory Literary text from other countries and times Poetry the Ghost of Miss Annabelle Spoon Blabey, Aaron Picture book Factual Picture book the Little Refugee Do, Anh Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia Intercultural experiences Picture book Literary text from other countries and times the Mysteries of Harris Burdick Van Allsburg, Chris Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures the Rain Train De Roo, Elena Picture book Picture book the Story About Ping Flack, Marjorie Literary text from other countries and times Champion, Tom the Tall Man and the Twelve Babies Niland and Niland, Picture book Kilmeny the Very Cranky Bear Bland, Nick Picture book the Very Itchy Bear Bland, Nick Picture book Picture book Sullivan, Rosemary; Australian Tom Tom Huxley, Dee Insights into Aboriginal (illustrator) experiences in Australia Who Sank the Boat. Allen, Pamela Picture book Fox, Mem; Staub, Picture book Whoever You Are Leslie (illustrator) Australian Zoola Palooza: A Book of Homographs Barretta, Gene Picture book Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 34 Picture books and graphic novels: Stage 2 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry And Red Galoshes Millard, Glenda Picture book Musgrove, Margaret Picture book W; Dillon, Leo and Ashanti to Zulu: African Traditions Literary text from other Dillon, Diane countries and times (illustrators) Poetry Big Words for Little People Curtis, Jamie Lee Picture book Poetry Bubble Trouble Mahy, Margaret Picture book Poetry Charlie Cook’s Favourite Book Donaldson, Julia Picture book Drac and the Gremlin Baillie, Allan Picture book Picture book Australian Cultural, social and gender Fox Wild, Margaret perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry Hist Dennis, C J Picture book Australian literature Picture book Into the Forest Browne, Anthony Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain Ardizzone, Edward Literary text from other countries and times Picture book Lost and Found Jeffers, Oliver Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Malu Kangaroo: How the First Children Morecroft, Judith and Australian Learnt to Surf Bancroft, Bronwyn Aboriginal experiences in Australia Maudie and Bear Omerod, Jan Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Picture book Factual Picture book One Small Island: the Story of Lester, Alison and Australian Macquarie Island Tullock, Coral Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Factual One Arm Point Picture book Our World: Bardi Jaawi: Life at Remote Community Australian Ardiyooloon School Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Pearl Barley and Charley Parsley Blabey, Aaron Picture book Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 35 Title Author Syllabus mapping Potato Music Booth, Christina Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Greenwood, Mark; Picture book Simpson and His Donkey Lessac, Frane Australian (illustrator) Picture book Australian Stellaluna Cannon, Janell Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry Stick Man Donaldson, Julia Picture book Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book Poetry Yolen, Jane and Switching on the Moon: A Very First Picture book Peters, Andrew Book of Bedtime Poems Literary text from other Fusek (collected by) countries and times Poetry Tabby McTat Donaldson, Julia Picture book Picture book the Boy, the Bear, the Baron, the Bard Rogers, Gregory Literary text from other countries and times Poetry the Ghost of Miss Annabelle Spoon Blabey, Aaron Picture book Gleeson, Libby and the Great Bear Picture book Greder, Armin Picture book Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender the Island Greder, Armin perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Factual Picture book the Little Refugee Do, Anh Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia Intercultural experiences Factual the Peasant Prince Cunxin, Li Picture book the Rabbit Problem Gravett, Emily Picture book Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Sneetches Dr Seuss perspectives Popular and youth cultures Champion, Tom the Tall Man and the Twelve Babies Niland and Niland, Picture book Kilmeny Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 36 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Insights into Aboriginal Where the Forest Meets the Sea Baker, Jeannie experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Why I Love Australia Bancroft, Bronwyn experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Factual Picture book World Food Alphabet Caldicott, Chris Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Zen Shorts Muth, Jon J Literary text from other countries and times Zoola Palooza: A Book of Homographs Barretta, Gene Picture book Picture books and graphic novels: Stage 3 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Australian Cultural, social and gender Fox Wild, Margaret perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Into the Forest Browne, Anthony Picture book Picture book Literary text from other Mbobo Tree Millard, Glenda countries and times Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Intercultural experiences Mirror Baker, Jeannie Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book My Mother’s Eyes: the Story of a Boy Australian Wilson, Mark Soldier Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book Australian literature Insights into Aboriginal My Place Wheatley, Nadia experiences in Australia Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender perspectives Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 37 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book My Uncle’s Donkey Riddle, Tohby Australian literature Factual One Arm Point Picture book Our World: Bardi Jaawi: Life at Remote Community Australian Ardiyooloon School Insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia Picture book Cultural, social and gender Piggybook Browne, Anthony perspectives Popular and youth cultures Potato Music Booth, Christina Picture book Previously Ahlberg, Allan Picture book Picture book Literary text from other Innocenti, Roberto countries and times Rose Blanche and Gallaz, Cultural, social and gender Christophe perspectives Popular and youth cultures Stormbreaker Horowitz, Anthony Graphic novel Sunshine Ormerod, Jan Picture book Picture book the Book that Jack Wrote Scieszka, Jon Literary text from other countries and times Gleeson, Libby and the Great Bear Picture book Greder, Armin Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Hero of Little Street Rogers, Gregory perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender the Island