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  • Director, the Center for the Study of Motor Learning and Brain Repair
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https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/profiles/results/directory/profile/9121870/john-krakauer

A 27-year-old man presents to does acupuncture help arthritis in fingers generic medrol 16 mg amex his primary care doctor with a low-grade fever arthritis diet chocolate order medrol american express, headache rheumatoid arthritis definition cdc discount 4 mg medrol overnight delivery, and neck stiffness arthritis pain finger joints buy discount medrol 4 mg on line, which have become more bothersome over the past 1-to-2 weeks. The pathologic specimen depicted here shows the only intracranial lesion found in this patient. A 13-year-old boy is brought into the emergency room lethargic with a stiff neck and fever. Postmortem evaluation reveals that the child had primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Following several days of low-grade fever and mild neck and head pain, a 10-year-old boy develops bilateral face drooping and difficulty fully closing his eyes. After B burgdorferi is introduced by the tick that carries it, the skin around the bite develops which of the following A 41-year-old homosexual man is brought to medical attention by his partner because of headache, sluggish mentation, and impaired ambulation worsening over the previous week. On examination, his responses are slow and he has some difficulty sustaining attention. Eventually, surgical aspiration of one of the lesions reveals that they are abscesses. A 50-year-old woman presents to the emergency room with lethargy, fever, and moderately low blood pressure. On day 2 of her admission, she has developed a right upper extremity drift and her speech has decreased fluency. Which of the following is the most common site for formation of this type of lesion A 70-year-old man presents with right body (face and arm > leg) weakness, which he says has gradually developed over several months. Medical history includes hypertension, smoking, and the occasional use of prostitutes. Which of the following consequences of this patient’s likely diagnosis may present a picture easily confused with brain tumor The emergency room physician is extremely concerned that the patient may have been exposed to a deadly virus and orders immediate injections of immunoglobulin. From the brain, this pathogen establishes itself for transmission to another host by spreading to which of the following He is determined to have malignant external otitis and osteomyelitis of the base of the skull. Within the past 3 months she has also developed dysarthria, myoclonus, intention tremor, and hyperreflexia. Her skin is barely broken, and, besides feeling a little frightened, she says that she is fine. Despite this, her friend convinces her to be evaluated in the nearest emergency room. A 75-year-old left-handed woman presented to the emergency room with what at first was thought to be a stroke. Following neuroimaging, the situation became less clear, and ultimately an enhancing brain lesion was aspirated via stereotaxic needle placement. A 52-year-old woman develops progressive dementia, tremors, gait ataxia, and myoclonic jerks over the course of 6 months. No members of her immediate family have a history of degenerative neurological disease. Which of the following medications is the best treatment for the organism likely responsible for the patient’s condition A 51-year-old woman with an 8-month history of neurological decline dies after a severe bout of aspiration pneumonia. Autopsy of her brain reveals extensive loss of granule cells in the cerebellum and other changes most obvious in the cerebellar cortex. The patient could have acquired this progressive disease through which of the following means Growth hormone treatment Questions 165 to 170 Select the condition that best fits each clinical scenario. He abused intravenous drugs for several years and has had several admissions for recurrent infections, including subacute bacterial endocarditis. His involuntary movements are largely restricted to the right side of his body and are associated with hoarseness and difficulty swallowing. Biopsy of this lesion reveals oligodendrocytes with abnormally large nuclei that contain darkly staining inclusions. Within 3 months of presentation, his dementia is profound, and he has bladder and bowel incontinence. An 18-year-old man notices tingling about his ankles 2 weeks after an upper respiratory tract infection. Within 2 days, he has weakness in dorsiflexion of both feet, and within 1 week he develops problems with walking. His weakness progresses rapidly over the ensuing week and necessitates his being placed on a ventilator to support his breathing. Over the course of 6 months, a 50-year-old immigrant from Eastern Europe develops problems with bladder control, an unsteady gait, and pain in his legs. On