No evidence of protease inhibitor-related toxicity was found and the Importance and management patient reported no adverse effects arthritis pain feels like discount mobic 7.5 mg without prescription. The supplement was stopped and Evidence appears to arthritis in american eskimo dogs order mobic with paypal be limited to arthritis in newfoundland dogs cheap mobic 7.5 mg on line one case report from which it is by day15 the levels of all three drugs had returned to arthritis in feet at young age generic mobic 15mg on-line within normal difficult to draw general conclusions. Celery seed is traditionally used for joint inflammation Not to be confused with celery stem, which is commonly (including rheumatism), gout and urinary tract inflammation. Pharmacokinetics No relevant pharmacokinetic data found for celery seed, but Constituents see flavonoids, page 186, and natural coumarins, page 297, the fruits of celery (usually referred to as seeds) contain a for information on these constituents present in the herb. Other important constituents are the flavonoids Interactions overview (notably apigenin and isoquercitrin) and natural coumarins No interactions with celery seed found. For information on (bergapten, isoimperatorin, osthenol, umbelliferone and the interactions of individual flavonoids present in celery 8-hydroxy-5-methoxypsoralen), some of which may cause seed, see flavonoids, page 186. Although celery seed photosensitivity; however, celery seed oil has been reported contains natural coumarins, the quantity of these constituents to be non-phototoxic in humans. Note that celery stem is not established, and therefore the propensity of celery seed contains much lower levels of the phototoxic natural to interact with other drugs because of their presence is coumarins; even so, cases of phototoxicity have been unclear. Alkaloids of the pyridine type, including genti C anine, gentianidine, gentioflavine, are also found in trace Century, Common centaury, Feverwort. The iridoids (bitters) are considered to be the main active constituents of centaury, and include gentiopicroside (about Pharmacokinetics 2%), with centapicrin, gentioflavoside, sweroside and No relevant pharmacokinetic data found. Highly methylated xanthones, including Interactions overview eustomin and 8-demethyleustomin, have been found No interactions with centaury found. Sesquiterpenes and A crude Matricaria recutita essential oil extract had no proazulenes. Other constituents present in chamomile include flavonoids present in German chamomile, see under flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, rutin), and the flavonoids, page 186. Interactions overview Use and indications An isolated case of bleeding in a patient taking warfarin and German chamomile is used for dyspepsia, flatulence and using chamomile products has been reported. No other travel sickness, especially when the gastrointestinal disturb relevant drug interactions have been found for German ance is associated with nervous disorders. German chamomile is widely flavonoids present in German chamomile, see under used in babies and children as a mild sedative, and to treat flavonoids, page 186. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing extract of Matricaria chamomilla and a crude Matricaria enzymes in rats. C Chamomile, German + Iron compounds Mechanism German chamomile contains the natural coumarin compounds, umbelliferone and heniarin, However, these compounds do not Chamomile tea (an infusion of Matricaria chamomilla) does not possess the minimum structural requirements (a C-4 hydroxyl appear to affect iron absorption. This is this appears to be the first report of an interaction between warfarin much less than the tannin content of black tea, which is known to and German chamomile. This chamomile alone causing anticoagulation, and the natural coumarin level of tannins did not appear to affect iron absorption in this constituents of German chamomile do not appear to possess particular study and it would therefore appear that chamomile tea anticoagulant activity, which might suggest that the risk of an may be taken without impairing iron absorption. It may be better to advise patients to discuss the use of any herbal products that they Chamomile, German + Warfarin wish to try, and to increase monitoring if this is thought advisable. Roman chamomile is used as a carminative, anti-emetic, Pharmacopoeias antispasmodic, and sedative for dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, anorexia and dysmenorrhoea. For information on the flowerheads contain an essential oil composed mainly of the pharmacokinetics of individual flavonoids found in esters of angelic and tiglic acids, with 1,8-cineole, trans Roman chamomile, see under flavonoids, page 186. The flavonoids No interactions with Roman chamomile found, but, for apigenin, luteolin, quercetin with their glycosides, and the information on the interactions of individual flavonoids natural coumarin scopoletin-7-glucoside, are also present. It has also been used to treat C other diseases such as cancer, venereal disease and tubercu Creosote bush. Its use as a herbal remedy is not recommended due to species as Larrea tridentata), Larrea mexicana Moric. Constituents Pharmacokinetics Chaparral contains lignans, the major compound being No relevant pharmacokinetic data found. The herb also contains the pharmacokinetics of individual flavonoids present in flavonoids, which include isorhamnetin, kaempferol and chaparral, see under flavonoids, page 186. A cytotoxic naphthoquinone derivative, larreantin, has been isolated from the roots. For information on the Use and indications interactions of individual flavonoids present in chaparral, see Chaparral has been used in the treatment