Greder, Armin perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian literature the Road to Goonong Cox, David Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Sneetches Dr Seuss perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Literary text from other the Whale’s Song Sheldon, Dyan countries and times Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 38 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Where the Forest Meets the Sea Baker, Jeannie experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Why I Love Australia Bancroft, Bronwyn experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Zen Shorts Muth, Jon J Literary text from other countries and times Picture books and graphic novels: Stage 4 Title Author Syllabus mapping Graphic novel Mairowitz, David A Tale of Two Cities Literary text from other Zane countries and times Colfer, Eoin and Artemis Fowl: the Graphic Novel Graphic novel Donkin, Andrew Graphic novel Literary text from other Coraline: the Graphic Novel Russell, P Craig countries and times Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book Australian literature Damon Crew, Gary Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Australian Cultural, social and gender Fox Wild, Margaret perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian literature Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender I Am Thomas Gleeson, Libby perspectives Popular and youth cultures Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Into the Forest Browne, Anthony Cultural, social and gender perspectives Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 39 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Intercultural experiences Mirror Baker, Jeannie Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book My Mother’s Eyes: the Story of a Boy Australian Wilson, Mark Soldier Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book Australian literature Insights into Aboriginal My Place Wheatley, Nadia experiences in Australia Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book Cultural, social and gender Piggybook Browne, Anthony perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Rebel!. Baillie, Allan Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia Picture book Literary text from other Innocenti, Roberto countries and times Rose Blanche and Gallaz, Cultural, social and gender Christophe perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Sadako Coerr, Eleanor Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia Picture book Australian literature Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia the Arrival Tan, Shaun Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book the Book that Jack Wrote Scieszka, Jon Literary text from other countries and times Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Hero of Little Street Rogers, Gregory perspectives Popular and youth cultures Graphic novel Literary text from other countries and times the Invention of Hugo Cabret Selznick, Brian Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 40 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender the Island Greder, Armin perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian literature the Lost Thing Tan, Shaun Cultural, social and gender perspectives Picture book Literary text from other countries and times the Mysteries of Harris Burdick Van Allsburg, Chris Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Australian literature the Road to Goonong Cox, David Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Sneetches Dr Seuss perspectives Popular and youth cultures Liao, Jimmy; Picture book the Sound of Colors: A Journey of the Thomson, Sarah L Literary text from other Imagination (adapted by) countries and times Picture book Literary text from other countries and times the Tunnel Browne, Anthony Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Literary text from other the Whale’s Song Sheldon, Dyan countries and times Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Vampyre Wild, Margaret Literary text from other countries and times Picture book Australian literature Way Home Hathorn, Libby Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Australian Insights into Aboriginal Where the Forest Meets the Sea Baker, Jeannie experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 41 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Cultural, social and gender Woolvs in the Sitee Wild, Margaret perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture books and graphic novels: Stage 5 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Australian Cultural, social and gender Fox Wild, Margaret perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Picture book Australian Intercultural experiences Home and Away Marsden, John Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Graphic novel Macbeth the Graphic Novel: Original McDonald, John (script Shakespeare Text adaptation) Shakespearean tragedy Graphic novel Literary text from other Medusa 3000 Maher, David countries and times Intercultural experiences Picture book Australian literature Memorial Crew, Gary Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Cultural, social and gender Piggybook Browne, Anthony perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Australian literature Insights about the peoples and cultures of Asia the Arrival Tan, Shaun Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender the Island Greder, Armin perspectives Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 42 Title Author Syllabus mapping Picture book Australian literature Marsden, John and the Rabbits Cultural, social and gender Tan, Shaun perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book Australian literature the Red Tree Tan, Shaun Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Picture book the Sound of Colors: A Journey of the Liao, Jimmy; Thomson, Literary text from other Imagination Sarah L (adapted by) countries and times Picture book Cultural, social and gender the Watertower Crew, Gary perspectives Popular and youth cultures Graphic novel Literary text from other countries and times Tyranny: I Keep You Thin Fairfield, Lesley Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 43 Poetry Preface the English K–10 Syllabus requires students to include poetry in their study of English. In Stage 5, students are required to read and closely study a variety of poems drawn from different anthologies and/or study one or two poets. In addition to reading individual poems, students are encouraged to write their own, to make anthologies and collections of favourite poems, to read widely in poetry and