examination, it is determined that he has absent deep tendon reflexes in his legs, markedly impaired vibration sense in his feet, and a positive Romberg sign. Despite his complaint of unsteady gait, he has no problems with rapid alternating movement of the feet, and no tremors are evident. A 10-year-old girl is referred to a physician because of rapidly deteriorating school performance. Over the course of a few weeks, the child has lost interest in her schoolwork, appeared apathetic at home, and had frequent temper tantrums with little provocation. A psychiatric evaluation reveals that, in addition to emotional lability, the child has substantial intellectual deficits that appear to be new. Within 1 month of this evaluation, the child has a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. A neurologist examining the child discovers chorioretinitis, ataxia, hyperactive reflexes, and bilateral Babinski signs. She has traveled to the Caribbean several times annually, and she has a new pet cat. A 29-year-old immigrant from El Salvador is brought to the emergency room after a generalized seizure. After awakening, he relates that he has had two or three episodes of unexplained loss of consciousness in the past 2 years. Disturbed eye movements are the most common sign of neurological disease during the acute illness. A variety of movement disorders, including chorea, athetosis, dystonia, and myoclonus, develop with the disease. The most common sequela of the disease is severe, unremitting parkinsonism with signs and symptoms similar to those exhibited with idiopathic parkinsonism. One rather unique feature is the occurrence of oculogyric crises, or episodes in which the eyes deviate to one side or upward, associated with other forms of dystonia and autonomic symptoms, sometimes occurring with great regularity. Almost half of patients with sarcoidosis and neurological disease have a neurological sign or symptom as the first obvious complication of the sarcoidosis. These patients report progressive weakness of one side of the face with no substantial loss of sensation over the paretic side. They may feel that there is decreased sensitivity to touch on the weak side, but this is more commonly from a loss of tone in the facial muscles than from an injury to the trigeminal nerve. Aspergillus tends to cause abscesses in immunocompromised individuals, and Mucor affects mostly diabetics. The fluke itself does not invade the spinal cord, but it deposits eggs in the valveless veins of Batson, which drain the intestines and communicate with the drainage from the lumbosacral spinal cord. The patient develops granulomas around the ova that lodge in the spinal cord, and these granulomatous lesions crush the cord. Children are more likely to develop cerebral lesions than adults, but people at any age may develop this encephalic hydatidosis, which entails the development of a major cyst with multiple compartments in which smaller cysts are evident. This hydatid cyst of the brain behaves like a tumor and may become massive enough to cause focal deficits.

Diseases

  • Acrodysplasia
  • Whipple disease
  • Septo-optic dysplasia
  • Toxocariasis
  • Cat Rodrigues syndrome
  • Autism

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Three-dimensional images and line profles for an area of the nanoflled resin before bleaching arthritis swollen knee exercises effective 4 mg medrol. Surface roughness and morphology of three nanocom posite after bleaching and immersion in staining 2002;14(2):92-96 arthritis in older dogs cheap 16mg medrol visa. Neither of control—were submerged in suspensions of Streptococcus mutans and the antimicrobial toothbrushes delivered the advertised claim of a 99 arthritis water exercises purchase 4mg medrol. However arthritis in knee elderly proven 4mg medrol, the inclusion of removed from the toothbrush heads, then serially diluted, plated, and chlorhexidine in toothbrush bristles appeared to be the most promising of incubated. Received: December 2, 2013 mutans groups, the chlorhexidine-coated toothbrushes had signifcantly Accepted: March 6, 2014 ecent advertisements for antimicro any potential bacteremia could jeopardize oral lesions than using a sterile toothbrush, bial toothbrushes claim to remove up patients with serious ailments such as and these lesions showed delayed healing Rto 99. The elimination bacteria left on a toothbrush could help that Candida species, such as C. A 2007 study found that very effective means of inhibiting biofilm tion of microorganisms from infected to air-drying of toothbrushes was an incom formation on toothbrush bristles, while noninfected tissues. A toothbrush that plete method for disposing of microorgan Aysegul et al and Sato et al produced simi could help in controlling reinfection or isms. Some authors have recommended membrane during routine toothbrushing in preventing the establishment of these disposable toothbrushes for patients that of inflamed gingiva, enter the circulatory