A sixfold increase in periosteal blood flow has been measured after reaming (Reichert skin care vitamin e discount 20 gm eurax otc, McCarthy acne on back order eurax with a visa, Hughes 1995) acne 3 dpo generic eurax 20gm. Dislocation in femoral shaft fractures is a resultant of three forces: impinging violence skin care games discount eurax 20gm without prescription, muscle action, and gravity (Kootstra 1973). As an initial fracture deformity, the proximal fragment of a fracture of the proximal third of the femoral shaft is usually abducted by m. The distal fragment is displaced upward and medially by the ad ductor and hamstring group of muscles (Healey and Seybold 1969). In the middle third, the proximal fragment is frequently adducted with a strong axial and varus load due to the adductor muscles (Dencker 1963; Bucholz and Brumback 1996), and flexed due to the iliopsoas muscle (Healey and Seybold 1969). The distal fragment is externally rotated by the weight of the foot (Dencker 1963; Kootstra 1973; Bucholz and Brumback 1996), and displaced upward and posterior due to the adductors and hamstring muscles (Healey and Seybold 1969). The distal fragment of the supracondylar fractures is usually flexed pos teriorly secondary to the pull of the gastrocnemius muscle (Dencker 1963; Kootstra 1973; Bucholz and Brumback 1996), and can cause damage to the popliteal artery, the popliteal vein, the tibial nerve, and the common peroneal nerve (Healey and Seybold 1969). The proximal fragment is pulled in flexion and adduction by the iliopsoas and adductor muscles (Healey and Seybold 1969). The medial angulating forces are resisted by the fascia lata (Bucholz and Brumback 1996). Biomechanics of long bone fractures Bone comprises organic material (mainly type I collagen) and minerals (mainly calcium hydroxyapatite), and is capable of adapting to repeated mechanical load by changing its microscopic and macroscopic architectural configuration, especially in fatigue fractures. Bone remodels in response to forces to which it is subject according to the Wolff’s law (Wolff 1892). Every change in the form and function of bone or of their function alone is followed by certain definite changes in their internal architecture, and equally definite alteration in their external conformation, in accordance with mathematical laws (Frost 1998; Frost 2004). The effect of a force sustained in an accident depends on its magnitude, direction, and nature of load; the nature of the bone including bone microarchitecture with mineral content, bone density (Bentzen, Hvid, Jorgensen 1987; Rosson et al. The directions of the force are tension, compression, shear, as well as bend ing, and torque (torsion) (Kootstra 1973). The fracturing force can be direct or indirect (rotation, axial compression, and bending without a direct impact) (Alms 1961). Because of brittleness attributed to the mineral content (Burstein, Reilly, Martens 1976), bone breaks when deformed before other musculoskeletal materials. A fracture is a failure of the bone as a material and as a structure (Paavolainen 1979). The stress-strain behav ior of bone is strongly dependent on the orientation of the bone microstructure with reference to the direction of loading (anisotropy). Although a complex relationship exists between loading patterns and mechanical properties, cortical bone is generally two times stronger and stiffer in the longitudinal direction than in the transverse direction. Due to viscoelasticity of the bone and load rate (the rate at which the force is applied), approximately 43% more of torsional energy is needed to break diaphyseal bone in 50 msec than to break it in 150 msec. Bones that have a larger cross-sectional area and in which bone tissue is distributed further away from the neutral axis will be stronger when subject to load and, therefore, less likely to fracture. The moment of inertia (the degree to which the shape of the material influences its strength) describing rigidity to bending (bending resistance) is greater at a distance from the neutral axis, and the polar moment of inertia describing rigidity to torsion (torsional resistance) is likewise greater at a dis tance from the neutral axis (Gozna 1982; Brukner, Bennell, Matheson 1999). Under ten sion and compression loads, bone strength is proportional to the bone cross-sectional area, and to the square of the apparent density: small reductions in bone density may be associated with large reductions in bone strength (Gozna 1982). The strength of a tubu lar structure is proportional to the third power of the outer diameter minus the third 17 power of the inner diameter, and with regard to stiffness, the same diameters are raised to the fourth power (Russell