Symptoms such as maculo-papular rash blood pressure medication grapefruit juice buy labetalol 100mg overnight delivery, gastrointestinal upset or other unknown reactions are less predictive of an allergy blood pressure over 60 buy labetalol 100mg cheap. If the history of penicillin hypersensitivity is unknown or not elicited heart attack american purchase 100mg labetalol free shipping, administer an intradermal injection of 0 arrhythmia medical definition generic labetalol 100 mg on-line. Take extra doses with you; • Record all details of treatment; • Stay with the patient until doctor takes over the care in person. Potentially infectious or toxic waste may include the following: Dressings and swabs contaminated with bodily fuids, blood or pus; Patient care equipment, including gloves, needles, syringes and items used in direct contact with the patient; and Pharmaceutical waste, such as expired drugs, used rapid tests kits. Documentation and reporting • Clinical history and examination fndings, laboratory fndings and recommendations for patient management should be recorded on standardisedstandardized forms that assist in patient follow-up and reporting purposes. The operations manual can include standards, examples of clinical management fow charts, roles and functions of staff, referral mechanisms, and documentation forms that are required to support case reporting, service monitoring and evaluation; • Facility staff should be trained, guided and monitored on an on-going basis to build their capacity to handle the reporting records. Technical support and supervision • Facility managers should ensure, periodically at a regular interval, that technical support and supervision is provided to clinic staff and their day-today activities. The frequency of the supervisory visits could be determined by the needs of the clinic staff; • the clinical supervisor should assess all major elements of clinic function. At a minimum, clinics should be assessed for their compliance with the minimum standards and norms as specifed in this document. Referral network establishment • Patients whose health problems cannot be addressed or managed appropriately by the services available at the facility should be referred to a higher-level service, such as a secondary or tertiary care hospital. Examples of topics for discussion at such meetings may include: Community satisfaction with facility services (for example, clinic hours, privacy, cleanliness); Patient compliance with medications and treatment; Patient follow-up including partner management; Acceptability and effectiveness of counselling or health education messages; and Questions raised by the community about, for example, health issues. If problems and issues are not continually addressed in a timely manner, patient attendance will be low and the facility activities will have little impact on people in the catchment area. Monitoring and evaluation Monitoring is the regular, methodical process of collecting data to determine the progress and achievements of a programme. Specifc monitoring parameters that can be collected fall into four (4) main categories: • Service delivery; • Staff performance; • Client satisfaction and response; • Resource needs and allocation. Evaluations helps self-evaluate and subsequently improve own practices and the overall programme. Periodic quality-of-care audits and assessments of drug and supply management are examples of programme evaluation. There are many public health consequences of improper management of medications and commodities. For example, in case of drug stock-outs, the patient has to return at a later stage to collect drugs, but remains remains infective to others in the meantime. Patients sometimes consult informal practitioners who cannot assure the quality of care. At a minimum, every consulting room of the health facility should have: • An examination couch; • Functional examination light (or torch, if no electricity); • Disposable gloves; • Adequate sterile vaginal specula of different sizes as per workload; • Sharps equipment management system, including functional sterilisation instruments, • Sex organ models for demonstrating male and female condom use; • An adequate stock of male and female condoms and test kits and containers for taking blood, pap Smears, and other samples; • Male and female condom dispensers that are placed so that condoms can be obtained with ease and confdentiality. A standard is defned as a statement about a desired and acceptable level of healthcare (for example, “provide educational materials in the local language”). It was piloted successfully in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland in 2004-2005. Functional equipment • Availability of sterile vaginal specula of different sizes adequate for the workload. Competence of health practitioners • Staff trained to follow the Sexually Transmitted Infections syndromic management treatment guidelines. Health records • the health facility has service registers/records, client partner notifcation slips/cards, relevant laboratory request and referral forms. Community & home-based activity • the health facility has effective links with the community health committee, community organisations, schools, workplaces and political leaders in the catchment area. Accurate data enable strategic planning and