C heart attack trey songz buy atenolol 50mg with mastercard, When viewed under polarising microscopy the corresponding area shows apple-green birefringence blood pressure how to read order atenolol 100 mg with amex. Later hypertension risk factors buy cheap atenolol 100 mg, as the deposits increases heart attack cpr buy atenolol 100mg amex, they compress the However, hepatic function remains normal even at an cords of hepatocytes so that eventually the liver cells advanced stage of the disease. A, the deposition is extensive in the space of Disse causing compression and pressure atrophy of hepatocytes. The deposits are initially located Heart is involved in systemic amyloidosis quite commonly, around the small blood vessels but later may involve adjacent more so in the primary than in secondary systemic layers of the bowel wall. It may also be involved in localised form of forming amyloid, producing macroglossia. In advanced cases, there may be a pressure atrophy of the myocardial fibres and Other Organs impaired ventricular function which may produce restrictive Uncommonly, the deposits of amyloid may occur in various cardiomyopathy. Amyloidosis of the heart may produce other tissues such as pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, skin, lymph arrhythmias due to deposition in the conduction system. Amyloidosis may be an incidental finding at autopsy or in Microscopically, the changes are as under: symptomatic cases diagnosis can be made from the methods Amyloid deposits are seen in and around the given above, biopsy examination being the most important coronaries and their small branches. The prognosis of patients with generalised In cases of primary amyloidosis of the heart, the amyloidosis is generally poor. Secondary amyloidosis has somewhat better outcome due to controllable underlying condition. Amyloidosis of Alimentary Tract Renal failure and cardiac arrhythmias are the most Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract by amyloidosis may common causes of death in most cases of systemic occur at any level from the oral cavity to the anus. The sea within us flows through blood and lymph vessels, bathes the cells as well as lies within the cells. However, water within us contains several salts that includes sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and other electrolytes. Although it appears quite tempting to draw comparison between environment of the cell and the ancient oceans, it would be rather an oversimplification in considering the cellular environment to be wholly fluid ignoring the presence of cells, fibres and ground substance. Claude Bernarde (1949) first coined the term internal environment or milieu interieur for the state in the body in which the interstitial fluid that bathes the cells and the plasma, together maintain the normal morphology and function of the cells and tissues of the body. For this purpose, living membranes with varying permeabilities such (assuming average of 60%) is distributed into 2 main as vascular endothelium and the cell wall play important compartments of body fluids separated from each other by role in exchange of fluids, electrolytes, nutrients and membranes freely permeable to water. This constitutes the comprises 50-70% (average 60%) of the body weight and remaining 27% of body weight containing water. Thus plasma content is about 3 litres of fluid out of 5 litres of total blood volume. The concentration of cations (positively charged) and anions (negatively charged) is Figure 5. The osmotic equilibrium between the two major body fluid compartments is maintained by the passage of In the extracellular fluid, the predominant cation is sodium water from or into the intracellular compartment. Besides changes in the volume of fluids in the compartments, the major functions of electrolytes are as follows: changes in ionic equilibrium affecting the acid-base balance i) Electrolytes are the main solutes in the body fluids for of fluids occur. In spite of these acids, the pH of the blood is kept electrolytes is expressed in milliequivalent (mEq) per litre constant at 7. In order the pH of blood and acid-base balance are regulated in to convert mg per dl into mEq per litre the following formula the body as follows. Buffers are substances which have mg/dl weak acids and strong bases and limit the change in H+ ion mEq/L =? They are the first line of defense for maintaining acid-base balance and do so by + taking up H ions when the pH rises. With ingestion of high quantity 2 compartments: of acid-forming salts, ventilation is increased as seen in 1. Water is normally absorbed into the body from the bowel acidosis in diabetic ketosis and uraemia. Water is eliminated from the body via: ions secreted by the renal tubular cells are buffered in the kidneys in the urine (average 1500 ml per day); glomerular filtrate by: combining with phosphates to form phosphoric