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Ifhypernatremia is rapidly corrected impotence under 40 buy viagra with dapoxetine with visa, hyperosmolality erectile dysfunction treatment algorithm buy viagra with dapoxetine 100/60 mg with visa, unlike hyponatremic patients who can have the osmotic imbalance may cause cerebral edema and a low erectile dysfunction code red 7 purchase genuine viagra with dapoxetine line, normal does erectile dysfunction get worse with age 100/60mg viagra with dapoxetine, or high serum osmolality. Fluids should be patient is typically hypovolemic due to free water losses, administered over a 48-hour period, aiming for serum although hypervolemia is frequently seen, often as an iatro? sodium correction of approximately 1 mEq/L/h (1 mmol! Hypernatremia in primary aldosteron? ism is mild and usually does not cause syptoms. Choice of Type of Fluid for Replacement An intact thirst mechanism and access to water are the 1. Thus, normal saline (308 mOsm/kg or 308 mmol/kg) is hypo? whatever the underlying disorder (eg, dehydration, osmolar compared with plasma. After adequate volume encephalopathy, lactulose or mannitol therapy, central and resuscitation with normal saline, 0. Hypernatremia with euvolemia-Water ingestion or intravenous 5% dextrose will result in the excretion of When the patient is dehydrated, orthostatic hypotension excess sodium in the urine. Lethargy, irritability, and increasing the quantity of water that needs to be replaced. Hyperthermia, delirium, seizures, and coma may be seen with severe hypernatremia (ie, 3. In severe rare cases with elination is an uncommon but reported consequence of kidney disease, hemodialysis may be necessary to correct severe hypernatremia. Urine osmolality greater than 400 mOsm/kg-Renal Fluid replacement should include the free water deficit and water-conserving ability is functioning. Acute hypernatremia-In acute dehydration without intake falls behind hypotonic fuid losses from excessive much solute loss, free water loss is similar to the weight sweating, the respiratory tract, or bowel movements. Chronic hypernatremia-The water deficit is calculated tion from glucosuria can result in hypernatremia. When to Refer Treatment of hyernatremia includes correcting the cause of the fuid loss, replacing water, and replacing electrolytes Patients with refractory or unexplained hyernatremia (as needed). In response to increases in plasma osmolality, should be referred for subspecialist consultation. Ethanol ingestion should be considered in any case of stupor or coma with an elevated osmol gap (measured osmolality calculated osmolality greater than 10 mOsm/kg. Other toxic alcohols such as methanol and Hypokalemia can result from insufficient dietary potas? ethylene glycol cause an osmol gap and a metabolic acido? sium intake, intracellular shifting of potassium from the sis with an increased anion gap (see Chapter 38). The extracellular space, extrarenal potassium loss, or renal combination of an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis potassium loss (Table 21-3). Aldosterone is an with alcoholic ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis (see Metabolic important regulator of total body potassium, increasing Acidosis). Acid-base disturbances in intensive care countries, is gastrointestinal loss from infectious diarrhea. Self? the role of extracorporeal treatments in the management of limited hypokalemia occurs in 50-60% of trauma patients, acute methanol poisoning: a systematic review and consensus perhaps related to enhanced release of epinephrine. Numerous genetic muta? tions affect fuid and electrolyte metabolism, including Increased concentrations ofsolutes that donot readily enter disorders of potassium metabolism (Table 21-4). Magnesium is an important cofactor for potassium Hyperosmolality of effective osmoles such as sodium and uptake and maintenance of intracellular potassium levels. Decreased potassium intake Potassium shift into the cell Disease Site of Mutation Increased postprandial secretion of insulin Alkalosis Potassium Trauma (via beta-adrenergic stimulation? Magnesium depletion Familial hypocalcemia Ca +-sensing protein2 should be considered in refractory hypokalemia. Symptoms and Signs Magnesium Muscular weakness, fatigue, and muscle cramps are fre? Hypomagnesemia? Paracellin-1 quent complaints in mild to moderate hypokalemia. Gas? hypercalciuria trointestinal smooth muscle involvement may result in syndrome constipation or ileus. Flaccid paralysis, hyporefexia, Water hypercapnia, tetany, and rhabdomyolysis may be seen with severe hypokalemia (less than 2. The presence Nephrogenic diabetes Vasopressin receptor-2 (Type 1), ofhypertension maybe a clue to the diagnosis ofhypoka? insipidus aquaporin-2 lemia from aldosterone or mineralocorticoid excess Acid-base (Table 21-4). Hypokalemia in acute medical patients: risk rapid evaluation of net potassium secretion. Etiology and symptoms of severe hypokalemia in Urine K+/Piasma K+ emergency department patients. Advances