provide information for advocacy, programme design, prioritisation of interventions, monitoring and evaluation, and to improve the quality of patient care and overall programme effectiveness. Surveillance tools were successfully adapted and training service providers were trained. However, a few problems also emerged, including • Actual collection and collation of data; • Data capturing; and • Data analysis and feedback. Gaps in the data compilation (for example, the number of reportable cases versus the number that was actually reported) were common. This may be due to the fact that data recording is not regarded as an important task. Surveillance tasks such as data capturing and analysis were seen as an additional, administrative workload that removed time for actual clinical care • It is vital to ensure service providers’ cooperation in establishing and maintaining a surveillance system. Such cooperation may be imposed bureaucratically or encouraged with incentives (such as including surveillance activities in general performance assessments). This may be in the form of nongovernmental partners, such as academic institutions, or by recruiting additional staff that are dedicated to the surveillance system. The case reporting system can be universal (using integrated disease morbidity reports) or sentinel site-based (providing more detailed data on patients). These should be either universal reporting or sentinel site reporting, depending on the availability of resources. Most Member States routinely collect data on the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women. This syndrome is most commonly caused Abnormal vaginal discharge (indicated by bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidi Vaginal discharge by amount, colour and odour) with or asis and trichomoniasis. This practice can be a source of a substantial amount of underreporting, and special studies may be needed to determine its extent and the magnitude of the underestimate. The way in which each of these activities is performed depends on the existing surveillance infrastructure (particularly the extent to which laboratory testing is available for routine clinical care), and on the structure of systems that are in place for reporting other communicable diseases as part of integrated disease surveillance. The list of core indicators was the outcome of an intensive consultation process, which involved participation of monitoring and evaluation experts from each Member State, as well as other partners. The selected core indicators represent a subset of indicators that are already being collected by Member States as part of their existing reporting systems. The core list of indicators was agreed at the consensus-building meeting (held at Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, in December, 2009), which was attended by delegates from 14 Member States. The development of these core indicators is a continuous process, and the list will undergo periodic review. The model enables stakeholders to work from a shared framework of the main activities, outputs and outcomes. Implementation Mechanisms for the Framework the implementation mechanism defnes the key stakeholders and their roles in the implementation of the Framework. Lastly, it identifes the critical indicators to be monitored to ensure that the framework is fully integrated in the work of the Member States. To this end, this section is intended to map out the path on the domestication of the framework, including how it will be fnanced and monitored. Furthermore, monitoring levels and trends in the core indicators would objectively identify aspects of the intervention where progress is slow, thus, allowing identifcation of concrete solutions to the identifed challenges. The Member States will orient health service providers on how to collect data on the core indicators. Furthermore, the Member States will train data managers for the national health information systems on how to add these core indicators to their databases as well as building quality checks for these indicators. These reports will be used to identify aspects of the response to Sexually Transmitted Infections where progress is slow. Does this facility use all consultation rooms to treat clients with Sexually Transmitted Infections. Are speculum examinations conducted on all women with Sexually Transmitted Infections. Ask, Which clients with Sexually Transmitted Infections would you refer for treatment. Is syphilis screening done on all pregnant clients who attend antenatal care for the frst time. How many partners of pregnant syphilis positive women came in for treatment last month. Number of health professionals formally trained in syndromic management of Sexually Transmitted Infections. State Client Code medicine, dosage and duration Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No of treatment prescribed. What drugs (type, dosage, frequency and duration) would you use to treat a man with urethral discharge. What drugs (type, dosage, frequency and duration) would you use to treat a woman with a vaginal discharge. What drugs (type, dosage, frequency and duration) would you use to treat a man or woman with a genital ulcer.