acid; via the skin as insensible loss in perspiration or as sweat combining with ammonia to form ammonium ions; and (average 800 ml per day), though there is wide variation in combining with filtered bicarbonate ions to form carbonic loss via sweat depending upon weather, temperature, fever acid. These substances exert electrolytes while the cell membrane is somewhat pressures responsible for exchange between the interstitial impermeable. Normal Fluid Pressures There is considerable pressure gradient at the two ends of 95 capillary loop?being higher at the arteriolar end (average 1. This is the pressure exerted by 32 mmHg) than at the venular end (average 12 mmHg). Since the protein content of the plasma is higher than that of interstitial fluid, oncotic pressure of Normal Fluid Exchanges plasma is higher (average 25 mmHg) than that of interstitial Normally, the fluid exchanges between the body fluid (average 8 mmHg). This is the capillary blood of fluid and solutes leave the vessel to enter the interstitial pressure. A, Normal pressure gradients and fluid exchanges between plasma, interstitial space and lymphatics. E, Mechanism by tissue factors (increased oncotic pressure of interstitial fluid and lowered tissue tension). The other hydrostatic pressure (12 mmHg) and plasma oncotic pressure variety is non-pitting or solid oedema in which no pitting is (25 mmHg) is the oncotic pressure of 13 mmHg which is the produced on pressure. Generalised (anasarca or dropsy) when it is systemic in drained into venous circulation. Decreased plasma oncotic pressure defined as abnormal and excessive accumulation of free fluid in 2. Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure the interstitial tissue spaces and serous cavities. Lymphatic obstruction abnormal collection of fluid within the cell is sometimes 4. Tissue factors (increased oncotic pressure of interstitial called intracellular oedema but should more appropriately fluid, and decreased tissue tension) be called hydropic degeneration (page 34). Increased capillary permeability Free fluid in body cavities: Dpending upon the body cavity 6. The Free fluid in interstitial space: the oedema fluid lies free in plasma oncotic pressure exerted by the total amount of the interstitial space between the cells and can be displaced plasma proteins tends to draw fluid into the vessels normally. Definition Filtrate of blood plasma without Oedema of inflamed tissue associated with changes in endothelial permeability increased vascular permeability 2. Cells Few cells, mainly mesothelial cells Many cells, inflammatory as well as parenchymal and cellular debris 10. It is seen in outward movement of fluid from the capillary wall and families and the oedema is mainly confined to one or both decreased inward movement of fluid from the interstitial the lower limbs (Chapter 15). The two forces acting in the inter usually produces generalised oedema (anasarca). Out of the stitial space?oncotic pressure of the interstitial space and various plasma proteins, albumin has four times higher tissue tension, are normally quite small and insignificant to plasma oncotic pressure than globulin; thus it is mainly hypo counteract the effects of plasma oncotic pressure and albuminaemia (albumin below 2. The hydrostatic pressure of the capillary is the force capillary endothelium is a semipermeable membrane which that normally tends to drive fluid through the capillary permits the free flow of water and crystalloids but allows wall into the interstitial space by counteracting the force minimal passage of plasma proteins normally. A rise in the hydrostatic when the capillary endothelium is injured by various pressure at the venular end of the capillary which is capillary poisons such as toxins and their products, normally low (average 12 mmHg) to a level more than the histamine, anoxia, venoms, certain drugs and chemicals, the plasma oncotic pressure results in minimal or no capillary permeability to plasma proteins is enhanced due reabsorption of fluid at the venular end, consequently to development of gaps between the endothelial cells, leading leading to oedema (Fig. This, in the examples of oedema by this mechanism are seen in turn, causes reduced plasma oncotic pressure and elevated the following disorders: oncotic pressure of interstitial fluid which consequently i) Oedema of cardiac disease. A few examples are as under: due to increased venous pressure seen in individuals who Inflammatory oedema as seen in infections, allergic remain standing erect for longtime such as traffic constables. Obstruction to outflow of these channels causes localised oedema occurring on the skin of face and trunk and may oedema, known as lymphoedema (Fig. The examples of lymphoedema include the following: i) Removal of axillary lymph nodes in radical mastectomy for 6. Before descri carcinoma of the breast produces lymphoedema