of bowel cramps, under flavonoids, page 186. Evidence is limited to experimental studies, which suggest Angelica polymorpha var. Constituents the major constituents include natural coumarins (angel icin, archangelicin, bergapten, osthole, psoralen and xantho Interactions overview toxin) and volatile oils. Other constituents include caffeic Angelica dahurica may raise the levels of diazepam and and chlorogenic acids, and ferulic acid. More limited also contains a series of phthalides (n-butylidenephthalide, evidence suggests that nifedipine may be similarly affected. Case reports suggest that Chinese angelica may increase the bleeding time in response to warfarin, and may possess Use and indications oestrogenic effects, which could be of benefit, but which One of the most common uses of Chinese angelica root is for may also, theoretically, oppose the effects of oestrogen the treatment of menopausal symptoms and menstrual antagonists, such as tamoxifen. Inhibitory potential of herbal anaemia, constipation, psoriasis, the management of hyper medicines on human cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation: Properties of Umbelliferous or Citrus crude drugs and their relative prescriptions. In a mobility study, Angelica dahurica potentiated the muscle relaxant effects of fore increase its levels and effects. Ishihara K, Kushida H, Yuzurihara M, Wakui Y, Yanagisawa T, Kamei H, Ohmori S, Mechanism Kitada M. Interaction of drugs and chinese herbs: Pharmacokinetic changes of In rats, diazepam is principally metabolised in the liver by tolbutamide and diazepam caused by extract of Angelica dahurica. Inhibitory potential of herbal that this isoenzyme is inhibited by Angelica dahurica. It was also medicines on human cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation: Properties of Umbelliferous or Citrus crude drugs and their relative prescriptions. Jpn J Pharmacol (2001) 85, 399? suggested by the authors that there was a considerable effect of 408. Note that it may not be appropriate to extrapolate from Angelica dahurica to other species such as Angelica sinensis, since, in one Chinese angelica may contain oestrogenic compounds. Similarly, Chinese angelica may have additive effects with oestrogen antagonists or oppose the effects 1. Ishihara K, Kushida H, Yuzurihara M, Wakui Y, Yanagisawa T, Kamei H, Ohmori S, of oestrogen antagonists. Interaction of drugs and chinese herbs: Pharmacokinetic changes of tolbutamide and diazepam caused by extract of Angelica dahurica. Clinical evidence A letter in the Medical Journal of Australia1 draws attention to the fact that some women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy or hormone antagonists who develop menopausal symptoms have found relief from hot flushes by taking a Chinese herb dong quai? Chinese angelica + Food (or danggui? root), which has been identified as Angelica sinensis. A possible explanation is that this and some other herbs (agnus castus, hops flower, ginseng root and black cohosh) have significant No interactions found. A phytoestrogenic preparation containing soy extract 75mg, black cohosh 25mg and Angelica polymorpha (a species related to Chinese angelica) 50mg taken twice daily reduced Chinese angelica + Herbal medicines the average frequency of menstrually-associated migraine attacks in a 15-week period by 54% in a randomised, placebo-controlled study in 42 women. In contrast, in another randomised, placebo-controlled study, Angelica sinensis root 4. Experimental evidence Clinical evidence In various in vitro and animal studies, Chinese angelica extract has No interactions found. Angelica dahurica was found to inhibit the activity of nifedipine Mechanism oxidase 1 to 6hours after administration, by about 30 to 40%. The concern is that, if Chinese angelica Clinical evidence does have oestrogenic effects, it might stimulate breast cancer A 46-year-old African?American woman with atrial fibrillation growth and antagonise the effects of hormone antagonists used to taking warfarin had a greater than twofold increase in her treat cancer. Medicinal botanicals: estrogenicity in rat A further report describes spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage uterus and liver. Randomized, controlled trial of phytoestrogen in the prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine. Experimental evidence In a study in rabbits, Chinese angelica aqueous extract 2g/kg twice daily for 3days significantly decreased the prothrombin time in Chinese angelica + Tolbutamide response to a single 2-mg/kg dose of warfarin without altering the plasma warfarin concentrations. However, when the study was repeated with warfarin at steady state, prothrombin times tended to the interaction between Angelica dahurica and tolbutamide is be increased after the addition of Chinese angelica, although, as with based on experimental evidence only. Mechanism Experimental evidence the reasons for this interaction are not fully understood but Chinese In a study, rats were given an extract of Angelica dahurica, and then angelica is known to contain natural coumarin derivatives, which rat liver microsomes were prepared and incubated with tolbutamide. However, note that many coumarins do not hydroxylase 1 to 6hours after administration, by up to about 60%. Nevertheless, it would seem Although there is a lack of clinical evidence, because of the potential prudent to warn patients taking warfarin, and possibly other for increased levels of tolbutamide, it may be prudent to exercise coumarin anticoagulants, of the potential risks of also taking some caution when using medicines containing Angelica dahurica in Chinese angelica. Patients may wish to consider increas avoided unless the effects on anticoagulation can be monitored.