et al. An increase in both the external diameter and the cortical thickness of a tubular bone will exert a great impact on its mechanical behavior (Braten, Nordby, Terjesen 1993). For their length (longitudinal dimension), long bones of the lower extremity are subject to high bending moments and hence to high tensile and compressive stresses. Any sudden change in the shape of the bone alters the distribution of stress within the structure, giving rise to stress concentration (or stress risers) that the bone attempts to compensate for by remodeling (Burstein, Reilly, Martens 1976; Gozna 1982). The proximal and distal metaphyseal widenings in the subtrochanteric and supra condylar regions of the bone result in stress concentration, which at these levels, espe cially in the elderly, causes pathologic fractures starting at the weak metaphyseal bone and propagating into the shaft (Bucholz and Brumback 1996). Understanding both the direction in which and the force by which a fracture is formed provides information on lesions of the soft-tissues, and can be useful in fracture reduc tion (Kootstra 1973). Human cortical bone offers less resistance to tensile stress at the convex site than to compressive stress at the concave site (Kootstra 1973), even in bending (Alms 1961). In the femur, the femoral shaft fails first under tensile strain (Evans, Pedersen, Lissner 1951) that, according to cadaveric studies, is maximal on the anterola teral aspect of the femoral shaft (Evans, Pedersen, Lissner 1951). A bending load applied to a diaphyseal bone results in transverse fractures (Alms 1961; Gozna 1982) where the location of soft-tissue hinge is on the concave side (Gozna 1982). A normal, adult femoral shaft fractures after 250 Nm of bending movement (Kyle 1985). Torsion (torque or twisting) causes spiral fractures with long, sharp, pointed ends, and a soft-tissue hinge on the vertical segment (Gozna 1982). The spiral curves around the shaft at an angle of 40 to 45, with the long axis of the bone in a direction that would allow the portion of the bone under tension to open up (Gozna 1982). Due to the moment of inertia, a spiral fracture is common, for example, through the junction of the middle and distal one-thirds of the tibia. In bones with pathologic lesions, minor torsional loads cause spiral fractures that are rarely comminuted or associated with severe soft-tissue damage (Bucholz and Brumback 1996). Moderate axial compression combined with bending and torsion causes oblique fractures (Alms 1961; Gozna 1982) with short and blunt fracture ends without a vertical segment (Gozna 1982). Moderate axial compression together with bending results in oblique-transverse (a trans verse fracture with one fragment containing a protuberance or beak) or butterfly frac tures (a bending wedge on a compression side) by simultaneous interruption of continuity in two directions. The soft-tissue hinge is on the concave side of the butterfly (Gozna 1982), where compressive stresses produce an oblique fracture line due to shearing stresses (Kootstra 1973). The fracture is transverse when the oblique segment of the oblique transverse fracture is very short (Kootstra 1973). Oblique-transverse and butterfly 18 fractures are commonly seen in the lower extremities when the thigh or calf receives a lateral blow during weightbearing for instance, among pedestrians injured by automobiles (Gozna 1982). Combinations of tension, compression, shear and torque produce a very complex stress pattern. Comminuted fractures result from a combination of a large amount of energy and a direct impingement of an abrupt force on the shaft. Here, the stresses which occur in the bone are so great that the limit of elastic formation is exceeded several times (Kootstra 1973), while the additional force is dissipated on the soft-tissues. Breaking strength and elasticity are, however, not the same throughout the bone (Kootstra 1973). The density of the cortical bone diminishes with age, especially on the anterolateral aspect of the femoral shaft (Atkinson and Weatherell 1967). The spiral fracture pattern is more pronounced with increasing age and osteoporosis (Kootstra 1973). The strength of the iliotibial tract, which is important in absorbing a bending force in the frontal plane, diminishes with age (Pauwels 1948). Considering that the ligaments of the mobile hip joint absorb torque applied to the femur (Pauwels 1948), spiral fractures are likely to occur more frequently at a more advanced age, when hip joint mobility is re duced and cortical bone density is altered (Kootstra 1973). During activities like walking and running, bone is subject to a combination of loading modes (Burr et al. During physical activity, forces