of the bing the mechanism of oedema by sodium and water affected arm. Normally, channel may rupture and discharge chyle into the pleural about 80% of sodium is reabsorbed by the proximal cavity (chylothorax) or into peritoneal cavity (chylous convoluted tubule under the influence of either intrinsic renal ascites). Retention of sodium leads to retention outflow via the vasomotor centre in the brain. This hormone is secreted glomerular filtration rate, decreased excretion of sodium in by the cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the urine and consequent retention of sodium. The release of hormone is stimulated aldosterone, a sodium retaining hormone, by the renin by increased concentration of sodium in the plasma and angiotensin-aldosterone system. Its main action is stimulation of the by excessive retention of sodium and water in the angiotensinogen which is?
The load is decreased by a radial shortening osteotomy in ulnar negative variance or capitates shortening osteotomy in ulnar neutral or ulnar positive variant wrists blood pressure normal values cheap atenolol 100mg without a prescription. Revascularization is performed by inserting a vascularized bone graft or a blood vessel into the lunate to arteria musculophrenica buy atenolol on line promote blood flow blood pressure medication and hair loss purchase atenolol on line amex. Once significant collapse has occurred (stage 3 and stage 4 disease) blood pressure practice cheap atenolol 100mg without prescription, salvage procedures are employed. If the articular surfaces of the capitate and lunate fossa of the radius are intact, a proximal row carpectomy can be performed. In the setting of significant degenerative changes, a heavy laborer, or failure of previous surgical procedures, a total wrist arthrodesis is recommended. A complete tear of the scapholunate ligaments may result from a hyperextension injury and can lead to scapholunate dissociation, which disrupts normal proximal row kinematics. This abnormal positioning affects how the wrist bears loads and can lead to pain, weakness, and arthritis. The wrist is moved from ulnar to radial deviation while pressure is applied over the volar tuberosity of the scaphoid. A positive test results when a painful clunk is felt from the proximal pole of the scaphoid as it subluxates over the rim of the radius. This injury was termed a fracture of necessity, stemming from the inherent instability of the fracture-dislocation and the need for surgical intervention. A key element of treatment is to stabilize the radius with internal fixation and restore the length of the radius. Fractures not within these criteria are best treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Ligament replacement for chronic instability of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. Biomechanical and prospective clinical studies on the usefulness of valgus stress testing. The management of distal ulnar fractures in adults: A review of the literature and recommendations for treatment. Volar fixed-angleplate fixation forunstabledistal radiusfractures intheelderly patient. What form of carpal instability is seen with a chronic scapholunate ligament tear? Because of its superficial location along the distal radius, the nerve is easily compressed between the brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus tendons with pronation and ulnar deviation. Superficial radial nerve entrapment creates a pattern of pain, numbness, and tingling over the dorsal lateral aspect of the hand. They can be differentiated by percussion along the anatomic course of the nerve, visual inspection for the presence or absence of edema along the dorsal lateral aspect of the hand, and sensory testing. If numbness and tingling are elicited or exacerbated over the superficial radial nerve field, entrapment is suspected. Electrodiagnostic tests can confirm the abnormality by demonstrating an absent superficial radial sensory response when the median and dorsal ulnar cutaneous responses are normal. Nontraumatic cervical root lesions have symptoms including vague neck complaints, digital numbness and tingling, fine motor skill limitations, and muscle weakness. Median nerve entrapments are made worse with repetitive use and prolonged wrist flexion. Median nerve sensibility is limited to its nerve field, whereas sensory changes associated with a cervical root level lesion are dermatomal. Manual muscle testing of C8 ulnar and radial-innervated muscles compared with median nerve-innervated muscles may indicate global C8 muscle weakness, whereas isolated median muscle weakness localizes the level of pathology. Describe the clinical manifestations of compression of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve. The fifth digit should abduct because the intact abductor digiti minimi is innervated by the superficial ulnar motor branch. This simple provocative