in diagnosis and management ofhypoka? lemic and hyperkalemic emergencies. In such cases, plasma renin and aldosterone levels are helpful in differential diagnosis. Oral potassium supplementation is the safest and easiest treatment for mild to moderate deficiency. In the setting of abnormal kidney tiates potassium leak from blood cells in cases of fnction and mild to moderate diuretic dosage, 20 mEq/day clotting, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis from of oral potassium is generally sufficient to prevent hypoka? truly elevated serum potassium. Ruleoutextracellular potassium shift from the cells is needed to treat hypokalemia and fully replete potassium in acidosis and assess renal potassium excretion. Intravenous potassium is indicated for patients with severe hypokalemia and for those who cannot take oral? For severe deficiency, potassium may be Hyperkalemia usually occurs in patients with advanced given through a peripheral intravenous line in a concentra? kidney disease but can also develop with normal kidney tion up to 40 mEq/L and at rates up to 10 mEq/h. Acidosis causes intracellular potas? trations of up to 20 mEq/h may be given through a central sium to shift extracellularly. Avoid glucose-containing fuid to prevent fur? may raise the potassium concentration by 1-2 mEq/L by ther shifts of potassium into the cells. In the ciency should be corrected, particularly in refractory absence of acidosis, serum potassium concentration rises hypokalemia. When to Refer concentration, the smaller the excess necessary to raise the Patients with unexplained hypokalemia, refractory hypokale? potassium levels further. Miner? alocorticoid resistance due to genetic disorders, interstitial kidney disease, or urinary tract obstruction also leads to? Hyperkalemia imairs neuromuscular transmission, causing Spurious/Pseudohyperkalemia muscle weakness, faccid paralysis, and ileus. Electrocardiog? Leakage from erythrocytes when separation of serum from raphy is not a sensitive method for detecting hyperkalemia, clot is delayed (plasma K+ normal) Marked thrombocytosis or leukocytosis with release of since nearly half of patients with a serum potassium level intracellular K+ (plasma K+ normal) greater than 6. Conduction disturbances, such as bundle Decreased K+excretion branch block and atrioventricular block, may occur. Ven? Kidney disease, acute and chronic tricular fbrillation and cardiac arrest are terminal events. Renal secretory defects (may or may nothave reduced kidney function): kidney transplant, interstitial nephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sickle cell disease. Treatment hemolysis, severe infection, internal bleeding, the diagnosis should be confirmed by repeat laboratory vigorous exercise testing to rule out spurious hyperkalemia, especially in the Metabolic acidosis (in the case of organic acid absence of medications that cause hyperkalemia or in accumulation eg, lactic acidosis-a shif of K+ does patients without kidney disease or a previous history of not occur since organic acid can easily move across the cell membrane) hyperkalemia. Plasma potassium concentration can be Hypertonicity (solvent drag) measured to avoid spurious hyperkalemia due to potassium Insulin deficiency (metabolic acidosis may not be apparent) leakage out of red cells, white cells, and platelets. Kidney Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis dysfnction should be ruled out at the initial assessment. Emergent treatment is indicated when cardiac toxicity, Especially in patients taking medications that decrease muscle paralysis, or severe hyperkalemia (potassium greater potassium secretion (see above) than 6. Intravenous calcium may be given to antagonize the cell membrane effects of potassium, but its use should be restricted to life-threatening hyerkalemia inpatients taking increases therisk ofhyperkalemia. Thiazide or loop diuret? digitalis because hyercalcemia may cause digitalis toxicity. Heparin inhibits aldosterone production in for the treatment of chronic hyperkalemia in patients with the adrenal glands, causing hyperkalemia. Patiromer may decrease triamterene, and all three drugs inhibit renal potassium the absorption of orally administered drugs. Another potas? excretion through suppression of sodium channels in the sium binder zirconium cyclosilicate has been studied for distal nephron. Neither agent has been studied in acute hyperkale? in organ transplant recipients, especially kidney trans? mia or in patients with end-stage renal disease. Insulin Distributes K+into 15-60 minutes 4-6 hours Regular insulin, 5-10 units None cells intravenously, plus glucose 50%, 25 g intravenously Albuterol Distributes K+ into 15-30 minutes 2-4 hours Nebulized albuterol, 10-20 mg in None cells 4 ml normal saline, inhaled over 10minutes Note: Much higher doses are nee essary for hyperkalemia therapy (10-20 mg) than for airway dis ease (2. Serum K can be rapidly corrected Hemo-dialysis can be within minutes, but post-dialysis delayed byvascular rebound can occur.