from ground impact and muscle contraction result in bone stress, defined as the load or force per unit area that develops on a plane surface, and in bone strain, defined as deformation of or alteration in bone dimension (Brukner, Bennell, Matheson 1999). During running, the vertical ground-reaction force has been shown to vary from two to five times the body weight, and during jumping and landing activities, ground-reaction forces can reach 12 times the body weight (McNitt-Gray 1991). Transient impulse forces, associated with ground-reaction forces, are propagated up ward from the foot and undergo attenuation as they pass toward the head (Light, McLel lan, Klenerman 1980; Wosk and Voloshin 1981). Running speed, muscle fatigue, type of foot strike, body weight, surface, terrain, and footwear influence the magnitude, propa gation and attenuation of the impact force (Nigg and Segesser 1988; Dufek and Bates 1991). When bone is loaded in vivo, contraction of muscles attached to the bone also influences the stress magnitude and distribution. In addition to muscle contraction, intact soft-tissues substantially increase the tibial structural capacity of a rat, and the effect is similar in normal and osteopenic bone (Nordsletten and Ekeland 1993; Nordsletten et al. The calculated total force is a summation of the ground-reaction forces and the muscular forces (Scott and Winter 1990). Muscle activity partially attenuates the large bending moment and reduces the tensile and compressive stresses. Muscle contraction can both decrease and increase the magnitude of stress applied to the bone (Brukner, Bennell, Matheson 1999). Microdamage (Rutishauer and Majno 1951; Frost 1960) due to physiological strain (Schaffler, Radin, Burr 1989) can coalesce into macrocracks eventually developing into a stress fracture, if remodeling does not occur (Frost 1989a; Frost 1989b). A threshold level for accumulation of micro damage is approximately 2000 microstrain (Frost 1998), which represents the upper range of physiological values, and above that, the relationship between strain and micro damage becomes exponential at deformation (Frost 1989a; Frost 1989b).
He also noted that some children were extremely sensitive to acne 9gag best eurax 20gm particular sounds acne canada scarf buy cheap eurax 20 gm, aromas skin care 7 order eurax online pills, textures and touch skin care used by celebrities generic eurax 20gm with visa. Asperger considered that the characteristics could be identified in some children as young as two to three years, although for other children, the characteristics only became conspicuous some years later. He also noticed that some of the parents, especially the fathers of such children, appeared to share some of the personality characteristics of their child. He wrote that the condition was probably due to genetic or neurological, rather than psychological or environmental, factors. In his initial and subsequent publi cations and a recent analysis of his patient records for children he saw over three decades, it is apparent that he considered autistic personality disorder as part of a natural continuum of abilities that merges into the normal range (Asperger 1944, 1952, 1979; Hippler and Klicpera 2004). He conceptualized the disorder as a life-long and stable personality type, and did not observe the disintegration and fragmentation that occurs in schizophrenia. He also noted that some of the children had specific talents that could lead to successful employment and some could develop life-long relationships. The child referred for a diag nostic assessment would have had an unusual developmental history and profile of abili ties from early childhood, though the average age for a diagnosis of a child with Asperger’s syndrome is between 8 and 11 years (Eisenmajer et al. I have identified several pathways to that diagnosis, which may commence when the child is an infant, or at other stages of development, or even at specific times in the adult’s life history. Diagnosis of autism in infancy or early childhood Lorna Wing, who first used the term Asperger’s syndrome, considered that there was a need for a new diagnostic category. She had observed that some children who had the clear signs of severe autism in infancy and early childhood could achieve remarkable progress and move along the autism continuum as a result of early diagnosis and inten sive and effective early intervention programs (Wing 1981). The previously socially aloof and silent child now wants to play with children and can talk using complex sen tences. Where previously there was motivation for isolation, the child is now motivated to be included in social activities. After many hours in intensive programs