However high blood pressure medication toprol xl buy discount labetalol 100 mg on-line, it should not be confused with lesions associated with reversed smoking blood pressure zebrafish purchase genuine labetalol, which have serious consequences and high risk of malignant transformation blood pressure medication withdrawal order labetalol canada. How smokers of nonfiltered cigarettes who hold them ever prehypertension high blood pressure purchase labetalol in united states online, very hot foods (such as pizzas, melted between the lips for a long time until short cheese), liquid, or hot metal objects may produce cigarette butts remain. The palate, lips, cally appear on the mucosal surface of the lower floor of the mouth, and tongue are most fre and upper lips. The lesions heal in or slightly elevated whitish areas with red stria about one week. The patient usually remembers the incident that caused the the differential diagnosis includes leukoplakia, burn. The differential diagnosis includes chemical burns, traumatic ulcers, aphthous ulcers, herpes Treatment. It is due to melanin deposition within the basal cell layer and the lamina propria. Clinically, the lesions usually present as multi ple brown pigmented macules less than l cm in diameter, localized mainly at the attached labial anterior gingiva and the interdental papillae of the mandible (Fig. Oral Lesions due to Drugs Gold-induced Stomatitis Stomatitis Medicamentosa Gold compounds are used selectively in patients Systemic administration of medications may with rheumatoid disorders. Gold is stored in the induce hypersensitivity reactions in the oral tissues and is excreted slowly through the kidneys. Gold A plethora of drugs may cause stomatitis toxicity may be manifested with fever, headache, medicamentosa, including antipyretics, non proteinuria, skin rashes, oral lesions, thrombocy steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, sulfonamides, topenia, agranulocytosis, or aplastic anemia. Clinically, the condi oral mucosa is red, with painful erosions covered tion is characterized by diffuse erythema of the with a yellowish membrane (Fig. There is an oral mucosa, purpuric patches, vesicles or bullae, intense burning sensation and increased saliva painful erosions, ulcers, etc. The differential diagnosis includes stomatitis medicamentosa, erythema multiforme, pemphi the differential diagnosis includes erythema mul gus vulgaris, cicatricial pemphigoid, bullous pem tiforme, pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, cicatri phigoid, and erosive lichen planus. Antibiotic-induced Stomatitis Systemic long-term administration of broad-spec trum antibiotics, such as tetracycline, may cause a form of stomatitis. Clinically, it is characterized by a nonspecific diffuse erythema of the oral mucosa. The tongue is extremely red and painful, with desquamation of the filiform papillae (Fig. Hairy tongue and candidosis may also occur as a result of changes in the oral microbial flora. The differential diagnosis includes stomatitis medicamentosa, erythema multiforme, pellagra, and ariboflavinosis. Antibiotic-induced stomatitis, diffuse erythema and desquamation of the filiform papillae of the tongue. Oral Lesions due to Drugs Ulcerations due to Methotrexate Pen icillamine-induced Oral Lesions Methotrexate is a folic acid antimetabolite that is D-penicillamine, a heavy metal chelator used in used in the treatment of leukemias, solid cancers, the treatment of hepatolenticular degeneration psoriasis, etc. The most common side effects are cystinuria, and heavy metal intoxication), may be alopecia, liver and gastrointestinal disorders, etc. The noncutaneous side effects include terized by redness and painful erosions or ulcers hematologic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, (Fig. The most lips, and buccal mucosa, although they may occur common cutaneous manifestations are autoim anywhere in the oral cavity. The most common oral manifestation is penicillamine-induced pemphigus, which is the differential diagnosis includes traumatic characterized by vesiculobullous lesions and ero ulcer, thermal and chemical burn, and stomatitis sions of the oral mucosa, clinically, histopatholog medicamentosa. Penicillamine-induced pemphigus usually appears Ulceration due to Azathioprine within 6 to 12 months after initiation of the drug and may resolve within several weeks after with Azathioprine is an antimetabolite widely used as drawal of the drug. Alopecia, gastroin aphthous stomatitis, and taste loss are also oral testinal disorders, and bone marrow toxicity are complications of the drug. Rarely, limited cial pemphigoid lesions are frequently seen in erosions or ulcers of the oral mucosa may develop penicillamine-treated patients with rheumatoid after long-term and high-dose administration (Fig. Lowering the dose of the drug, and B classic pemphigus, cicatricial pemphigoid, bullous complex vitamin administration. Oral Lesions due to Drugs Phenytoin-induced Gingival the differential diagnosis includes fibrous gingival hyperplasia due to phenytoin, and nifedipine, gin Hyperplasia gival fibromatosis, gingivitis, periodontitis, and Phenytoin is an antiepileptic agent widely used in leukemia. The lesions are usually A common side effect is fibrous gingival hyper reversible after cessation of the drug. Although the exact mechanism of gingival hyperplasia is not clear, the appearance and degree of the hyperplasia depend on the daily