to use it to illuminate and complement other textual experiences. Some contain an unembellished collection of poems, or feature a complementary blend of poems, pictures and illustrations; others intermingle poems with questions, exercises and teaching suggestions. Many of the anthologies contain poems that are translations as well as a number from Australian writers of different cultural and language backgrounds. Classic poems Some classic poems that would be accessible to students are: Arnold Dover Beach Auden Unknown Citizen Blight Death of a Whale Bronte, Emily Remembrance Browning the Pied Piper of Hamelin Byron She Walks in Beauty Frost Out, Out Gray Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Hopkins Pied Beauty Lawrence Last Lesson of the Afternoon Lawson Faces in the Street Milton On His Blindness Poe the Raven Sassoon Does it Matter. Shelley Ozymandias Tennyson the Lady of Shalott Thomas Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night Whitman On the Beach at Night Wordsworth I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud (Daffodils) In addition, the list contains a small number of books by individual poets who would be particularly accessible to students. Either individually or in class sets, each of the texts on this list can be used as an encouragement to wide reading, as the basis for small personal anthologies or simply as a source of specific poems for sharing or analysis. Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 44 the variety of poems represented in most of the books here will also give student writers the confidence to experiment with language, to create new sounds, overturn sense and take risks. Poems are short enough to allow students to see how much difference changing a word or a line here or there can really make to the poem. And any one of these poetry books will show students the enormous range of subject matter for any poem. Poetry: Early Stage 1 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry A Monster Wrote Me a Letter Bland, Nick Picture book Poetry And Red Galoshes Millard, Glenda Picture book Poetry Big Words for Little People Curtis, Jamie Lee Picture book Poetry Bubble Trouble Mahy, Margaret Picture book Poetry Charlie Cook’s Favourite Book Donaldson, Julia Picture book Costain, Meredith; Poetry Doodledum Dancing Allen, Pamela Australian literature (illustrator) Temple, Jol and Poetry Parrot Carrot Temple, Kate Picture book Poetry the Ghost of Miss Annabelle Spoon Blabey, Aaron Picture book Poetry: Stage 1 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry A Monster Wrote Me a Letter Bland, Nick Picture book Factual Poetry A Zeal of Zebras: An Alphabet of Woop Studios Picture book Collective Nouns Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry And Red Galoshes Millard, Glenda Picture book Poetry Big Words for Little People Curtis, Jamie Lee Picture book Poetry Bubble Trouble Mahy, Margaret Picture book Poetry Charlie Cook’s Favourite Book Donaldson, Julia Picture book Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 45 Title Author Syllabus mapping Costain, Meredith; Poetry Doodledum Dancing Allen, Pamela Australian literature (illustrator) Poetry Yolen, Jane and Picture book Here’s a Little Poem Peters, Andrew Literary text from other Fusek (compilers) countries and times Poetry Hist Dennis, C J Picture book Australian literature Temple, Jol and Poetry Parrot Carrot Temple, Kate Picture book Poetry Stick Man Donaldson, Julia Picture book Poetry Tabby McTat Donaldson, Julia Picture book Poetry the Ghost of Miss Annabelle Spoon Blabey, Aaron Picture book Poetry: Stage 2 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry 60 Classic Australian Poems Cheng, Christopher Australian literature Poetry And Red Galoshes Millard, Glenda Picture book Poetry Big Words for Little People Curtis, Jamie Lee Picture book Poetry Bubble Trouble Mahy, Margaret Picture book Poetry Charlie Cook’s Favourite Book Donaldson, Julia Picture book Poetry Hist Dennis, C J Picture book Australian literature Poetry Stick Man Donaldson, Julia Picture book Yolen, Jane and Switching On the Moon: A Very First Poetry Peters, Andrew Book of Bedtime Poems Picture book Fusek (collected by) Poetry Tabby McTat Donaldson, Julia Picture book Poetry the Ghost of Miss Annabelle Spoon Blabey, Aaron Picture book Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 46 Poetry: Stage 3 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry 60 Classic Australian Poems Cheng, Christopher Australian literature Poetry Picture book Animal Poems Worth, Valerie Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry Big Book of Verse for Aussie Kids Haynes, Jim Australian literature Poetry Bubble Trouble Mahy, Margaret Picture book Poetry Charlie Cook’s Favourite Book Donaldson, Julia Picture book Poetry Picture book For All Creatures Millard, Glenda Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Motormouth Clark, Sherryl Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry New and Collected Poems for Children Duffy, Carol Ann Literary text from other countries and times Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Murphy, Sally; Potter, Pearl Verses the World Cultural, social and gender Heather (illustrator) perspectives Popular and youth cultures Yolen, Jane and Switching on the Moon: A Very First Poetry Peters, Andrew Book of Bedtime Poems Picture book Fusek (collected by) Poetry Tabby McTat Donaldson, Julia Picture book Poetry Ted Hughes: Collected Poems for Hughes, Ted Aspects of environmental Children and social sustainability Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Toppling Murphy, Sally Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 47 Poetry: Stage 4 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry Literary text from other Parker, Victoria countries and times 100 Great Poems (editor) Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry 60 Classic Australian Poems Cheng, Christopher Australian literature Poetry Australian literature Harris, Rory and Cultural, social and gender A Book to Write Poems By McFarlane, Peter perspectives (editors) Popular and youth cultures Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry A Child’s Introduction to Poetry Driscoll, Michael Literary text from other countries and times Poetry Picture book Animal Poems Worth, Valerie Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry Big Book of Verse for Aussie Kids Haynes, Jim Australian literature Poetry Book Speak!. Poems Written About Picture book Salas, Laura Purdie Books Cultural, social and gender perspectives Poetry Literary text from other countries and times By Heart: 101 Poems to