to encourage communication abilities, the problem is no longer encouraging the child to speak, but encouraging him or her to talk less, listen and be more aware of the social context. As a younger child, there may have been a preoccupation with sensory experiences – the spinning wheel of a toy car or bicycle may have mesmerized the child – but now he or she is fascinated by a specific topic, such as the orbits of the planets. Peter Szatmari has suggested that those children with autism who develop func tional language in early childhood eventually join the developmental trajectory and have a profile of abilities typical of a child with Asperger’s syndrome (Szatmari 2000). At one point in a child’s early development, autism is the correct diagnosis, but a distinct subgroup of children with autism can show a remarkable improvement in language, play and motivation to socialize with their peers between the ages of four and six years. The developmental trajectory for such children has changed and their profile of abilities in the primary or elementary school years is consistent with the characteristics of Asperger’s syndrome (Attwood 1998; Dissanayake 2004; Gillberg 1998; Wing 1981). These children, who may subsequently be diagnosed as having High Functioning Autism or Asperger’s syndrome, will benefit from the strategies and services designed for children with Asperger’s syndrome rather than autism. Many adults who are diagnosed in their mature years say that the first time they felt different to others was when they started school. They describe being able to understand and relate to family members, including playing socially with brothers and sisters, but when they were expected to play with their peers at school and relate to a teacher, they recognized themselves as being very different from children their age. When I ask these adults to describe those differences, the replies usually refer to not being interested in the social activities of their peers, not wanting to include others in their own activities, and not understanding the social conventions in the playground or classroom. The diagnostic pathway commences when an experienced teacher observes a child who has no obvious history of characteristics associated with autism, but who is very unusual in terms of his or her ability to understand social situations and conventions. The child is also recognized as immature in the ability to manage emotions and to express empathy. There can be an unusual learning style with remarkable knowledge in an area of interest to the child, but significant learning or attention problems for other academic skills. The teacher may also notice problems with motor coordination such as handwriting, running, and catching a ball. The child may also cover his or her ears in response to sounds that are not perceived as unpleasant by other children. When in the playground, the child may actively avoid social play with peers or be socially naive, intrusive or dominating. In class, the teacher recognizes that the child does not seem to notice or understand the non-verbal signals that convey messages such as ‘not now’ or ‘I am starting to feel annoyed. The teacher may also notice that the child becomes extremely anxious if routines are changed or he or she cannot solve a problem. The child is obviously not intellectually impaired but appears to lack the social understanding of his or her peers. The teacher knows that the child would benefit from programs to help in his or her understanding of the social conventions of the classroom and school playground. The teacher also needs access to training, in-class support, resources and expertise in Asperger’s syndrome to facilitate successful social integration and academic success. My clinical experience suggests that the majority of children with Asperger’s syndrome achieve a diagnosis using this pathway. The child’s unusual profile of abilities and behaviour are not conspicuous at home but a teacher recognizes qualitative differ ences in abilities and behaviour in the classroom and playground. At a subsequent meeting of parents and representatives of the school, parents are encouraged to seek a diagnostic assessment both to explain the unusual behaviour and profile of abilities, and for the parents and school to achieve access to appropriate programs and resources. The diagnosis of a disorder of attention, language, movement, mood, eating or learning ability can be the start of the formal assessment process that eventually leads to a diagnosis of Asperger’s syndrome. This diagnosis may account for the child’s difficulties in these areas but not explain the child’s unusual profile of social, linguistic and cognitive abilities, which are more