pinch test appears to be a sensitive but nonspecific test; it is often present with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and other sites as well. The mechanism of injury is associated with long standing pressure in the palm, often an occupational hazard associated with pipe cutters, mechanics, and cyclists. A complete ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist may produce motor paralysis of which muscles in the hand? The majority of the intrinsic hand musclesreceive their motor innervation from the ulnar nerve. A complete lesion of the ulnar nerve at the wrist causes extreme motor weakness or atrophy of up to 141/2 muscles, listed below in the order of innervation sequence. Three hypothenar muscles (abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, and opponens digiti minimi). Two medial lumbricals (numbers 3 and 4, which are in the palm, just radial to and originating from the third and fourth flexor digitorum profundus tendons). One and one-half thenar muscles (adductor pollicis, both oblique and transverse heads, and the deep half of the flexor pollicis brevis muscle). Weakness of the adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and first dorsal interosseous muscles sharply impairs the pinching power of the thumb against the index finger. A simple test is to ask the patient to pinch a piece of stiff paper between the thumb and index finger while the examiner attempts to pull it away. The lateral border of the tunnel of Guyon is the hook of the hamate, and the medial border is the pisiform bone. Ganglions, fracture of the hamate hook, displacement of the pisiform bone, anomalous muscles, repetitive trauma, hypothenar hammer syndrome, arthritis, ulnar artery thrombosis, or aneurysm can cause various patterns of ulnar nerve involvement, ranging from complete motor and sensory to partial motor or sensory-only symptoms. The palmaris brevis muscle is located on the ulnar aspect of the hand, superficial to the hypothenar muscle mass. When it contracts, it causes puckering of the skin on the ulnar border of the hand. To contract the muscle, ask the patient to abduct the small finger, which should cause a wrinkle over the proximal hypothenar region. The muscle receives innervation by the only motor twig of the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve as it passes immediately out of the tunnel of Guyon. Name underlying systemic pathologies that may present with carpal tunnel syndrome. Median sensory studies can be antidromic, which means that the stimulus is opposite of the physiologic direction of response transmission. Apalmarsegmentcanbestudiedtomorecloselyanalyze the carpal tunnel involvement by performing the same antidromic study with digital recording and stimulation in the palm. The distal portion (from the palm to the fingers) is subtracted from the entire 14-cm distance to calculate the nerve conduction velocity across the carpal tunnel. Median nerve compression at the wrist results in numbness or pain in the radial three and one-half digits. Patients note an increased frequency of dropping items, apparently attributable to sensory loss. Symptoms are exacerbated with sustained activity, such as cumulative trauma disorders or repetitive wrist flexion associatedwithassemblyoccupations. Two-point discrimination may be reduced along the second and third digits and the radial aspect of the fourth digit. Thenar eminence manual muscle testing revealsreducedstrengthintheabductorpollicisbrevisinlong-standingcasesofmediannerveentrapment with muscle atrophy. Long-standing cases also are associated with deterioration of manual dexterity as sensorium and muscle atrophy persist. Reported values of specificity range from 55% to 95%, and sensitivity ranges from 45% to 75%. Reports can be interpreted more easily when there is an indication both of the site of median sensory nerve stimulation and recording and of the distance traveled by the stimulus between onset and recording. They examined the wrist to digit, palm to digit (subtracted from the wrist to digit), and palm to wrist median sensory studies in 44 normal and 136 symptomatic hands. They found that the short segment from the palm to wrist was the most sensitive (75%) for carpal tunnel syndrome. Theanteriorinterosseousnerve,which innervatesthe flexorpollicislongus, pronatorquadratus, and flexor digitorum profundus to the index and long fingers, may be injured traumatically or become inflamed spontaneously. Pain along the volar surface of the forearm may be associated with local trauma or heavy muscle exertion. Sensation to the volar surface of the forearm and median-innervated digits is intact. To control for the effects of temperature, some examiners use comparisons between nerves in the same limb.