Remember Hughes, Ted (editor) Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry Classic Poetry: An Illustrated Collection Rosen, Michael Literary text from other (Walker Illustrated Classics) countries and times Poetry (verse novel) Herrick, Steven; Australian literature Do-Wrong Ron Magerl, Caroline Cultural, social and gender (illustrator) perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry Picture book For All Creatures Millard, Glenda Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 48 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Motormouth Clark, Sherryl Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry New and Collected Poems for Children Duffy, Carol Ann Literary text from other countries and times Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Murphy, Sally; Potter, Pearl Verses the World Cultural, social and gender Heather (illustrator) perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry Media, multimedia and Paschen, Elise Poetry Speaks to Children digital text (spoken text) (editor) Literary text from other countries and times Poetry Paschen, Elise and Media, multimedia and Poetry Speaks Who I Am Raccah, Dominique digital text (spoken text) (editors) Literary text from other countries and times Poetry Poetry Unlocked: An Anthology Hamilton, Elaine and Cultural, social and gender Arranged in Themes Farr, Robin (editors) perspectives Poetry Poets’ Graves Website Media, multimedia and digital text (website) Poetry Literary text from other countries and times Rhyme Stew Dahl, Roald Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Shark Girl Bingham, Kelly Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Sixth Grade Style Queen (Not!. On Being Australian (editor) Australian literature Poetry: Stage 5 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry 60 Classic Australian Poems Cheng, Christopher Australian literature 60 Classic Australian Poems: With Poetry Page, Geoff (editor) Commentaries Australian literature Poetry A Child’s Introduction to Poetry Driscoll, Michael Literary text from other countries and times Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 50 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Against the Tide Savvides, Irini Intercultural experiences Cultural, social and gender perspectives Poetry Australian literature Bradstock, Margaret Insights into Aboriginal Antipodes: Poetic Responses (editor) experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Poetry Tranter, John Australian Australian Poetry Library (director) Media, multimedia and digital text (website) Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature By the River Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender perspectives Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Cold Skin Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender perspectives Harbour City Poems: Sydney in Verse Langford, Martin Poetry 1788–2008 (editor) Australian literature Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Jinx Wild, Margaret Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry Literary text from other McNeice, Lisa Latitude: Exploring and Creating Poetry countries and times (editor) Cultural, social and gender perspectives Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Lonesome Howl Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Love, Ghosts and Nose Hair: A Verse Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender Novel for Young Adults perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry New and Collected Poems for Children Duffy, Carol Ann Literary text from other countries and times Harrison, Michael Poetry Oxford Treasury of Time Poems and Stuart-Clark, Literary text from other Christopher (editors) countries and times Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 51 Title Author Syllabus mapping Poetry Paschen, Elise and Media, multimedia and Poetry Speaks Who I Am Raccah, Dominique digital text (spoken text) (editors) Literary text from other countries and times Poetry Poetry Unlocked: An Anthology Hamilton, Elaine and Cultural, social and gender Arranged in Themes Farr, Robin (editors) perspectives Poetry Poets’ Graves Website Media, multimedia and digital text (website) Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Shark Girl Bingham, Kelly Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Poetry Australian Spirit Song: A Collection of Aboriginal Mafi-Williams, Insights into Aboriginal Poetry Lorraine experiences in Australia Aspects of environmental and social sustainability Tapestry: Poetry for Secondary Williams, Michelle Poetry Students Poetry Ted Hughes: Collected Poems for Hughes, Ted Aspects of environmental Children and social sustainability the Puncher and Wattman Anthology of Leonard, John Poetry Australian Poetry (editor) Australian literature Poetry Featherstone, Media, multimedia and the Red Room Company Johanna (website digital text (website) director) Australian literature Poetry Dennis, C J, poems the Sentimental Bloke, the Poems Media, multimedia and read by Jack of C J Dennis digital text (website) Thompson Australian literature Plunkett, Felicity Poetry Thirty Australian Poets (editor) Australian literature Poetry (verse novel) Australian literature Tom Jones Saves the World Herrick, Steven Cultural, social and gender perspectives Popular and youth cultures Traditional Australian Verse: the Walsh, Richard Poetry Essential Collection (editor) Australian literature Goldsworthy, Peter Poetry True Blue. On Being Australian (editor) Australian literature Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 52 Film Preface the English K–10 Syllabus requires the study of film in both Stages 4 and 5. Included in the lists are films appropriate for students in Early Stage 1 to Stage 3. Their power lies in their ability to shape public opinion, create public debate and give rise to fashions and fads. Films, like all texts that are meant to deliberately communicate with us, are constructed within a particular context and time. The contexts in which a film is produced and the processes of production, distribution and exhibition are all used to create meaning. Just as with any study of literature we must ascertain the film’s purpose, its message, its plot and story, its characters, and the elements that produce these and create its meaning. Classic films In addition to films that have been included in the annotated list, teachers may want to introduce students to some classic films from particular genres. Metropolis, the Marx Brothers’ A Night at the Opera, Casablanca and the Maltese Falcon are classic films that have a place in a film study unit.