Factor VIII assay
Blood thinning medications, either aspirin or warfarin
Doppler study of the heart
Nausea and vomiting
Fragile X syndrome
The histologic infants who have neonatal hepatitis high false-positive (ie vitamin d arthritis pain buy mobic online, no excretion) appearance of the tissue provides is to arthritis pain during rain buy discount mobic 15 mg on line conduct an exhaustive search and false-negative (ie shoes for arthritis in feet and knees buy mobic 7.5 mg low cost, an apparent useful information about the degree for recognizable or treatable causes excretion of tracer into the intestine) of fibrosis or presence of cirrhosis of the clinical condition arthritis in feet fingers purchase mobic 15 mg online. Jaundice yields (at least 10%) and is not very and permits the diagnosis of biliary may be present from birth or appear effective when serum bilirubin lev atresia, neonatal hepatitis, congenital in the first 3 months of life. Percutaneous liver hepatic fibrosis, and alpha 1-anti tunately, the classic findings of cho biopsy never should be postponed to trypsin deficiency. However, they may be useful passage of acholic stools and dark in specific situations. Aminotransferase levels almost and characterize liver masses this relatively specific syndrome is always are elevated, but to varying clearly. In most cases, how of abnormality correlates with the nizing chemical differences in tis ever, idiopathic? neonatal hepatitis severity of disease at the initial pre sues and identifying tumors and represents a very general category sentation. Ultrasonography usually infiltrates without the injection of a that includes all cases of neonatal reveals the presence of a gall blad contrast agent or exposure of the liver dysfunction for which an etiol der and the absence of a cystic mal patient to ionizing radiation. The tobiliary scintigraphy, if performed, titis, infants who have biliary atresia presence of succinylacetone in the reveals delayed transport of radionu present with signs of cholestasis. A severely abdominal ultrasonography can rule hydrolase (which catalyzes the final damaged liver may have difficulty out the presence of a choledochal step in the oxidative catabolism of in taking up the radionuclide, which cyst. Liver biopsy tion of it into the intestine, even be screened for by protein inhibitor usually provides the definitive diag 24 hours later. Excessive storage of involves supportive measures and necessary if there is progressive iron is seen on biopsy in infants avoiding the consequences of malab hepatic decompensation, refractory who have neonatal iron storage dis sorption by ensuring adequate nutri growth failure, hepatic synthetic ease. Congenital hypothyroidism, tion and delivery of fat-soluble vita dysfunction, and the development of which may present with unexplained mins and medium-chain triglycerides a coagulopathy or intractable portal hyperbilirubinemia, is ruled out by until recovery (which occurs in the hypertension with recurrent gastroin assessment of thyroid function. Liver transplantation is an testinal hemorrhage or hyper alternative for those who do not splenism. Liver Disease of the Older Child the major causes of liver disease observed after infancy are the major causes of liver disease toxic, infectious, metabolic, autoimmune, vascular, and observed after infancy are toxic, infiltrative. Furthermore, process that affects intra and extra infant may be diagnosed by a com the relative frequency of each disor hepatic bile ducts. It leads to fibrosis bination of general tests, such as der varies with the age of the and obliteration of the biliary tract, ultrasonography, and more specific patient. Structural abnormalities of the patients of all ages, as does the liver biliary cirrhosis. It occurs world biliary tree, such as congenital disease due to cardiac or collagen wide, affecting an estimated 1 in hepatic fibrosis or choledochal cysts, vascular diseases. Disorders of fat 12,000 live births, and is the most usually are detected by ultrasonogra metabolism present in late infancy frequent indication for liver trans phy. Liver biopsy shows the charac and early childhood; Wilson disease plantation among infants and chil teristic ductal plate malformation? usually is detected in late childhood dren. The need for liver transplanta finding in infants who have congeni or adolescence. Any history tent intrahepatic inflammatory of maternal exposure to, or infection process. The clinical presen which permits improved nutrition viral infection, both serum immuno tation of viral hepatitis varies with and maximal growth. Urine often sents most often as a flu-like illness, rection of biliary atresia is most will be positive for cytomegalovirus. Patients 3 months of age, which underlines of tyrosine metabolism, is suggested often are febrile and can be very the need for prompt and precise by