Avoid all carbonated beverages (these include pop blood pressure medication kinds atenolol 50 mg sale, sparkling water blood pressure gap order 50mg atenolol with amex, sodas and beer) blood pressure on forearm order atenolol 50 mg mastercard. They will fill you up with gas and can cause you to heart attack 19 years old purchase discount atenolol feel bloated and even cause you to feel pain. Caffeine is a stimulant that can increase blood pressure, heart rate, and can lead to dizziness and trouble sleeping. Low-fat milk is an exception to this as it is a good source of protein and nutrition. Alternative sweeteners and flavouring for water: Water on its own is best, but adding zero calorie flavouring to your water can help to add some variety. With flavouring and alternative sweeteners, remember that a small amount goes a long way. This is why it is so important to take vitamin and mineral supplements every day for the rest of your life. You will need to have your blood work monitored regularly by your Family Physician. It is important to use this tool safely by following the diet guidelines closely and by taking your vitamins and mineral supplements regularly as recommended. When to start: It is recommended to start taking these supplements once you are tolerating the Full Fluids diet (usually around 2-3 weeks after surgery). To start, you may prefer to cut the prenatal multi-vitamin in half or crush it however this is not always necessary. In order to avoid any serious nutritional deficiencies it is important to have your blood work monitored regularly. This means having your blood work done at 5 months and 11 months after surgery and then yearly for the rest of your life. This way your results can be reviewed with you during your appointment at the clinic. Other Vitamins and Minerals to Consider: You may also need to take additional vitamin or mineral supplements after surgery. These will be discussed and reviewed with you at your follow-up appointments with your Bariatric Team and/or Family Physician. If it (if lab work shows low levels) is determined that your blood levels of iron are low, an additional iron supplement may be recommended by your Family Physician and/or Bariatric team. Food sources of iron include: Meat, liver, eggs, shellfish, nuts, sardines, legumes, broccoli, peas, spinach, prunes, raisins, bran and iron enriched cereals. Vitamin A Food sources of Vitamin A include: (if lab work shows low levels) Sweet potato, carrots, squash, vegetable juice, kale and spinach, tuna, liver, cod liver oil. Goal: Approximately 60 to 80* grams of protein per day *Note: Individual protein needs may vary. Your Dietitian will help you determine how much protein you may need if it is different than this amount. As you lose weight, protein will help you to preserve your lean muscle mass and this will help you to continue to lose weight. Once you start the Full Fluids Diet phase, your protein intake will gradually increase. At a month after surgery you will start the Soft/Regular Diet phase, which is designed to provide you with 60 to 80 grams of protein each day from food sources. Eat protein-rich foods at the beginning of each meal and snack to ensure that you meet your protein goal for the day. If the focus of each meal is protein-rich foods, deficiency is very less likely to occur. However, if you are having trouble tolerating food sources of protein you may need to speak with the Dietitian about a protein supplement. The Protein Content of Foods and Fluids table on the following page lists protein-rich foods and fluids and how many grams of protein are found in each. Although the majority of protein in our diet comes from the protein-rich foods listed in the table below, protein is also found in grain products and some vegetables. Tips for adding more protein into your diet: -Add 1 to 2 Tbsp of Skim Milk Powder to your milk, to your yogurt or other foods. To find out the protein content of the foods you are consuming, check the Nutrition Facts table. We wanted to give you a brief overview of the information covered up until this point. As needed, weigh and measure your portions to make sure that they are appropriate and based on the diet guidelines. On very hot days, or when exercising and sweating, you will need to drink more water to prevent dehydration. Always eat your protein first, followed by the fruit or vegetable and then the grain product. If you are worried about your protein intake, keep a food journal and review it with your Dietitian at the Bariatric Clinic. These items can slow down your weight loss, but they can also cause you to feel very unwell due to the dumping syndrome. Overfilling your pouch can cause your pouch to stretch and may prevent you from achieving your weight loss goals. A daily form of exercise is essential in order for you to achieve and maintain your goal weight. When using these products it is recommended to use only a small amount to add flavour. Filling up on items that are high in sugar and fat can prevent weight