Regular contractions are nonocclusive erectile dysfunction zinc deficiency buy viagra with dapoxetine once a day, occur over a few seconds erectile dysfunction after radiation treatment prostate cancer safe 100/60mg viagra with dapoxetine, and migrate cephalad (right colon) and caudad (left colon) erectile dysfunction pills wiki 100/60 mg viagra with dapoxetine with amex. Intermittent ring contractions occur every few hours erectile dysfunction treatment japan cheap viagra with dapoxetine american express, occlude the lumen, and migrate caudad. They result in the mass movement of stool, particularly in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Contractions of the longitudinal muscle produce bulging of the colonic wall between the taeniae coli, but the physiological importance of this action remains poorly understood. The origin of the contractions of the longitudinal muscle is not completely understood, but it depends upon the slow wave frequency of smooth muscle. Action potentials occur on the peaks of these membrane oscillations and hence they control the frequency of contractions. The nature of the contractile patterns within the colon depends upon the fed state. This is best exemplified during eating when the gastrocolic reflex? is activated. Food in the duodenum, particularly fatty foods, evokes reflex intermittment rhythmic contractions within the colon, and corresponding mass movement of stool. This action, which is mediated by neural and humoral mechanisms, accounts for the observation by many individuals that eating stimulates the urge to defecate. These bacteria digest a number of undigested food products normally found in the effluent delivered to the colon, such as the complex sugars contained in dietary fiber. They are passively and actively transported into the colonocytes where they become an First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Examination of this area devoid of luminal content typically reveals signs of inflammation, termed diversion colitis. Fermentation of sugars by colonic bacteria is also an important source of colonic gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. These gases, particularly methane, largely account for the tendency of some stools to float in the toilet. Nitrogen gas, which diffuses into the colon from the plasma, is the predominant gas. However, the ingestion of large quantities of undigested complex sugars such as found in beans of the maldigestion of simple sugars such as lactose can result in large increases in production of colonic gas. View of the normal submucosal vessels visible through the healthy transparent mucosa overlying the vessels. Normal transverse colon with a triangular appearance to the normal colon fold pattern Figure 2. Normal ileocecal valve seen in the bottom left of the image, looking down at the cecal pole. When bile salts or long-chain fatty acids are malabsorbed in sufficient quantities, their digestion by colonic bacteria generates potent secretagogues. Shaffer 318 Bile salt malabsorption typically occurs following resection of less than 100cm of the terminal ileum, usually for management of Crohn disease. When the resection involves segments greater than 100 cm of ileum, the liver cannot sufficiently increase the synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol. A deficiency of bile acids enters the duodenum and if the concentration of bile acids is below the critical micellar concentration, bile salf micelles do not form, lipids are malabsorbed, and fatty" Diarrhea (known as steatorrhea) develops. The mechanisms by which multiple metabolites of bile salts and hydroxylated metabolites of long-chain fatty acids act as secretagogues provide an example of how multiple regulatory systems can interact to control colonic function. These mechanisms include disruption of mucosal permeability, stimulation of chloride and water secretion by activating enteric secretomotor neurons, enhancement of the paracrine actions of prostaglandins by increasing production, and direct effects on the enterocyte that increase intracelluar calcium. Non-pathogenic bacteria also signal to mucosal cells and can evoke cytokine signaling from colonocytes to effector cells. Some species of bacteria stimulate pro-inflammatory responses whereas others are anti-inflammatory. These signaling pathways are enhanced when the tight junctions between epithelial