Nifedipine-induced Gingival dose, the duration of therapy, the state of oral Hyperplasia hygiene, and other local and systemic factors. The hyperplasia usually begins in the interdental papil Nifedipine is a calcium channell-blocking agent lae and gradually involves the marginal and widely used in patients with coronary insufficiency attached gingiva. The exact mechanism of this the gingivae are firm, lobulated, slightly red, complication is unknown, although local altera and painless, with little or no tendency to bleed tions in calcium metabolism seem to play a role. Usually, the enlargement of the gingiva Recently other calcium ion antagonists such is generalized. Rarely, hyperplasia may occur in as nitrendipine, felodipine, verapamil, and edentulous patients. The differential diagnosis includes cyclosporine the dose of the drug and the duration of and nifedipine-induced hyperplasia, idiopathic therapy, in association with the dental plaque and fibromatosis of the gingiva, and gingival hypertro other local factors, seem to play a role in the phy due to mouth breathing or leukemia. Careful oral hygiene, surgical exci dence of gingival hyperplasia is not well known. Discontinuation of the drug or change to Recently, gingival hyperplasia has been observed another antiepileptic agent may result in regres in 51% of nifedipine-treated, renal transplant sion of the hyperplasia. Clinically, the gingiva is painless, enlarged, Cyclosporine-induced Gingival firm, lobulated, with no or little inflammation, Hyperplasia and usually partly covers the teeth (Fig. The overgrowth is more evident in the interdental Cyclosporine is a powerful immunosuppressive papillae and less commonly in the free and drug used to prevent organ transplant rejection attached gingiva. The gingival enlargement may and to treat lupus erythematosus and many other be localized or generalized and is most prominant autoimmune diseases. Gingival plasia due to other calcium-blocking drugs, hyperplasia is a common side effect occurring in hereditary gingival fibromatosis, mouth breathing between 30 to 70% of the patients receiving cyc gingival hyperplasia, scurvy, and gingival hyper losporine therapy. Gingivectomy is firm with focal lobulation, and little inflammation usually necessary, although hyperplasia may be (Fig. Several side-effects deficiency and is inherited as an autosomal domi of the drug have been reported. Recently, nail and skin edema of the larynx and tongue, which involves pigmentation as well as pigmentation of the oral the gastrointestinal tract, with abdominal pain, mucosa have been described usually shortly after nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, also occur. Clinically, oral pigmentation acquired form is far more frequent and may be appears as irregular macules with a brown or dark due to food allergy, pharmaceuticals, local brown color. Angioneurotic edema of either type has a sud den onset, lasts usually for 24 to 48 hours, and may recur at variable time intervals. Clinically, it is characterized by painless, usually nonpruritic and smooth swelling involving the lips (Fig. The differential diagnosis should include trauma, surgical emphysema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulo matosa, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, and cheilitis glandularis. Antihistamines, systemic steroids, and in acute severe cases epinephrine subcutaneously. Pigmentation due to Antimalarials Chloroquine and other antimalarials are used in the treatment of malaria and occasionally in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus. Long-term use may cause brown or black irregular pigmentation on the soft palate or other areas of the oral cavity (Fig. Cheilitis due to Retinoids Several side effects may appear during retinoid administration. The most common are dryness During the last decade, synthetic retinoids (13-cis with scaling of the lips and dryness of the oral retinoic acid and the aromatic analogue of retinoic mucosa (Fig. Hair loss, palmoplantar scal acid, etretinate) have been introduced as new ing, thinning of the skin, pruritus, epistaxis, agents in the modern therapy of skin diseases. No They are extremely effective drugs in various severe complications have been observed after disorders of keratinization. Synthetic retinoids have recently been treatment and one year thereafter because of the used in the treatment of psoriasis, acne vulgaris, teratogenic and embryotoxic action of these ichthyosis, lichen planus, parapsoriasis en drugs. Metal and Other Deposits Amalgam Tattoo the differential diagnosis includes pigmented nevi, malignant melanoma, normal pigmentation, Amalgam deposition develops either as a result of and hematoma. Histopathologic examination and fragments in the oral tissues during dental filling radiographs are necessary on occasion to differen or surgical operations.