disproportionate abnormalities of jaundiced. The pathogen spreads diagnosis of the cause of observed hepatic synthetic function, mild primarily via the oral-fecal route. Defini epidemics in parts of the world that with piecemeal necrosis, distortion tive diagnosis requires evaluation of have poor sanitary conditions. Cases of lobular architecture, and even 24-hour urinary copper excretion diagnosed in North America have bridging fibrosis in severe cases. Sclerosing cholangitis is character with a hemolytic crisis due to the ized by a chronic inflammatory pro toxic effect of copper on red blood cess of the intra or extrahepatic cells. It may be primary with penicillamine, which allows for this traditionally is defined as an (without evidence of another under its excretion into the urine. Because inflammatory condition of the liver lying disease and of unknown etiol the prognosis depends on early treat in which the biochemical and histo ogy) and usually is associated with ment and individual responsiveness logic abnormalities persist for more inflammatory bowel disease. However, irrevers ondary sclerosing cholangitis results to consider this diagnosis in every ible changes may occur in children from stones, postoperative strictures, child who has signs of chronic liver within those 6 months. Typi of the diseases causing chronic hep show a typical concentric fibrosis cally, aminotransferases are elevated Pediatrics in Review Vol. Nontransplant Options for Children Who Have is the availability of multiple non Liver Disease transplant options for the treatment? Molecular manipulations (eg, inhibition of polymerization of alpha 1 exciting prospects, it becomes of antitrypsin) great importance to assess the pres-? Receptor-based, targeted enzyme replacement therapy ence of liver disease correctly and quickly in children to allow them to? Hepatocyte transplantation (eg, fulminant liver failure) until they can reach an age at which definitive therapy may be available. In: Suchy F, ed: Liver Disease in Chil the liver during one of the afore noma tends to occur later in life dren. Nontransplant option for the infectious hepatitis, but it is distin alpha-fetoprotein levels usually are treatment of metabolic liver disease: sav ing livers while saving lives. Likewise, Identifying the presence of serious Book;1996: 1340?1361 primary liver tumors are identified liver disease in a pediatric patient at Mews C, Sinatra F. Chronic liver disease in readily in the child who presents the initial presentation is of cardinal children. Less commonly, babies who have biliary atresia is opportunities for effective surgery. A 15-year-old girl who is being eval conjugated fraction of 102 mcmol/L firm liver with a span of 5 cm and uated for poor school performance (6. Which of the following palpable 3 cm below the right costal and acting-out behaviors is noted to clinical features is most suggestive of margin; splenomegaly; total bilirubin, have a large, firm liver. Nevus anemicus A sharply circumscribed white patch occurs, often on the upper chest, when the skin is flushed by bathing or rubbing. Neurofibroma, pigmentation and nervous tumor in multiple organs are the main symptoms. A cafe-au-lait spot with a diameter of about 10 cm is called a large Recklinghausen spot; one with a diameter of 1 cm or less is called a small Recklinghausen spot. Neurofibroma first appears between childhood and puberty, after which it gradually enlarges and increases in number. Nodular plexiform neurofibroma, neurofibroma in the periph eral nerves, is a slightly palpable, spindle-shaped tumor that appears on the skin over the subcutaneous nerves. It may appear in a beaded linear pattern and be accompanied by tenderness or radiating pain. Small yellow tumors may appear on the face and scalp of infants and disappear spontaneously in several years (juvenile xanthoen dothelioma). Bone abnormality, including scoliosis, deformity or bone defect in the thorax, occurs in about half of all cases. Pathology Neurofibroma is formed by Schwann cells and intraneural fibroblasts, with thin undulating collagen fibers in the middle (Fig. Schwann cells test positive for S-100 protein anti Clinical images are available in hardcopy only. Cafe-au-lait spots are treated by laser therapy and dermabrasion; nevertheless, they tend to recur. Neurofibromas on highly visible areas such as the face or extremities are surgically removed. When a diffuse plexi form neurofibroma is excised, there is a risk of massive perioperative hemorrhage. The central nervous lesion and neurofibroma may wors en and develop a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in rare cases. Lesions in the central nervous sys bb tem, such as acoustic schwannoma (vestibular sheath tumor), are Fig. The lesion and reduced sensory perception are induced by enlargement of has been partially removed by excision and suturing.