loss and good nutrition, and can also cause dumping syndrome. Remember to read the Nutrition Facts table on packaged foods to identify the sugar and fat content of foods and fluids. After bariatric surgery, alcohol is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream and individuals can become intoxicated after just a few sips. Alcohol and the risks associated with alcohol consumption will be discussed with you at your follow-up visits at the Bariatric Clinic. Constipation can become worse if you: -Do not consume enough fluid -Do not consume enough fibre -Are not physically active on a regular basis -Take medications for pain -Take iron supplements To improve your bowel regularity, you can: -Increase your water intake -Include fibre rich foods in your diet (example: Bran Buds, Fibre 1 cereal) -Increase your level of physical activity -Discuss with your Family Physician, Pharmacist or Bariatric Team. Colace) may be recommended Gas and Bloating: Gas and bloating are common after surgery, especially during the first few weeks after surgery. To prevent gas and bloating, be sure that you: -Limit liquids to no more than 60 mL (1/4 cup) at one time -Sip slowly -Avoid using a straw -Avoid chewing gum (can cause you to swallow air) -Avoid sweeteners made from sugar alcohols : sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol -Avoid carbonated beverages Nausea and Vomiting It is common to experience nausea and vomiting early post-op. However, if it persists it may be due to: -Food not chewed enough -Some medications -Eating too much/too fast -Lactose intolerance -Dehydration -Stricture -Food intolerances -Eating solids too soon after surgery -Drinking and eating at the same time -Lying down right after eating -Dumping syndrome -Carbonated beverages -Mechanical obstruction Revised May 2018 37 To manage nausea and vomiting, you could: -Take small bites -Avoid overeating -Sip slowly -Chew foods thoroughly -Eat slowly, 30-45 minutes -Avoid drinking with solids -Avoid cold beverages -Avoid caffeine and carbonation -Avoid high sugar/high fat foods -Try the water recipe on page 29 -Try ginger/peppermint/chamomile tea -Try Gravol Ginger / Ginger capsules Nausea/vomiting with abdominal pain requires urgent medical attention Lactose Intolerance: After surgery, you may find that milk or dairy products cause you bloating, gas, cramping or diarrhea. To improve lactose intolerance you can: -Limit lactose-containing foods or drinks choose substitutes instead -Try lactose reduced milk or natural unsweetened soymilk -Heat milk to reduce the lactose content -Take Lactaid pills or drops before having milk and dairy products -Yogurt and low-fat cheese are relatively low in lactose. You may find that you can eat these foods in small amounts without any problems No Appetite: Even though you may not have an appetite, it is important to continue to have nutritious foods at each meal and snack. Set a clock or timer to remind you to eat every 2 to 3 hours (during waking hours) Dumping Syndrome: You may experience dumping syndrome after consuming foods or drinks that are high in fat or sugar. Symptoms of dumping syndrome can include: -Sweating -Dizziness -Weakness -Nausea -Cramping -Vomiting -Diarrhea -Loose stools -Heart palpitations To prevent dumping syndrome you can: -Avoid consuming anything that is high in fat and/or sugar Read the Nutrition Facts table and look for the sugar and fat content. Aim for less than 5% Daily Value of fat or less than 2-3 grams of fat per serving. If sugar (in the form of glucose, fructose, sucrose, cane sugar and syrups) is in the first three ingredients, then avoid this product. Revised May 2018 38 Refer to list of Foods and Fluids to Avoid after Surgery on pg. If your rate of hair loss is concerning you and/or continues for more than one year after surgery be sure to speak with your Bariatric Team and/or Family Physician to make sure that your nutritional intake is adequate. To promote hair regrowth, you can: -Eat nutritious meals and snacks -Be sure that your diet includes enough protein (goal 60 80 grams/day) -Take the recommended vitamin/mineral supplements, including a prenatal multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains iron Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) or Late Onset Dumping: Hypoglycemia is a serious condition that can occur after gastric bypass surgery. It can happen quickly and if not treated right away, can lead to a medical emergency. Symptoms of low blood sugar include: -Shaky or dizzy feelings -Sweating -Weakness or tiredness -Hunger -Headache -Feeling anxious, upset or nervous If you have symptoms of low blood sugar, you should: 1.