Cork blood pressure pills kidney failure generic labetalol 100mg free shipping, Ireland arteria occipitalis order labetalol no prescription, School of Agri ing a workable split of the semen populations to blood pressure medication causes cough discount labetalol 100mg on-line achieve a certain purity culture and Food Science pulse rate and blood pressure quizlet order labetalol on line, University College Dublin, Belfeld, Dublin, 3 in the process. The objective of this study was to estimate (co)variance Ireland, Irish Cattle Breeding Federation, Bandon, Co. A data set comprising 311,337 sorting periods for 2,058 Holstein sex-sorted semen (SexedUltra 4M) relative to conventional frozen semen bulls was used in a pedigree based animal model that included pen-day in seasonal-calving pasture-based dairy cows. Semen from Holstein and age-group as fxed effects as well as a permanent environmental Friesian (n = 8) and Jersey (n = 2) bulls was used. Breeding values estimated from the model had a collected in Ireland, diluted with transport medium and couriered to range of 1,800 cells per second, which illustrates tremendous potential Cogent in temperature-controlled parcel shippers. Ejaculates were phenotype of sort-rate, semen quality is of paramount importance in split and processed to provide frozen conventional semen at 15 106 the production of sexed sorted semen. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound incubation at 37°C, acrosomes, ejaculate volume and initial motility. This Ejaculate volume was negatively genetically correlated with all other study was not designed to compare resident bulls vs. The treatment x bull interaction effect Key Words: sexed semen, semen quality, reproduction was signifcant for shipped ejaculates (P = 0. Each period was 16 d in length with 8 d of phosphorylation ratio of many udder proteins. The 10 g of methionine, 38 g of lysine, 20 g of histidine, 50 g of leucine 13 latter appears to be the result of negative feedback arising from infusion and 22 g of isoleucine per day. Carpenter1, 1Univer 2 Amino acid supply is an important determinant of milk production. It has been previously observed that hyperinsulinemia stimulates amino A feeding trial was performed to determine the effects of rumen acid utilization. Twelve multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were blocked to dietary protein and hyperinsulinemia. Periods consisted of 14 d requirements for milking cows to be protein suffcient (17. Arterial and venous blood were sampled via cath were collected for additional analysis. Total length of the experiment was 73 d including a 10 d diet gan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, adaptation period before the start of the trial. In conclusion, Lys lipid protection seems measured de novo fatty acid synthesis in primary bovine mammary to be an effective method of protection. Omission of Leu, Met, and in the respiratory chain, Krebs cycle and gluconeogenesis. Our gland has practical application in formulating diets to enhance milk aim was to study the effect of 2 feeding strategies on the activity and fat production. Huhtanen*, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Swed or Medicago sativa in 2 (18 h) or 1 (6 h) session depending on heat ish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea, Sweden. Treatment mean data were collected from feeding tended to be higher for cows in the pasture-based strategy (1. Quadratic effects were signifcant for Leu and Met design experiment with 4, 28-d periods. Thirty Holstein yield and milk fat concentration and yield were not affected (P 0. Plasma concentration of His increased quadratically (P < with a 10-d covariate period and a 50-d treatment period. Data were analyzed with a mixed model with fxed effects of diet, week, the interaction and random effects of block Key Words: histidine, milk production, plasma amino acid and block by diet. The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. Treatment did not affect milk composition or feed effciency Key Words: soybean meal, canola meal, dairy cattle (P > 0. These results clearly demonstrate the need for management programs that account for multi-mycotoxin Mycotoxins are mold produced feed contaminants that although unde challenges. Overall, mycotoxins can be one challenge holding the dairy sirable are mostly unavoidable consequences of feed production. However, techniques that level of mycotoxins in foods and feed can fuctuate widely and vary assess, monitor and minimize mycotoxin risk from the feld to the cow signifcantly from year to year. Although several hundred mycotoxins are available that can manage mycotoxins and reduce effects on cow have been described in the scientifc literature, less than 10 have been performance and proftability. Ruminant diets include both forages and concentrate grains, which Key Words: mold, mycotoxin, technology may increase the risk of mycotoxins in comparison with grain-based monogastric diets. The multiplicity of ingredients in complex diets may increase the probability of multiple mycotoxin contamination 128 Applying fungicide on corn plants to improve the composi but decrease the risk of high mycotoxin concentrations. However, An increasing global population, decreasing amount of arable land avail rumen metabolites of the parent mycotoxin may be equally or more able for crop production in the United States, and an increased global toxic. Because of this, differences between parent mycotoxins and demand for protein in the human diet encourage crop and livestock their metabolites are much greater in ruminants than non-ruminants. They can cause dermal toxicity, reproductive included in dairy diets in the United States. For producers, feed costs effects, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity, nephrotoxicity, and