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The device should be withdrawn from patients who fail to arthritis pain nz order 15mg mobic overnight delivery achieve clinically significant response after 6 months gouty arthritis in fingers treatment cheap 7.5 mg mobic otc. Do not perform adenoidectomy at the same time unless evidence of significant upper respiratory tract symptoms see Section 5 rheumatoid arthritis lower back pain discount mobic amex. Correction of split earlobes is not always successful and the earlobe is Remodelling of a site where poor scar formation is a External Ear Lobe recognised risk arthritis good diet discount mobic 7.5 mg amex. Nuances in the management of rhinophyma the first-line treatment of this Facial Plastic Surgery, 2012 Apr;28(2): 231-7. For further references please refer to Public Health Lycra Suits with clear outcome goals and time Paper. Public Health Recommendation: Current evidence does not support routine commissioning of Lycra suits in the management of Cerebral Palsy. However, there Adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, Graded exercise, may be circumstances when a and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome: A planned admission should be cost-effectiveness analysis -. For example, a planned admission may be useful if assessment of a management plan and investigations would require frequent visits to the hospital. The evidence base is poor for both children and Can physiotherapy after stroke based on the Bobath Concept adults. Bobath Concept versus constraint-induced movement therapy to improve arm functional recovery in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial Clinical Rehabilitation, 2012 Aug;26(8): 705-15. A rapid review of the evidence for the effectiveness of Bobath therapy for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy National Public Health Service for Wales (2008). Children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta analysis on gait and electrical stimulation. Interventions for dysphagia and nutritional support in acute Patients must have receptive cognitive abilities. Fixed contractures of joints associated with Functional electrical stimulation for drop foot of central muscles to be stimulated. Hooded lids causing significant Upper Eyelid Procedures of Limited Clinical Effectiveness Phase 1 functional impaired vision confirmed Consolidation and repository of the existing evidence-base by an appropriate specialist can London Health Observatory 2010. Procedures of Limited Clinical Effectiveness Phase 1 Consolidation and repository of the existing evidence-base London Health Observatory 2010. Commissioning Criteria Plastic Surgery Xanthelasma may be associated with deposits on the? Procedures of Low Clinical Priority/ Procedures not usually abnormally high cholesterol levels eyelids)? Telescope for Advanced Age Intraocular telescope by Vision Care for age-related macular degeneration Related Macular North East Treatment Advisory Group (2012). Nonsurgical treatment of deformational plagiocephaly: a Most childrens head shapes will systematic review improve naturally in their own time. For both, there are no major safety concerns, but the Soft Palate, Surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults evidence on efficacy and outcomes is Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005). Research to date is exploratory and studies small and not randomised or snoreplasty, Effects and side-effects of surgery for snoring and obstructive blinded. Surgery for trigger finger (stenosing tenovaginosis) Corticosteroid injection for trigger finger in adults Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2008). Trigger Finger Assessment Map of Medicine (2012) for North Mersey Surgery versus ultrasound-guided steroid injections for trigger finger disease: protocol of a randomized controlled trial Danish Medical Journal 2013;60(5): A4633. Administered ultrasound guidance is needed or as part of Steroid Joint another procedure being undertaken in theatre. However it is not routinely commissioned for any of the following indications: Knee replacement: A guide to good practice British? Clinical practice guideline on treatment of Carpal Tunnel Carpal Tunnel Surgery for mild to moderate cases is not Syndrome commissioned unless all of the following criteria American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2008. Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal Corticosteroid injection in appropriate patients. Carpal tunnel surgery (open or endoscopic) for Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007. The following treatments are not commissioned Is surgical intervention more effective than non-surgical for carpal tunnel syndrome: treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome? Annals of the Royal College are in place for clinical governance, musculoskeletal radiologist. Efficacy of Surgery for Femoro-acetabular or significantly compromised functioning for at Impingement: A Systematic Review. Non-surgical treatments such as bunion pads, splints, insoles or shields or exercise where appropriate. Sterilisation Patients consenting to vasectomy should be made fully aware of this policy. Focal spasticity in patients with upper motor neurone syndrome, hyperhidrosis British Medical Journal. For patients with conditions which are not routinely commissioned, as indicated above, requests will continue to be considered by Cheshire & Merseyside Clinical Commissioning Groups processes for individual funding requests, if there is evidence that the patient is considered to have clinically exceptional circumstances to any other patient experiencing the same condition within Cheshire & Merseyside. Section 1833(e) prohibits Medicare payment for any claim which lacks the necessary information to process the claim. Indications: Medicare will cover a bone mass measurement test when it meets all of the following criteria: 1. It is performed on a qualified individual for the purpose of identifying bone mass, detecting bone loss or determining bone quality. The test is reasonable and necessary for diagnosing, treating, or monitoring of a "qualified individual" as defined above in #2. Medicare may cover a bone mass measurement for a beneficiary once every 2 years (if at least 23 months have passed since the month the last bone mass measurement was performed). For conditions specified, Medicare will cover a bone mass measurement for a qualified beneficiary more frequently than every two years, if medically necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of the patient and if related to the condition listed. In these instances payment may be made for tests performed after eleven months have elapsed since the previous bone mass measurement test. If a bone mass measurement test is ordered for a woman following a careful evaluation of her medical need, it is expected that the ordering/treating physician/qualified non-physician practitioner will document, why he or she believes that the woman is estrogen deficient and at clinical risk for osteoporosis. Tests not ordered by the physician/qualified non-physician practitioner, who is treating the beneficiary, are not reasonable and necessary. Medicare reimbursement for an initial bone mass measurement may be allowed only once, regardless of sites studied. If unsuccessful efforts to obtain prior test results from another provider are documented, new tests may be considered for reimbursement. Bone mass measurement is not covered under the portable x-ray benefit and will be denied when performed by a portable x-ray supplier. Bone mass measurement tests provided without an accompanying interpretation and report, as part of the test, will be denied as not medically necessary. Bone mass measurement tests will be denied as not medically necessary if performed by a non-physician practitioner. Symptoms should be present and documented, and it should be anticipated that the results of the test will be used in the management of the patient. Limitation of liability and refund requirements apply when denials are likely, whether based on medical necessity or other coverage reasons. The provider/supplier must notify the beneficiary in writing, prior to rendering the service, if the provider/supplier is aware that the test, item or procedure may not be covered by Medicare. The limitation of liability and refund requirements do not apply when the test, item or procedure is statutorily excluded, has no Medicare benefit category or is rendered for screening purposes. Such non-physician practitioners, with certain exceptions, may certify, order and establish the plan of care as authorized by State law. Absence of a Bill Type does not guarantee that the policy does not apply to that Bill Type. Complete absence of all Bill Types indicates that coverage is not influenced by Bill Type and the policy should be assumed to apply equally to all claims. In most instances Revenue Codes are purely advisory; unless specified in the policy services reported under other Revenue Codes are equally subject to this coverage determination. Complete absence of all Revenue Codes indicates that coverage is not influenced by Revenue Code and the policy should be assumed to apply equally to all Revenue Codes. The service must be reasonable and necessary in the specific case and must meet the criteria specified in this determination. The claim should also include a diagnosis code indicating the results of the test (if the test was not normal). Claims for 77078, 77081, 76977 and G0130, submitted without a diagnosis supporting the need for screening will be denied.