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As with other round intensity antibiotics harmful cheap cefaclor 250 mg mastercard, and enhancement virus bulletin rap test buy 250mg cefaclor mastercard, especially on fat-suppression images antibiotics for uti 250 mg cefaclor for sale. The juvenile form usu cellular marrow in ltration as T1-hypointense and T2-isointense ally involves the musculoskeletal system bacteria have cell walls cefaclor 500 mg low price. In younger mass or masses (T1-isointense to hypointense, T2-isointense to patients, it may be dif cult to distinguish tumor in ltration of hypointense or hyperintense, with gadolinium enhancement, marrow from the hematopoietically active red marrow (also T1 with use of fat-suppression techniques), that extends along tissue hypointense, T2-isointense to hyperintense, and enhancing). Conversion to yellow marrow (increased fat content, therefore T1-hyperintense) occurs with increasing age as well as with the Other “Malignant” Tumors of Mesenchymal Origin myelosuppressive effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Osteosarcoma is an osteoid-forming neoplasm and the most com Marrow in ltration may then be more readily detected until there mon primary bone neoplasm of childhood. Subtypes include is red marrow rebound after therapeutic response (including after osteoblastic, chondroblastic, telangiectatic, and broblastic. A mottled marrow pattern may Spinal involvement is infrequent and may be metastatic. Fat-suppres some cases it may be radiation-induced or may arise from an sion T2-weighted techniques. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, and ra markedly enhancing masses that may be associated with bone diotherapy. Treatment includes umn as a mass, or may represent lymphatic or hematogenous me surgery and radiotherapy. Tumors of Neural Crest Origin Ewing sarcoma arises from the primitive reticulum stem cell the spinal tumors of neural crest origin include neuroblastoma, (bone marrow origin) and is a common tumor of childhood. It is composed of neuroblasts and arises within the sympathetic nervous system. Non-uniform intensities may be related to calci cation, hemorrhage, edema, and necrosis. Its behavior may be similar to that of neuroblastoma, including metastases and spinal canal extension. Images show a T2-weighted hyperintense and enhancing neoplasms of primitive neuroepithelial origin. Imaging ndings posterior mediastinal and paraspinal mass (anterior long arrows), intraspi are similar to those for other round cell tumors, including soft nal extension (posterior long arrows), and marrow involvement (vertical tissue mass, bone destruction, and calci cation (as discussed arrows). Seeding may rarely occur with astrocyto ma, choroid plexus tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, retinoblastoma, or rhabdomyosarcoma. Hemor rhagic or enhancing postoperative subdural or subarachnoid collections, and in ammatory or infectious processes may mimic neoplastic seeding. The majority of the intramedullary tumors in childhood are astrocytomas and gangliogliomas, and fewer are ependymomas. Cervicothoracic spinal cord astrocytoma on sagittal T2 Gangliogliomas and ependymomas are often more circumscribed. It may be circumscribed or may in ltrate the conus medul nonenhancing cystic component (short arrows). Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, fracture), which may be associated with a paraspinal or epidural 2005. There may be diffuse homogenous or inhomogeneous mar Blaser S I, Illner A, Castillo M, et al: Peds Neuro: 100 Top Diagnoses. Intradural (Extramedullary) Tumors Tortori-Donati P, Rossi A : Pediatric Neuroradiology. Intradural tumors arise within the dural sac and outside the spinal van der Knaap M S, Valk J : Magnetic Resonance of Myelination and Myelin cord. Louis, Mosby-Year developmental tumors (discussed earlier), and meningeal tumors Book, 1992. Schwannomas often occur sporadically in Zimmerman R A, Gibby W A, Carmody R F (eds): Neuroimaging: Clinical and childhood. Neuroimaging ment is common, including epidural foraminal and intraspinal Clin North Am 1999;9(1). Abstract Hashimoto Thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease and the most common cause of hypothyroidism in developed countries. As the disease initiates unusual thyroidal antigens are exposed to the immune system. The immune system sensitizes to those antigens and creates a cell mediated autoimmune response against thyroid gland. Inflammatory cells infiltrate within thyroid follicles and destruct the follicles by inflicting oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis. As the disease progresses and the follicles degrade, fibrotic tissue replaces the follicles until the whole gland becomes fibrotic. Introduction Oxidative stress also plays an important role in pathogenesis of the disease. Alteration of cellular defense disease characterized by presence of auto-antibodies against thyroid against oxidative stress results in oxidative damage to thyrocytes, antigens, infltration of leukocytes within the thyroid follicles and initiating aberrant cell apoptosis and necrosis of the cells, which destruction of thyrocytes, with a male/female ratio of 1:10-1:20. For instance, 3 month supplementation with Selenium, an worldwide incidence of Hashimoto thyroiditis as 0. Selenium clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism only afer advanced destruction supplementation reinforces intra-thyroidal seleno-enzymes, boosts of thyroid follicles [1]. As the disease initiates, thyrocytes enter a cytostatic state remission of the disease but not palliation of disease symptoms. Herein, we have gathered the current autoimmune destruction of thyroid and the immune response against knowledge together to conclude a uniform pathophysiological the gland. Tus, based upon the mentioned mechanism can attenuate immune response against thyroid, which in turn involved in the disease, we have suggested a medication decreases exposure of thyroid antigens to immune system [21]. As the (Pentoxifylline) that can alter the pathologic state of the disease in rate of exposure decreases, the rate of anti-thyroid antibody formation order to prevent both the development and progression of its process. Tese hypotheses could be subjected to several clinical trials to evaluate the efcacy of this medication and compare it with current managements. In order to progresses and the follicles degrade, fbrotic tissue replaces the evaluate the other minor hypotheses the patients could be followed follicles until the whole gland becomes fbrotic. Tereby it is hypothesized that presence of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies [47]. Taylor P (1998) The prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia and association Prescription of the drug is not as simple as it may seem [68]. Diferent with markers of autoimmune thyroid disease in survivors of the individuals may need diferent amounts of hormone replacement, and Whickham Survey cohort. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 43: as the disease has a progressive course in most of the cases, so the 55-68. Conversely as the patients with hypothyroidism Hashimoto thyroiditis is more frequent than expected when diagnosed by cytology which uncovers a pre-clinical state. Clinical Endocrinology 55: thyrotoxicosis and over-replacement with levothyroxine could 1-11 complicate the patients with osteoporosis and adverse cardiac events, 7. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 76: total cost of medication per patient would be signifcantly high [71]. High-Producing Allele T and Low-Producing Allele A (+874 A/T) with Hashimoto’s Tyroiditis and Graves’ disease. Scandinavian adjustment of Levothyroxine, possible complications of over-treatment Journal of Immunology 64: 438–443. It may reduce exposure of intra cellular/follicular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase components to immune system and decrease infltration of leukocytes antibodies concentrations. Turker O, Kumanlioglu K, Karapolat I, Dogan I (2006) Selenium treatment in autoimmune thyroiditis: 9-month follow-up with variable alternative treatment. Bogdan C, Paik J, Vodovotz Y, Nathan C (1992) Contrasting mechanisms Dementia Study. Kawakami Y, Kuzuya N, Watanabe T, Uchiyama Y, Yamashita K (1990) Devel Ter 7: 325-338. Immunol Rev 94: Pentoxifylline improves short-term survival in severe acute alcoholic 137-169. Mandi Y, Farkas G, Ocsovszky I, Nagy Z (1995) Inhibition of tumor (1991) Interleukin-6 production by thyroid epithelial cells.