are often the most expensive part of the operating budget. Additionally, mycotoxins may affect immune function and losses may increase the cost of feed and limit herd size. In spite of current research advances, applied interaction of fungi and corn plants in the feld threaten yields, decreas aspects of mycotoxicology are either limiting or diffcult to extrapolate ing the effciency of food production and, also, the nutritive quality of into the real world. By metabolizing sugar compounds within the common problems related to presence of mycotoxin in ruminant diets. Applications of fungicides can aid in pro tecting corn plants from fungal infection, therefore, limiting yield losses and increasing the nutritive quality of the plant material. The feld of 127 Use of technology to better understand multi-mycotoxin knowledge of feeding ruminants corn silage from corn treated with foliar and emerging mycotoxin challenges. This presentation will summarize the knowledge available on fungi Mycotoxins can increase disease susceptibility as well as reduce per and plant relationship, limiting plant infection by applying fungicide, formance, and therefore are a challenge faced by agricultural industries and how corn silage from corn with fungicide application affects dairy worldwide. It is concluded fungicide application on corn used to that mycotoxin co-contamination can further increase risk. Despite the make corn silage for dairy cows may improve the nutritional composi important role mycotoxins play in dairy cow productivity, mycotoxin tion of the feedstuff, as defned by increases in milk components and occurrence and concentration are diffcult to track without the support feed conversion, reductions in fber concentrations, and improvements of monitoring programs. Various methods such as weather and soil mapping have been developed for early prediction of mold Key Words: fungicide, corn silage, mycotoxin presence and may be used to assess the link between environmental conditions, soil quality, crop growth and health, mold spore transfer and mold colonization. Trevisi1, 1Department of Animal Sciences, Food metabolites, conjugated forms and emerging mycotoxins is now pos sible. Despite the method applied to animal feed matrices that has been extended, opti rumen’s ability to degrade these mycotoxins to some extent, especially mized, and validated for 50 mycotoxins in a cost-effective manner. Therefore, the world have demonstrated that more than 96% of samples contain 122 J. Cows were randomly limits showed a negative effect on the milk yield and liver enzyme assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments, and treatment was administered activities in blood of dairy cows. Treatment and day were urine and its effects on infammatory biomarkers in dairy cows. Baumgard, and 1 1 2 condition, locomotion, and respiratory rate were dependent variables. Thus, study objectives were to determine the effects of dietary Tendencies were discussed when 0. At d 28, does and kids realm of animal science, and more specifcally dairy cattle nutrition were slaughtered to collect tissue samples. For kids, the villus height in the duodenum was scriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics produce large amounts of 24. Moreover, the milk metabolomics profle during critical life stages including late pregnancy, in utero development, showed that glycerol was decreased while citramalic acid and sucrose or postnatal growth. Metabolism of glycerolipid, applications and benefts of the use of different omic tools in aspects galactose, and starch and sucrose were enriched. Omics research 134 Rumen microbiome and fermentation interaction in dairy is limited in ruminants, especially in small ruminants. Palladino1,3, 1School of Agriculture Science, National Univer integrative research across and within tissues with the goal to develop sity of Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2Department of new nutritional management approaches to achieve better animal health and production. This study aimed to development and transcriptomics of small intestine of their kids.
It is easy to blood pressure 45 year old male order discount labetalol online see that any mea  Disruptive Strains  sure of economic policy which the banks may decide upon will have to hypertension categories cheap 100 mg labetalol overnight delivery conform to blood pressure medication ending in pine order labetalol uk the requirement of stable exchanges arteriogram cpt code 100 mg labetalol otc. The banks will not be able to expand or further extend credits to industry, without appeal ing to the central bank which, on its part, will refuse to follow suit since the safety of the currency requires the opposite course. On the other hand, if the strain spread from industry to state—trade unions might induce affiliated political parties to raise the issue in parlia ment—the scope of any policy of relief or public works will be limited by the requirements of budgetary equilibrium, another precondition of stable exchanges. The gold standard will thus check the action of the Treasury as effectively as that of the bank of issue, and the legislature will find itself confronted with identically the same limitations that applied to industry. Within the compass of the nation the strain of unemployment