accurately described by the diagnostic criteria for Asperger’s syndrome. The two diagnoses are not mutually exclusive and a child may benefit from the medical treatment and strategies used for both disorders. The hyperactivity can be a response to a high level of stress and anxiety, particularly in new social situations, making the child unable to sit still and relax. A language disorder A young child who has Asperger’s syndrome may first be recognized as having a delay in the development of speech and be referred to a speech/language pathologist for assess ment and therapy. Formal testing of communication skills may identify both delay in language development and specific characteristics that are not typical of any of the stages in language development. Semantic abilities are affected such that the child tends to make a literal interpretation of what someone says. Receptive language delay in young children is often associated with problems with socialization (Paul, Spangle-Looney and Dahm 1991). A child who has difficulties understanding someone’s language and being understood could become anxious and withdrawn in social situations. The reason for the social withdrawal is then due to language impairment rather than the impaired social reasoning that occurs in Asperger’s syndrome. During the diagnostic assessment it is important to distinguish between the secondary consequences of a language disorder and Asperger’s syndrome. A movement disorder A young child may be identified by parents and teachers as being clumsy, with problems with coordination and dexterity. The child may have problems with tying shoelaces, learning to ride a bicycle, handwriting and catching a ball, and an unusual or immature gait when running or walking. The child is referred to an occupational therapist or phys iotherapist for assessment and therapy. The assessment may confirm a delay in movement skills or a specific movement disorder but the therapist may note other unusual characteristics in the child’s developmental history and profile of abilities and be the first professional to suspect that the child has Asperger’s syndrome. Although the coordination problems were the start of the diagnostic pathway to Asperger’s syndrome, the child will still obviously benefit from programs to improve motor skills. Some children with Asperger’s syndrome can develop involuntary, rapid and sudden body movements (motor tics) and uncontrollable vocalizations (vocal tics) that resemble signs of Tourette’s syndrome (Ehlers and Gillberg 1993; Gillberg and Billstedt 2000; Kadesjo and Gillberg 2000; Ringman and Jankovic 2000). A diagnostic assessment for Tourette’s syndrome due to the recognition of motor and vocal tics could be a pathway to the further diagnosis of Asperger’s syndrome. One of the problems faced by children with Asperger’s syndrome who use their intellect rather than intuition to succeed in some social situations is that they may be in an almost constant state of alert ness and anxiety, leading to a risk of mental and physical exhaustion. There may be intense anxiety or a phobic reaction to certain social situations, or to sensory experiences such as a dog barking, or to a change in expectations such as an alteration to the daily school routine. A referral to a clinical psy chologist, psychiatrist or mental health service for children with a mood disorder may lead to a diagnosis of Asperger’s syndrome when a detailed and comprehensive develop mental history is completed (Towbin et al. Some children with Asperger’s syndrome can become clinically depressed as a reaction to their realization of having considerable difficulties with social integration. The depressive reaction can be internalized, leading to self-criticism and even thoughts of suicide; or externalized, resulting in criticism of others and an expression of frustra tion or anger, especially when the child has difficulty understanding a social situation. An eating disorder Eating disorders can include refusal to eat foods of a specified texture, smell or taste due to a sensory hypersensitivity (Ahearn et al. There can also be unusual food prefer ences, and routines regarding meals and food presentation (Nieminen-von Wendt 2004).
Light therapy may relieve depression symptoms in the winter time. This type of depression is called seasonal affective disorder.
Iron supplements (if you are anemic)
The slit-lamp is placed in front of you, and you rest your chin and forehead on a support that keeps your head steady. The lamp is moved forward until the tip of the tonometer just touches the cornea.
If your baby is on breathing support, ask the health care provider how soon your baby can be weaned (gradually removed) from the ventilator.