Repairable posterior menisco m ent blood pressure medication in the morning or at night cheap atenolol 100mg overnight delivery, pain param eters prehypertension effects proven atenolol 100 mg, com m on sym ptom s and functional capsular disruption in anterior cruciate ligam ent injuries arrhythmia heart order 50 mg atenolol amex. Scandinavian Journal of Sports M edicine 5: American Journal of Sports M edicine blood pressure medication used for sleep order atenolol without a prescription, 12: 381?385. British Journal of Industrial M edicine, 44: to prevent lower limb soft tissue running injuries. Random ised controlled trial of Protonics on patellar pain, position and function. A uni-disciplinary approach to Five multi-disciplinary groups applied the protocol to the literature search and the selection and interpretation of review and analyse the scientific literature to update the studies was employed. The authors of the original draft guide content of existing guidelines on the management of acute low lines were involved in this project to update their work. Planning was undertaken to integrate new material and the process consisted of: new requirements for the development of evidence-based. A systematic search for new evidence to update to developing an end product for use by multiple health care existing material. Evaluation of Existing Guidelines the involvement of multiple disciplines in the project Guidelines on knee, shoulder, low back and neck pain devel enabled the groups to develop a document free from the bias of a oped by other groups were obtained to determine whether they particular profession. However, they did not specifi approach to patient care, based on evidence, by all disciplines cally address acute pain, were comprised of a mix of consensus involved in the management of acute musculoskeletal pain. There were no existing guidelines for the management of acute Target Audiences thoracic spinal pain. The authors (Professor Nikolai Bogduk, Dr referral, people with acute musculoskeletal pain, including W ade King, Dr David Vivian and Dr M ichael Yelland) partici rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, pain specialists, pated together with other review group members in this project. The most recent work was It is acknowledged that there are other clinician groups circulated to the review groups. Group members had the involved in the care of people with acute musculoskeletal pain. There was no distinction m ade with tional articles to undergo the appraisal process or request that respect to professional discipline in the literature search, an article be re-appraised. Areas identi studies in systematic reviews are not recorded in the tables of fied for improvement included the use of a systematic process included and excluded studies. The type Search for New Evidence of study chosen is detailed in the study selection criteria this update encompasses the findings of new and old literature section in each of the five topics. W here details of the previous literature searches were Levels of Evidence: Definitions available, these have been provided. In such the existing guidelines together with the references added cases, the level of evidence applied to the cited studies is indica during this update. Under other Study Types evidence rating systems, higher levels of evidence may apply. A search for systematic reviews and recent primary research was Limitations of the Search Strategy undertaken to find evidence on the diagnosis, prognosis and Limitations include: treatment of acute low back, thoracic spine, neck, shoulder and. D ifficulty in obtaining articles (not all articles requested types according to the three study questions. How to Review the Evidence: Systematic Identification and Review of the Scientific Literature. Consensus In the absence of scientific evidence and where the executive committee, steering committee and review groups are in agreement, the term consensus has been applied. A Guide to the Development, Implementation and Evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines. The management plan was based on the key messages derived No attempt was made to translate articles in foreign languages, from the evidence review on the diagnosis, prognosis and treat to hand search journals or to seek unpublished studies and ment of acute musculoskeletal pain. Further There was some variation in the time parameters of the detail on the study selection criteria is provided in the intro searches conducted for the five topic areas. This was the result ductory sections of the low back, thoracic spine, neck, of a number of factors including the results of the evaluations shoulder and anterior knee pain guidelines. This section contains infor by the multi-disciplinary nature of the process and the oppor m ation from the existing guidelines supplem ented with tunity for group members to note the absence of seminal arti evidence from recent studies. In such cases, the articles were retrieved and critically sectional studies, case studies and case series were located using appraised. Critical Appraisal Process Aetiology and