can, of course, be borne alternatively in the industrial or the governmental zone. If in a particular instance the crisis was overcome by a defla tionary pressure on wages, then, it might be said, the burden fell pri marily on the economic sphere. If, however, that painful measure was avoided with the help of public works subsidized from death du ties, the brunt of the tension would fall on the political sphere (the same would be the case if the decrease in wages was forced upon the trade unions by some governmental measure in defiance of acquired rights). In the first instance—deflationary pressure on wages—the tension remained within the market zone, and was expressed in a shift of incomes transmitted by a change in prices; in the latter instance— public works or trade union restrictions—there was a shift in legal status or in taxation which affected primarily the political position of the group concerned. Eventually, the strain of unemployment might have spread outside the confines of the nation and affected foreign exchanges. This again might happen whether political or economic methods of combating unemployment had been used. Under the gold standard—which we all the time assume to be in force—any governmental measure that caused a budgetary deficit might start a depreciation of the currency: if, on the other hand, unemployment was being fought by the expan sion of bank credit, rising domestic prices would hit exports and affect the balance of payment in that way. In either case exchanges would slump and the country feel the pressure on its currency. Alternatively, the strain which sprang from unemployment might [ 220 ] the Great Transformation induce foreign tension. In the case of a weak country this had some times the gravest consequences for its international position. Its status deteriorated, its rights were disregarded, foreign control was foisted upon it, its national aspirations were foiled. In the case of strong states the pressure might be deflected into a scramble for foreign markets, colonies, zones of influence, and other forms of imperialist rivalry. The strains emanating from the market were thus shifting to and fro between the market and the other main institutional zones, some times affecting the working of the field of government, sometimes that of the gold standard or that of the balance-of-power system, as the case might be. Each field was comparatively independent of the other and tended toward an equilibrium of its own; whenever this balance was not achieved, the imbalance spread over into the other spheres. It was the relative autonomy of the spheres that caused the strain to ac cumulate and to generate tensions which eventually exploded in more or less stereotyped forms. While in imagination the nineteenth cen tury was engaged in constructing the liberal Utopia, in reality it was handing over things to a definite number of concrete institutions the mechanisms of which ruled the day. The nearest approach to the realization of the true position was perhaps the rhetorical query of an economist who, as late as 1933, ar raigned the protectionist policies of "the overwhelming majority of governments. Can a policy, he asked, be right which is being unani mously condemned by all experts as utterly mistaken, grossly falla cious, and contrary to all principles of economic theory. An unending stream of abuse of the governments, politicians, and statesmen whose ignorance, ambition, greed, and shortsighted prejudice were supposedly responsible for the consistently followed policies of protectionism in an "overwhelming majority" of countries was the only answer. The only intellectual response was to supplement the myth of the pro tectionist conspiracy by the myth of the imperialist craze. The liberal argument, in so far as it became articulate, asserted that sometime in the early 1880s imperialist passions began to stir in the * Haberler, G. Disruptive Strains [ 221 ] Western countries, and destroyed the fruitful work of economic thinkers by their emotional appeal to tribal prejudice. These senti mental policies gradually gathered strength and finally led to World War I. After the Great War the forces of Enlightenment had another chance of restoring the reign of reason but an unexpected outburst of imperialism, especially on the part of the small new countries, later on also of the "have-nots," such as Germany, Italy, and Japan, upset the wagon of progress. The "crafty animal," the politician, had defeated the brain centers of the race—Geneva, Wall Street, and the City of London. States and empires are held to be congenitally imperial ist; they will eat up their neighbors without moral conpunction. While imperi alism, when and where it appears, does not wait on rational or moral j ustihcation for expansion, it is contrary to fact that states and empires are always expansionist. Territorial associations are not necessarily ea ger to extend their boundaries; neither cities, nor states, nor empires stand under such compulsion. In effect, contrary to popular preconceptions, modern capitalism started with a long period of con tractionism; only late in its career did the turn toward imperialism happen. Anti-imperialism was initiated by Adam Smith, who thereby not only anticipated the American Revolution but also the Little England movement of the following