Although "Big Data" and "Analytics" may sound like something that cannot affect your day to skin care untuk kulit berminyak cheap eurax 20 gm mastercard day practice as a radiologists acne garret buy eurax 20gm visa, it turns out that having powerful tools work in the background can allow for better acne 12 weeks pregnant purchase generic eurax from india, more consistent reports acne 5 generic eurax 20 gm with mastercard, better communication of critical results and followup and can allow for a more proactive rather than reactive radiology practice. Finally, a review of the testicle and ultrasound findings will complete the course. Educating patients and physicians is important to permit weighing benefits versus increased dose. Marketing can be an important factor for some practices looking to increase services and volumes. In addition to reduced recalls from screening, fewer patients will require close diagnostic follow-up therefore diminishing the diagnostic pool over time. Diagnostic exams are also streamlined, all leading to expediting the imaging workflow of patients. Overall there is a net benefit as more patients will need less imaging and get more accurate reads. Review of current literature on clinical implementation of Digtal Breast Tomosynthesis. The costs and shortcomings of utilizing two modalities Full Field Digital and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis daily as the facility/department transitions from one modality to another. Educating your team of the changes that will be implemented is extemely important. Education of referring health care providers and the patients on the new technology is key to making a successful transition to a new modality. Imaging informatics covers everything from the ordering of a study, through the data acquisition and processing, display and archiving, reporting of findings and the billing for the services performed. The standardization of the processes used to manage the information and methodologies to integrate these standards is being developed and advanced continuously. These developments are done in an open forum and imaging organizations and professionals all have a part in the process. In this presentation the flow of information and the integration of the standards used in the processes will be reviewed. Current methods for validation of informatics systems function will also be discussed. Craniofacial abnormalities occur as an isolated phenomenon or in the context of syndromes, chromosomal abnormalities or environmental insults. Subsequently we will discuss major malformations involving the external ear and orbits and their expected association. During the lecture, the normal appearance of the fetal chest will be briefly done, in order to approach a review of the most common pulmonary lesions encountered during the fetal period. They will become familiar with the specific information provided by each of the two modalities. The course will present a review of bowel anomalies of the fetus and will be illustrated by representative cases with the objective for the learners to understand the systematic approach of image analysis that can lead to the accurate diagnosis or limited list of differential diagnoses. Echogenic bowel is associated with multiple other congenital conditions such as chromosomal anomalies, viral infections or cystic fibrosis. Dilatation of bowel may have various etiologies and systematic review of the findings including bowel wall thickening, number of distended bowel loops or the increased echogenicity of the content may help to localize bowel obstruction and narrow the list of differential diagnosis. Meconium is formed in the entire bowel and accumulates in the rectum that acts as a reservoir. While meconium is seen in the small bowel and colon in the second trimester, it is mainly seen in the fetal colon after 30 weeks of gestational age. Systematic review of the distribution of meconium and analysis of the bowel caliber in comparison to normal values for gestational age helps to establish or narrow the list of differential diagnoses of fetal gastrointestinal abnormalities. This leads to common misinterpretations which would further results in wrong management with potentially negative outcome. In this course, we discuss a spectrum of these pitfalls according to the following organization:In this course, we discuss a spectrum of these pitfalls which can be classified to: 1. Imaging interpretation and reports play a critical role in managing patients with pancreatic pathology. Accurate staging of pancreatic neoplasms is paramount to determining management and imaging plays a central role in stratifying patients for treatment. The goal of surgery is to achieve resection margins free of tumor to maximize survival benefit. Unnecessary surgery and accompanying morbidity need be minimized in patients with no added survival benefit from resection. Structured reporting and standardized terminology enhances communication with the clinic team and imparts key elements into a diagnostic report that will help determine appropriate management. Appropriate recognition