Prevalence the five review groups developed study selection criteria and Attem pting to identify the underlying cause of pain by viewed the search results (title and abstract) in relation to the progressively ruling out possible causes may be useful for criteria. Specific information on the loskeletal pain, the evidence suggests that this approach search strategy and study selection criteria is included in the is likely to be confounded by the unreliability of clinical five topics. The management of specific conditions is designed to evaluate the quality of systematic reviews (based on beyond the scope of these guidelines. Two people independently appraised History the articles and their results were compared. In cases where Eliciting a history provides clinicians with information on the there was disagreement between reviewers, a third reviewer subjective aspects of a condition. Tables of Included and Excluded Studies this section outlines how to assess musculoskeletal pain the results from the data collection forms were entered onto a when eliciting a history. Critically appraised studies were included if they met provides further detail on conducting a pain assessment. Inform ation can be obtained through inspection, with a brief explanation of the reason for exclusion. It is im portant to be aware of Appendix E: Tables of Included and Excluded Studies. There is a need for a thorough exam ination of studies cited in Clinical Evidence (2002) are not included in the musculoskeletal system in the presence of pain and other the Tables of Included and Excluded Studies. In addition, there is a need to assess for psychosocial and occupational factors that may Data Analysis and Key M essages influence recovery. A summary of the results of the critical appraisals (entered into the Tables of Included Studies) was used to update Ancillary Investigations the text of the existing guidelines, using quantitative terms Investigations are indicated when the history and physical where possible. Due to the paucity of evidence specifically on acute of investigations for acute musculoskeletal pain often lacks musculoskeletal pain, many of the key messages are consensus utility. However, when alerting features of serious conditions views rather than evidence-based. Prognosis is influenced by risk factors, the natural history of In assessing the diagnostic utility of investigations, aspects the condition and the treatment regime. The term natural of safety, reliability, validity, clinical significance and cost history describes the usual course of a condition if no treat require consideration. Those benefits in turn depend on diag rational basis both for understanding the condition and its nostic accuracy, which is a product of reliability and validity. In likely effects and for decisions about appropriate interventions each case, evidence of reliability and validity is crucial to any at any given stage of the condition. In general, the prognosis of acute musculoskeletal pain is these aspects are presented below in relation to imaging: favourable. These differ for different conditions and should be An imaging test is not justified unless it is likely to yield identified early so that m easures can be im plem ented to information that will improve management and the risks improve the prognosis. The section is comprised of information from the existing guidelines updated with evidence from recent studies. R eliability Issues related to the extent to which the studies and systematic reviews were located using the search results of an investigation are reproducible. W hile there was a paucity of evidence, it is important to Other factors contributing to the validity of an imaging note that this does not necessarily mean that a particular inter test are the sensitivity and specificity for showing particular vention is not efficacious or beneficial. There are limits to scien changes and the clinical significance of any changes shown. Each intervention is cate designed study of a representative population with similar gorised (refer Table 9. The interpretation of the image is based on Evidence text (2002) was used as the basis for updating the the judgment of a radiologist and a clinician. Cost Investigations should be effective in terms of cost cited in Clinical Evidence were checked to determine whether and outcome. There is little justification for investigations they met the inclusion criteria for this review. Cost infor the criteria were considered in the analysis, however their mation is included in Appendix B. Primary studies and systematic reviews published after the Terminology search date in the Clinical Evidence text were located and In the absence of alerting features of serious conditions, terms appraised, with the results appearing in the Tables of Included to describe episodes of acute m usculoskeletal pain are and Excluded Studies (Appendix E).