century. While geographical discoveries, combined with comparatively slow means of transportation, favored overseas plantations, fast communications turned colonies into an ex pensive luxury. Once the Atlantic seaboard colonies were lost, Canada hardly managed to have herself retained in the Em pire (1837); even a Disraeli advocated the liquidation of the West Afri can possessions; the Orange State vainly offered to join the empire; and some islands in the Pacific, regarded today as pivots of world strat egy, were consistently refused admission. Free traders and protection [ 222 ] the Great Transformation ists, liberals and ardent Tories joined in the popular conviction that colonies were a wasting asset destined to become a political and fi nancial liability. Anybody who talked colonies in the century between 1780 and 1880 was looked upon as an adherent of the ancien regime. The middle class denounced war and conquest as dynastic machina tions, and pandered to pacifism (Francois Quesnay had been the first to claim for laissez-faire the laurels of peace). The former slowed down her rate of expan sion appreciably, and even her imperialism was now more Continen tal than colonial. Bismarck contemptuously declined to pay the price of one single life for the Balkans and put all his influence behind anti colonial propaganda. Such was governmental attitude at the time when capitalistic companies were invading whole continents; when the East India Company had been dissolved at the insistence of eager Lancashire exporters, and anonymous piece-goods dealers replaced in India the resplendent figures of Clive and Warren Hastings. Canning ridiculed the notion of intervention on behalf of gambling investors and overseas speculators. To allow state power and trading interests to fuse was not a nineteenth-century idea; on the contrary, early Vic torian statesmen had proclaimed the independence of politics and economics as a maxim of international behavior. Only in narrowly de fined cases were diplomatic representatives supposed to be active on behalf of the private interests of their nationals, and the surreptitious extension of these occasions was publicly denied, and if proven, repri manded accordingly. Not only at home but also abroad, the principle of nonintervention of the state in the affairs of private business was maintained. The home government was not supposed to intervene in private trade, nor were foreign offices expected to regard private inter ests abroad otherwise than on broad national lines. Investments were overwhelmingly agricultural and located at home; foreign invest ments were still deemed a gamble, and the frequent total losses in curred by investors were regarded as amply compensated for by the scandalous terms of usurious lending. The change came suddenly, and this time simultaneously in all leading Western countries. Such an event was the increase in the rhythm and volume of interna tional trade as well as the universal mobilization of land, implied in the mass transportation of grain and agricultural raw materials from one part of the planet to another, at a fractional cost. This economic earthquake dislocated the lives of dozens of millions in rural Europe. Within a few years free trade was a matter of the past, and the further expansion of market economy took place under utterly new con ditions. The agrar ian crisis and the Great Depression of 1873-86 had shaken confidence in economic self-healing. From now onward the typical institutions of market economy could usually be introduced only if accompanied by protectionist measures, all the more so because since the late 1870s and early 1880s nations were forming themselves into organized units which were apt to suffer grievously from the dislocations involved in any sudden adjustment to the needs of foreign trade or foreign ex changes. The supreme vehicle of the expansion of market economy, the gold standard, was thus usually accompanied by the simultaneous introduction of the typical protectionist policies of the age such as so cial legislation and customs tariffs. On this point also the traditional liberal version of the collectivist conspiracy was a misrepresentation of the facts. The free trade and gold standard system was not wantonly wrecked by selfish tariff mon gers and soft-hearted legislators; on the contrary, the coming of the gold standard itself hastened the spreading of these protectionist insti tutions, which were the more welcome the more burdensome fixed ex changes proved. From this time onward tariffs, factory laws, and an ac tive colonial policy were prerequisites of a stable external currency (Great Britain with her vast industrial superiority was the exception which proved the rule). Only when these prerequisites were given could now the methods of market economy be safely introduced. Where such methods were forced upon a helpless people in absence of protective measures, as in exotic and semicolonial regions, unspeak able suffering ensued. Herein we hold the key to the seeming paradox of imperialism— [ 224 ] the Great Transformation the economically inexplicable and therefore allegedly irrational re fusal of countries to trade with one another indiscriminately, and their aiming instead at the acquisition of overseas and exotic markets.
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