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Plotting equal-support lines for strength and weight in logarithmic coordinates yields a family of parallel straight lines with a slope of 1 antibiotic 6340 buy genuine cefaclor line, as illustrated by the dotted lines in Fig bacterial 16s sequencing buy cefaclor 250 mg. For example infection transmission buy cefaclor 500 mg on line, a sample size of 9 with 6 heads and 3 tails and a sample size of 17 with 10 heads and 7 tails yields the same posterior probability ( antibiotics for uti erythromycin purchase cefaclor on line amex. Similarly, the lower line connects the data sets that yield a posterior probability of. To compare the observed judgments with Bayes’ rule, we first transformed each probability judgment into log odds; then, for each subject as well as the median data, regressed the logarithm of these values against the logarithms of strength, (h t)/n, and of weight, n, separately for each subject. According to Bayes’ rule, the regression weights for strength and weight in this metric are equal (see Fig. In contrast, the regression coefficient for strength was larger than the regression coefficient for weight for 30 out of 35 subjects (p <. The comparison of the two sets of lines highly reveal two noteworthy observations. First, the intuitive lines are much shallower than the Bayesian lines, indicating that the strength of evidence dominates its weight. As is seen later, the crossing point is determined primarily by the discriminability of the competing hypotheses (d). If the subjects were Bayesian, the solid lines would coincide with the dotted line. Instead, intuitive judgments based on the small sample (n = 5) were overconfident, whereas the judgments based on the larger sample (n = 17) were underconfident. However, Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who investigated the role of sample size in researchers’ confidence in the replicability of their results, concluded that people (even those trained in statistics) make radical inferences on the basis of small samples. In some updating experiments conducted by Edwards, subjects were exposed to large samples of data typically of moderate strength. The situations studied by Tversky and Kahneman, however, involve moderately strong effects based on fairly small samples. Both conservatism and overconfidence, therefore, can be generated by a common bias in the weighting of evidence; namely, the dominance of strength over weight. As noted earlier, the tendency to focus on the strength of the evidence leads people to neglect or underweight other variables, such as the prior probability of the hypothesis in question or the discriminability of the competing hypotheses. All three studies reported in this section use a within-subject design, in which both the strength of the evidence and the mitigating variable. This procedure may underestimate the dominance of strength because people tend to respond to whatever variable is manipulated within a study whether or not it is normative to do so (Fischhoff & Bar-Hillel, 1984). Indeed, the neglect of sample size and base rate information has been most pronounced in between-subject comparisons (Kahneman & Tversky, 1972). Study 2: Base Rate Considerable research has demonstrated that people tend to neglect background data. This neglect can lead either to underconfidence or overconfidence, as shown later. We asked 40 students to imagine that they had three different foreign coins, each with a known bias of 3 : 2. As in Study 1, subjects did not know if the bias of each coin was in favor of heads (H) or tails (T). Subjects were presented with samples of size 10, which included from 5 to 9 heads. They were then asked to give their confidence (in percentages) that the coin under consideration was biased in favor of heads. Again, a $20 prize was offered for the person whose judgments most closely matched the correct values. It is clear that our subjects overweighted strength of evidence and underweighted the prior probability. Again, if subjects were Bayesian, the solid lines of best fit would coincide with the dotted Bayesian line. It is evident from the figure that subjects were overconfident in the low base-rate condition and underconfident in the high base-rate condition. These results are consistent with Grether’s (1980, 1992) studies concerning the role of the representativeness heuristic in judgments of posterior probability. Unlike the present study, in which both prior probabilities and data were presented in numeric form, Grether’s procedure involved random sampling of numbered balls from a bingo cage. He found that subjects overweighted the likelihood ratio relative to prior probability, as implied by representativeness, and that monetary incentives reduced but did not eliminate base-rate neglect. Grether’s results, like those found by Camerer (1990) in an extensive study of market trading, contradict the claim of Gigerenzer, Hell, and Blank (1988) that explicit random sampling eliminates base-rate neglect. Our analysis implies that people are prone to overconfidence when the base rate is low and to underconfidence when the base rate is high. Dunning, Griffin, Milojkovic, and Ross (1990) observed this pattern in a study of social prediction. In their study, each subject interviewed a target person before making predictions about the target’s preferences and behavior. The authors presented each subject with the empirically derived estimates of the base-rate frequency of the responses in question. To investigate the effect of empirical base rates, Dunning and colleagues analyzed separately the predictions that agreed with the base rate. Overconfidence was much more pronounced when base-rates were low (confidence = 72%, accuracy = 49%) than when base rates were high (confidence = 79%, accuracy = 75%). Moreover, for items with base rates that exceeded 75%, subjects’ predictions were actually underconfident. This is exactly the pattern implied by the hypothesis that subjects evaluate the probability that a given person would prefer Playboy over the New York Review of Books on the basis of their impression of that person with little or no regard for the empirical base rate; that is, the relative popularity of the two magazines in the target population. Study 3: Discriminability When we consider the question of which of two hypotheses is true, confidence should depend on the degree to which the data fit one hypothesis better than the