cells are altered. This increased leakiness or permeability of the colon allows bacteria greater access to the epithelium and immune cells in the lamina propria. This bacterial-epithelial signaling underlies the rationale for the use of probiotics where healthy? or anti-inflammatory bacteria are ingested. Traditionally, patients presenting acutely with abdominal pain would have conventional radiographs (views of the abdomen) before any further cross sectional imaging was performed. Conventional Radiography/Plain Films Conventional radiography, or the abdominal series, includes a supine, erect or decubitus view and an image that includes the lung bases. This allows evaluation of the intestinal gas pattern and the presence of free air. A single supine view of the abdomen or flat plate? is used to evaluate for the presence of excessive amounts of stool. While a radiograph can be useful in the evaluation of the potential presence and level of obstruction, adynamic ileus, or pneumatosis intestinalis. Barium Imaging Imaging of the colon has been traditionally achieved by performing a barium th enema. A bowel preparation will include a low residue diet for 1-2 days prior to the examination and a cathartic preparation. A tube is placed in the rectum and the colon is distended with a large volume of low density barium. Multiple spot images are obtained of the various colonic segments to visualize the entire colon free from th overlapping loops. Later in the 20 century, the double contrast barium enema technique was developed. It involves the introduction of a small volume of high density barium through a small rectal tube, followed by insufflation of a large volume of room air, allowing good colonic distention and mucosal coating of the barium. Some institutions routinely use pharmacologic agents such as glucagons, or the anticholinergic buscopan, to induce colonic hypotonia. However, a technically adequate study First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. The goal of the double contrast barium enema is to evaluate each portion of the colon in air contrast and with the barium pool. A series of spot images during fluoroscopic evaluation and subsequent standard series of abdominal radiographs performed by the technologist comprise a complete examination. A single contrast enema may be adequate for the detection of larger colonic lesions, obstructing lesions, as well as the depiction of diverticular disease. A double contrast study is preferred for the assessment of mucosal abnormalities as well as the detection of small polypoid lesions. In particular, the findings of inflammatory bowel disease involving the colon are well depicted on a double contrast study. Figure 4 is a single contrast enema demonstrating multiple colonic diverticula (white arrow). Figure 5 is a single contrast study demonstrating a large cecal mass which proved to be an adenocarcinoma. Figure 6 is a double contrast barium enema showing multiple diverticula as well as a subcentimeter polyp (white arrow) which proved to be a tubular adenoma. Figure 7 is a double contrast barium enema in a patient with ulcerative colitis depicting granular mucosa with some ulceration. Single contrast study demonstrating a large cecal mass which proved to be an adenocarcinoma. Double contrast barium enema showing multiple diverticula as well as a subcentimeter polyp (white arrow) which proved to be a tubular adenoma. In an urgent or emergent setting, the oral bowel preparation may be shortened or eliminated, positive contrast may be administered via the rectum. Unless there is a contraindication, intravenous contrast is recommended to evaluate the solid abdominal viscera, as well as to enhance the visualization of blood vessels and the bowel wall. Figure 8 demonstrates sigmoid diverticulitis with a thick walled loop of sigmoid colon (white arrows) and extensive pericolonic stranding. Shaffer 322 demonstrates diffuse concentric wall thickening of the splenic flexure in a patient with ischemic colitis. Figure 10 shows markedly irregular bowel wall thickening identified by the black arrows involving the cecum, ileocecal valve, as well as the terminal ileum, in keeping with a primary adenocarcinoma. Shows markedly irregular bowel wall thickening identified by the black arrows involving the cecum, ileocecal valve, as well as the terminal ileum, in keeping with a primary adenocarcinoma.