of various types of hardware is crucial for the continuation of patient care. The attendee will be educated about identification of type of hardware; adequacy of hardware and emphasis will also be placed on diagnosis, complications and malposition of common orthopedic hardware. Radiographs are the most common initial imaging study for evaluation of foot and ankle injuries. Unfortunately, radiography can be of limited utility for complete assessment of the bones and soft tissues of the foot and ankle. The purpose of this interactive presentation is to highlight injuries and clinical settings which may require expedited advanced imaging of the foot and ankle in addition to radiography while the patient is still in the emergency room. Immediate recognition of pelvic ring disruption and determination of pelvic stability are critical components in the evaluation of such patients. Stability is achieved by the ability of the osseoligamentous structures of the pelvis to withstand physiologic stresses without abnormal deformation. The supporting pelvic ligaments, including the posterior and anterior sacroiliac, iliolumbar, sacrospinous, and sacrotuberous ligaments, play a crucial role in pelvic stabilization. Radiologists should be familiar with the ligamentous anatomy and biomechanics relevant to understanding pelvic ring disruptions, as well as the Young and Burgess classification system, a systematic approach for interpreting pelvic ring disruptions and assessing stability on the basis of fundamental force vectors that create predictable patterns. Promotion of Research, Scientific Discovery, and Public Knowledge. Gino Forniciari, is no ghoulish vampire, but a professor of forensic anthropology and 2 director of the Pathology Museum at Pisa University. He is disintering members of th the Medici family, whose dynasty ruled Florence from the 13 century to the mid th 3 4 16 century. Researchers are exhuming a number of important historical figures spanning over ten 5 generations reportedly buried within the Medici crypt, including: Grand Duke Cosimo I, the Grand Duke of Tuscany (1519-1574); Duchess Eleonora di Toleda, wife of Grand Duke Cosimo I (1522-1562); Grand Duke Francesco I, the second son of Grand Duke Cosimo I (1541-1587); and Giovanni delle Bande Nere, husband of 6 the granddaughter of Lorenzo the Magnificent (1498-1526). The goal of the Medici exhumations is to use methods of molecular biology and genetics to answer questions that have arisen throughout history, such as whether the 7 Medici family had genetic predispositions to suffer from conditions such as gout, whether several of the members of the Medici family were in fact murdered rather than died of natural causes, and specifically whether Francesco I died of malaria or 8 was poisoned. Recent reports have proclaimed that initial samples of Francesco’s 9 liver reveal a lethal dose of arsenic. The study also aims to determine if members of the Medici family were genetically inclined to suffer from various other diseases * Associate Director of Research & Education, Consortium on Law and Values in Health, Environment & the Life Sciences and Joint Degree Program in Law, Health & the Life Sciences, University of Minnesota School of Law. Research was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Award # 0134850. We would like to thank the following people for their important contributions to the project: Nancy Buenger, Jennifer Bridge, R. Gaensslen, David Gonen, Theodore Karamanski, Russell Lewis, David Stoney and Laurie Rosenow. D candidate Katherine Dick for her insight in the area of genetics research on historical figures. However, visual and radiological examination of the remains has shown some of this to be false. The Learning Channel filmed the first stages of the exhumation and analysis for a documentary, Mummy Detective: 11 Crypt of the Medici, which aired in October 2004. While fascinating in theory, these studies are not without controversy, raising questions regarding what scientific, ethical, and legal concerns can (and should) override the desire to answer “historic questions. He says, “‘[i]f they went into your chapel, in your tomb, and opened 13 your family’s graves, how would you feel This type of research is underway in a number of disciplines, yet the justifications for biohistorical research are often based on insufficient historical or scientific evidence, as well as potentially inappropriate financial considerations. Due to the biological nature of much of this testing, biohistorical analysis can reveal personal and genetic information that a deceased public figure never shared with anyone or sometimes never knew. As a result, findings generated from biohistorical analysis can have a more profound impact on the image of that public figure and on his living relatives than the more traditional means of historical analysis, such as biographical and psychological studies. Biohistorical investigations can be unusually invasive, including disinterment of the dead or the release of private medical information regarding the historical figure, sometimes for dubious societal gain.