other. However, people seem to focus on the strength of evidence for a given hypothesis and neglect how well the same evidence fits an alternate hypothesis. It is easy to construct a personality sketch that will impress many people as a fairly accurate description of their own characteristics because they evaluate the description by the degree to which it fits their personality with little or no concern for whether it fits others just as well (Forer, 1949). To explore this effect in a chance setup, we presented 50 students with evidence about two types of foreign coins. Within each type of coin, the strength of evidence (sample proportion) varied from 7/12 heads to 10/12 heads. Subjects were instructed as follows: Imagine that you are spinning a foreign coin called a quinta. After they gave their confidence that each sample came from an X-quinta or a Y-quinta, subjects were asked to make the same judgments for A libnars (which have a. The comparison of the confidence judgments to the Bayesian posterior probabilities indicates that our subjects focused primarily on the degree to which the data fit the favored hypothesis with insufficient regard for how well they fit the alternate hypothesis (Fischhoff & Beyth-Marom, 1983). When the discriminability between the hypotheses was low (when the coin’s bias was either. In the early experimental literature on judgments of posterior probability, most studies. In accord with our hypothesis, however, studies that included pairs of hypotheses of low discriminability found overconfidence. For example, Peterson and Miller (1965) found overconfidence in posterior probability judgments when the respective ratios were 3 : 2 and 3 : 4, and Phillips and Edwards (1966) found overconfidence when the ratios were 11 : 9 and 9 : 11. Consequently, people are overconfident when strength is high and weight is low, and underconfident when strength is low and weight is high. This conclusion, we propose, applies not only to judgments about chance processes such as coin spinning, but also to judgments about uncertain events such as who will win an upcoming election, or whether a given book will make the best-seller list. When people assess the probability of such events, we suggest that they evaluate their impression of the candidate or the book. These impressions may be based on a casual observation or on extensive knowledge of the preferences of voters and readers. In an analogy to a chance setup, the extremeness of an impression may be compared to sample proportion, and the credence of an impression may correspond to the size of the sample, or to the discriminability of the competing hypotheses. If people focus on the strength of the impression with insufficient appreciation of its weight, then the pattern of overconfidence and underconfidence observed in the evaluation of chance processes should also be present in evaluations of nonstatistical evidence. In this section, we extend this hypothesis to complex evidential problems in which strength and weight cannot be readily defined. Study 4: Self versus Other In this study, we ask people to predict their own behavior, about which they presumably know a great deal, and the behavior of others, about which they know less.

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One might think that the left would have persisted in its critique of the covering up of the ideological content of liberal science antibiotic for pink eye generic 250 mg cefaclor amex, but oddly enough infection on x ray generic cefaclor 500 mg otc, large parts of the left also adopted their own variation of post-ideological thinking efficacy of antibiotics for acne discount cefaclor on line, around the same time bacteria are examples of discount cefaclor 250mg overnight delivery. One of the most signifcant criticisms of ideologies developed by poststructuralists cast them as visions of the world and history that were more signifcant as modes of power than descriptively accurate statements about the world and its history. Liberalism, and neoliberalism, were re described as modes of (self-)governance rather than explanations of how the world worked. Once we accept assumptions about rationality we become the self-interested person the theory was only supposed to describe. In this way, ideologies came to be seen as inherently regulative and dominating; they were not descriptions of the world, but ways of making us act in it. By the late 1990s these contesting philosophical and world historical changes had broken ashore in International Relations. Here, ideologies were re described as ‘theories’, the details of which you can access in the preceding pages of this book. To recap only the criticisms above, ideologies are seen to be unscientifc, dominating, moralising. Theories, by contrast, are scien tifc, somewhat testable, at least nominally depoliticised, and lack the world the ‘Isms’ Are Evil. In spite of this (perhaps because of it, who knows), almost no one debates between the theories any more. The great debates that were central to the discipline in the past seem to have faded, though there is increasing evidence that they were never really debates, let alone great (Wilson 1998)!. Ironically, the isms we are dealing with in this book have never been more entrenched in the feld, but nor have they been so little used as weapons by their various protagonists. For David Lake (2011), we are talking about academic sects that have developed around each of the isms. These sects demand advanced students (usually those embarking on PhD studies) put themselves into a box, adopt an ism for life and then continue to specialise in the rituals and codas of these ‘theologies’. Eventually, the ability of advanced scholars to think beyond or across and between the isms simply falls away. In our attempt to update each ism to meet the demands of the latest ‘real world’ event, the isms become all the more narrowly defned, or stretched to become so broadly defned as to make them practically ideologies. Either way, they become unhooked from the historical, social and geopolitical context in which they emerged. We then start repeating phrases like ‘institutions matter’ without understanding how they mattered during the Cold War and might matter in different ways today. However, Lake understood theory in a way that made a categorical distinction between ideologies, theologies, philosophising and theory. Theories posit the relat ionship between variables and generate