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Description Patients experiencing bloating and distention are often convinced that it is due to generic erectile dysfunction drugs in canada buy 100/60mg viagra with dapoxetine fast delivery excess intestinal gas erectile dysfunction by age statistics 100/60 mg viagra with dapoxetine. The hypersensitive gut feels full with smaller than usual amounts of gas and fluid and abdominal muscles relax to erectile dysfunction treatment after prostatectomy discount viagra with dapoxetine generic accommodate the perceived distention impotence vacuum pump demonstration buy 100/60 mg viagra with dapoxetine with visa. When patients deliberately protrude their abdomens, the configuration is different from when they are bloated, so a conscious mechanism poorly explains increased abdominal girth. The reality of the phenomenon of bloating is indisputable, however the mechanism remains a mystery. Clinical Features Occasionally, bloating occurs in about 30% of adults and is frequent in 10%. Amongst those with functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or functional dyspepsia, the figures are much higher. Often, the abdomen is flat upon awakening, but distends progressively during the day. Differential Diagnosis When assessing a patient with bloating and visible abdominal distension, the physician should exclude conditions such as ileus, bowel obstruction, ascites, or intrabdominal tumour. Generally these conditions can be separated out with a history and physical as other signs and symptoms are present. On its own, bloating is not a symptom of organic disease, and should not prompt investigation. A precise definition of constipation is elusive due to the variability of what constitutes a normal bowel pattern. Ninety five percent or more of the population have between three movements per day and three movements per week. Some physicians consider that fewer than three movements a week without discomfort or dissatisfaction is normal. Most would agree that hard bowel movements that are difficult to pass constitute constipation even if they occur as often as daily. The most common terms which patients use to describe constipation are straining, hard stools? and the inability to have a bowel movement. Therefore, constipation is a symptom that does not always correlate with infrequent passage of bowel movements. This may include straining, stools that are excessively hard, unproductive urges, infrequent bowel movements, or a feeling of incomplete evacuation, often defecation. The most common kind of constipation is that associated with irritable bowel syndrome (Table 3). Proper defecation requires normal transit through the proximal colon, an intact gastrocolic response to a meal, and normal mechanisms of defecation. The gastrocolic response is simply an increase in colonic motility triggered by gastric distention. Coordinated relaxation of the puborectalis and external anal sphincter muscles must occur. Metabolic disturbances o Anal fissure o Hypercalcemia o Irritable bowel syndrome o Hypothyroidism o Idiopathic slow-transit constipation o Diabetes mellitus? Important Points on History and Physical Examination Taking a good dietary history is important to help manage the person with constipation. This involves an assessment of daily fibre intake, fluid consumption and meal patterns. As mentioned, colonic motility increases after meals as part of the gastrocolic reflex. Physical impairments leading to impaired mobility will contribute to constipation. A history of prolonged intake of cathartics, often in the form of herbal remedies or teas, should be sought. Prolonged use of stimulant laxatives can sometimes lead to permanent impairment of colonic motility. Symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain relieved with defecation, and alternation of constipation with diarrhea should be sought. Weight loss or rectal bleeding raise the possibility of an obstructing colon cancer. Some persons with constipation may leak fluid stool around the inspisated stools, leading to overslow diarrhea. These may cause constipation, since the patient tries to avoid pain induced by defecation. Many patients, particularly those that are younger or those with milder symptoms will need minimal or no investigation. If investigation is deemed necessary, bloodwork including hemoglobin, inflammatory markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c reactive protein, blood sugar, thyroid First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Lower endoscopy with either sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy may be done to rule out structural lesions such as a colonic stricture, malignancy or anal fissure. Endoscopic testing may also detect melanosis coli, a disorder in which there is hyperpigmentation of the colonic mucosa due to chronic use of laxatives. If a patient is over 40 years of age or if alarm symptoms (such as rectal bleeding or weight loss) are present, colonoscopy would be indicated as opposed to sigmoidoscopy. This test does not allow for biopsy or other intervention, but may be done if colonoscopy cannot be performed or is not readily available. Twenty radiopaque markers are ingested and daily plain abdominal x-rays are taken. If 80% of the markers have disappeared in five days, the transit time is said to be normal. When the transit time is longer than 5 days, the position of the markers may help distinguish slow colonic transit from an anorectal disorder: if remaining markers are seen throughout the colon, slow colonic transit is present. Approach to Management In the majority of patients, a specific disorder is not diagnosed. In these cases, management includes education as to the great variability of bowel habits among the general population. This includes the intake of at least three meals a day and adequate amounts of liquids. While no data proves the efficacy of increased fluid intake, 6 to 8 cups per day of water are often recommended. A high fibre intake can be achieved with increased dietary fibre or a commercial fibre product. Chronic severe constipation may require the use of osmotic agents such as magnesium, lactulose or polyethylene glycol solution. The long-term use of stimulant laxatives such as bisacodyl or senna should be avoided. More details about this important and common problem are given in the chapter Colon. Description Diarrhea is defined as bowel movements that are too frequent, too loose or both. Three or more bowel movements per day, or a stool weight of over 200 grams / day is generally considered to be abnormal. It is important to determine if the patient is using the word diarrhea? when in fact they have fecal incontinence. Mechanism the four mechanisms of diarrhea are osmotic, secretory, inflammatory and rapid transit. Therefore, these mechanisms provide a framework for understanding diarrhea, however they are seldom of great help when approaching a patient in clinical practice. In clinical practice, an anatomical approach is much easier and more useful (please see the chapter on Small Intestine). If the osmotic pressure of intestinal contents is higher than that of the serum, fluid is drawn into the lumen of the intestinal tract and osmotic diarrhea results. Certain laxatives, such as lactulose and magnesium hydroxide, exert their cathartic effect largely through osmosis. Certain artificial sweeteners, such as sorbitol and mannitol, have a similar effect. Secretory diarrhea occurs when there is a net secretion of water into the intestinal lumen. Secretory diarrhea does not diminish with fasting, and the patient will be up at night-time to have bowel motion.

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Penalties: Persons managing industry are to be penalized if they produce emissions of air pol 7) Do not smoke in a public place. It is illegal lutants in excess of the standards laid down by and endangers not only your own health the State Board. Use a handkerchief to prevent droplet in Social Issues and the Environment 195 Chapter6. It endangers the ever, preventing pollution is better than trying health of other people. Governments have set up Pollution Control preventing air pollution and preserving the qual Boards that monitor water pollution. The Government has formulated this Act in 1974 to be able to prevent pollution of water by in Central and State water testing laboratories dustrial, agricultural and household wastewa have been set up to enable the Boards to assess ter that can contaminate our water sources. Controlling the the Central and State Boards are entitled to point sources by monitoring levels of different certain powers and functions which are as fol pollutants is one way to prevent pollution by lows: giving a punishment to a polluter. However it is also the responsibility of people in general to Central Board: It has the power to advise the inform the relevant authority when they see a Central Government on any matters concern likely source of pollution. Individuals can also ing the prevention and control of water pollu do several things to reduce water pollution such tion. The Board coordinates the activities of the as using biodegradable chemicals for household State Boards and also resolves disputes. The use, reducing use of pesticides in gardens, and Central Board can provide technical assistance identifying polluting sources at workplaces and and guidelines to State Boards to carry out in in industrial units where oil or other petroleum vestigations and research relating to water pol products and heavy metals are used. Excessive lution, and organizes training for people involved organic matter, sediments and infecting organ in the process. The Board organizes a compre isms from hospital wastes can also pollute our hensive awareness program on water pollution water. Citizens need to develop a watchdog through mass media and also publishes data force to inform authorities to take appropriate regarding water pollution. The Board lays down actions against different types of water pollu or modifies the rules in consultation with the tion. It plans a comprehensive been convicted for any offence is found guilty program for the prevention of water pollution. Board inspects sewage or trade effluents, treat ment plants, purification plants and the systems What can individuals do to prevent water pollu of