testable hypotheses, while traditions are messier, unsystematic confuences of ideas that people need to straighten out in order to pull out those hypotheses. In this case, both traditions share the view that anarchy and material interests are key features of world politics, but they add additional variables to generate different theories. Meta theoretical questions (again, theory about theory) – such as whether history has an end point or whether history is shaped by material forces or by ideas – are unscientifc questions that are without fnal answers. Rather, we should focus on what he calls ‘mid-level theory’ – that is, hypotheses that can be tested against the empirical evidence: questions like, which institutions best limit violence. This is how Lake thinks we will come to understand how the world actually works, not through speculative philosophy. The fact that there is little consensus on what the state is, let alone whether it is the best institution to constrain violence, is hugely signifcant. What he is unwilling to countenance is that his preferred approach is itself deeply infused with a standard notion of science that is also itself ideological: positivism (another ism). By this account, true knowledge is knowledge that is empirically verifable, and only what we can experience counts as true evidence. But we could not know this about Lake unless we had a broad understanding of scientifc ideologies too, like positivism and empiricism, such that we would be tooled to expose his underlying assumptions (Jackson 2011). Before proposing a way out of this problem, let us quickly survey some of the problems that emerge when students do not think clearly about what isms are and what we are using the isms for. There is nothing to be gained for students or researchers by thinking that the isms are self-contained hypothesis generators. Nor should we welcome theories that purport to be able to explain everything, offering remedies to fx the world as general conclusions. But there is a real problem with thinking about isms in this way in the frst place – and we don’t have to. Ideologies are wondrous, porous, complex and evolving things that give us a unique insight into the structure of collective thought. For the frst approach, let’s consider ideologies as a network of concepts, with the core concepts acting as nodes to which peripheral ones attach and disconnect as they evolve over time (Freeden 1996). So, for example, while liberty might be central to liberalism, peripheral concepts like white supremacy or democracy have receded and advanced in importance over time (respectively). Likewise, we should probably understand that concepts are used in particular historical contexts, which means they might have different meanings to the way we use them now (Berenskoetter 2016). Concepts like the state are themselves generative of isms, while particular meanings of a given concept can only be understood in terms of that ism. For example, could we really understand what liberalism is without an under standing of what contemporary liberals mean by liberty. This is not a frivolous argument, because unless we can adequately grasp the historical specifcity of the language we use, we will be tempted to simply assume this is how our language has always been used, leaving us ‘bewitched’ by the present (Skinner 1998). Once we start to interrogate key concepts, their logic, coherence and their relation to other concepts, we can map the relations of ideologies to one another. For example, both realism and liberalism share core concepts like anarchy, the state, material power and so on. But the relative importance of each can only really be understood once we see how ‘peripheral’ and other ‘core’ concepts are deployed in relation to one another, like cooperation or capitalism, institutions or hegemony. Have you ever wondered why you agree with some aspects of an ideology but not with others and agonised about how you can make sense of your split loyalty. But, let’s take another step back and engage in some ideology critique to explore the second approach. What made it possible to dream up a theory like realism or liberalism in the frst place. In fact, it took the emergence of feminist and postcolonial theorists to point this out. To do this, these theorists had to develop complex accounts of the world and how it hung together that took on the core concepts and assumptions of the mainstream. Contrary to Lake, it was only because feminists and postcolonial theorists (amongst others) probed the existential concepts and categories that theoretical development was possible at all. It explores the conditions of possibility of a given way of thinking, whether that is conceptual coherence, historical specifcity or what ever, and then pushes beyond it. What matters is whether they help shape our thinking such that they can guide action, scholarly, political or theological. It is because they guide action, shape it, constrain it and make sense of it that ideologies and theories should be con tinually scrutinised. Ideologies are the background cognitive, moral structures that shape societies and refect their differences, and so understanding how they operate will tell us a huge amount about the world we live in. Is there not a striking sameness to the stuff that is broadcast in most countries – especially Western ones. It’s not just that there are a lot of programmes on cooking and real estate, but that the underlying assumptions behind the programmes have a certain resonance. You don’t fnd presenters of real estate shows lamenting the unjust structures of capitalism or proclaiming that property is theft!. Rather, there is a shared sense of the inevitability of the logic of property ownership or that the objective is to secure the highest price possible. Think about the way boys and girls are differently appealed to in the cartoons they watch, with gendered roles almost routinely given rather than questioned. As Steve Smith (2007, 8) has argued, ‘the option of non-theoretical accounts of the world is simply not available’. As such, you need to familiarise yourself with what theory is, how it works and how it shapes the way you see the world. Ideology critique explores the ways in which communication in general is constrained and circumscribed by taken-for-granted ideas, concepts, attitudes and theories, or the way normal language is theory bound and theory dependent.

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