disposal and also evolves economical and re tion? It ensures that if effluents offender who is polluting water and ensure are to be discharged on land the waste is di that appropriate action is taken. They are given items as they do not disappear but reap the power to take samples of effluents and sug pear at other places and cause water pollu gest the procedures to be followed in connec tion. Use compost instead of chemical fertilizers to him and submit a report of the result to the in gardens. An individual or organisation tion of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Social Issues and the Environment 197 Chapter6. These are notified 1) If you observe an act of poaching, or see a in order of their endangeredness. One can also report the event through the Amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act the press. Follow up to check that action is in 2002 is more stringent and prevents the com taken by the concerned authority. It has tion is taken, one must take it up to the brought in new concepts such as the creation Chief Wildlife Warden of the State. For instance in animals, fish are 2) Say no? to the use of wildlife products and now included. Forest produce has been rede also try to convince other people not to buy fined to ensure protection of ecosystems. While there are several changes, the new Act 3) Reduce the use of wood and wood prod still has serious issues concerned with its imple ucts wherever possible. The Act is expected 4) Avoid misuse of paper because it is made to deter people from breaking the law. How from bamboo and wood, which destroys ever, there are serious problems due to poach wildlife habitat. Penalties: A person who breaks any of the con ditions of any license or permit granted under 6) Do not harm animals. Stop others from in this Act shall be guilty of an offence against this flicting cruelty to animals. The offence is punishable with imprison ment for a term which may extend to three years 7) Do not disturb birds nests and fledglings. The new policy framework made conversion of forests into other uses much less possible. It also values meeting the needs servation Act of 1980, which was amended in of local people for food, fuelwood, fodder and 1988, it is essential to understand its historical non-wood forest products that they subsist on. The Indian Forest Act of 1927 con It gives priority to maintaining environmental solidated all the previous laws regarding forests stability and ecological balance. The Act states that the network of Protected Areas gave the Government and Forest Department should be strengthened and extended. It also created Protected Forests, in Constitution furthered governance through which the use of resources by local people was panchayats. Some forests were also to be con power to the local panchayats to manage local trolled by a village community, and these were forest resources. The Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was en the Act remained in force till the 1980s when it acted to control deforestation. It ensured that was realised that protecting forests for timber forestlands could not be de-reserved without production alone was not acceptable. This values of protecting the services that forests was created as States had begun to de-reserve provide and its valuable assets such as the Reserved Forests for non-forest use. States biodiversity began to overshadow the impor had regularized encroachments and resettled tance of their revenue earnings from timber. This led to the projects such as dams in these de-reserved ar Forest Conservation Act of 1980 and its amend eas. Large tracts of person is allowed to make clearings or set fire forestland had already been diverted to other to a Reserved Forest. In the 1980s collecting of timber, bark or leaves, quarries or Social Issues and the Environment 199 Chapter6. Penalties for offences in Protected Forests: A 4) Create awareness about the existence and person who commits any of the following of value of National Parks and Sanctuaries and fences like felling of trees, or strips off the bark build up a public opinion against illegal ac or leaves from any tree or sets fire to such for tivities in the forest or disturbance to wild ests, or kindles a fire without taking precautions life. Every officer seizing any property under this sec 8) Use better, ecologically sensitive public tion shall put on the property a mark indicating transport and bicycle tracks. Any Forest Officer, even without an order from 9) Participate in preservation of greenery, by the Magistrate or a warrant, can arrest any per planting, watering and caring for plants. If you as a citizen come across anyone felling What can an individual do to support the Act? For urgent action one Report any such act to the Forest Depart can contact the police. Forest, District Forest Officer, Range Forest Officer, Forest Guard or the District Com missioner, or local civic body. The presence of a legisla quires that a list of flora and fauna identified tion to protect air, water, soil, etc. There are 30 different industries listed by pass it on to a law enforcement agency.

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