microbial colonies. Yokosuka et al studied are taking immunosuppressants or who system, and then undermine the healing of the bacterial content on chlorhexidine are undergoing transplant or other major dental implants or proceed to life-threaten coated filaments of toothbrushes and surgeries, thereby avoiding any deleterious ing endocarditis or pneumonia infections. The cally significant difference between an Watchers Superior Manual Toothbrush inoculation suspension of C. Dental inoculation suspensions so that the heads nanoparticles into the bristles, thereby providers should be aware of toothbrushes were covered completely. Forty brushes imparting an intrinsic means of control that could prove useful in preventing of each brush type were each placed into ling the oral biofilm that resides on the reinfection and cross-contamination of an individual tube containing the S. The procedure was repeated commonplace in medicine, particularly mine the antimicrobial characteristics of with 40 of each brush type in the C. Following that, the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovas chlorhexidine-coated, and a control with toothbrushes were rinsed for <30 seconds cular diseases, wound healing, and the no antimicrobial claims. The research was with 40 ml of sterile water, then placed in development of materials and medical geared toward measuring the extent of a standing position (with the heads up) in devices with antimicrobial properties. Silver nanoparticles have been shown to remain on each type of toothbrush after the toothbrush types were then ran act as an effective antimicrobial, though testing at specified time points utilizing domly subdivided into groups of 10 to be the exact mechanism remains unclear. The null hypothesis to time point, the toothbrushes of each group nanoparticles contribute to structural be tested was that there would be no sig were placed in a standardized amount of changes in bacterial membranes, which nificant difference in percent reduction in sterile saline sufficient to cover the heads. The brushes were discarded after which inhibit respiratory enzymes and Materials and methods the vortex mixing. The organisms the percent reduction of microorganisms the control group, which led them to tested, S. The inoculation were to indeed provide clinically effective Watchers Superior Manual Toothbrush, suspension of S. Groups with the same superscript uppercase letter per row or superscript lowercase letter per column were not With the S. The control different from each other, except at 16 tion provided by a brush could change brush showed significant improvement hours, when the percent reduction for the over time, this study did not try to factor from 8 to 16 hours, which suggests that control brush was significantly greater in this variable, and should be the subject S. The control brush also had In order for either the silver nanopar passage of time, although not enough a significantly greater percent reduction ticle or chlorhexidine-coated brush to achieve clinical disinfection without at times 16 and 24 hours than at 8 hours manufacturers to make the claim of added measures. At 24 hours, the then a reduction in microbes could be was statistically worse than the control silver nanoparticle brush had significantly seen as a normal factor of time, which brush at 16 hours. Finally, the any better than the standard control ther were significantly different from the authors assumed that 8 hours would be toothbrush and, furthermore, that it does control group. A the differences were specific to the type 2009 study by Turner et al could find no Discussion of microorganism. When the 24-hour nologist at the Wilford Hall Ambulatory spray for their disinfection. Evaluation of the contamination and disinfection the chlorhexidine-coated brush—but Dr. Maller is in private practice, special methods of toothbrushes used by 24 to 48-month neither were significantly different that izing in periodontics and implants, in San old children. The efficacy of idine-coated nor the silver nanoparticle tor, Postgraduate Periodontics, Air Force chlorhexidine spray vs mouthwash in the microbial contamination of child toothbrushes. J Dent Child brush showed any individual statistical Postgraduate Dental School, Uniformed (Chic). Vandewalle is direc bacterial contamination of chlorhexidine coated fila similar reductions. The control brush did tor, Dental Research, Advanced Education ments of the toothbrush [in Japanese]. Nihon Shi display a significant increase in reduc in General Dentistry Residency Program, shubyo Gakkai Kaishi. A novel tion at 16 and 24 hours compared to 8 Dunn Dental Clinic, Lackland, Texas. Anti bacterial activity, inflammatory response, coagulation evident at the earlier 8-hour point. It also those of the authors and do not reflect and cytotoxicity effects of silver nanoparticles. Nano could be that the nature of the testing the official policy of the United States medicine. The use of nanoparticles to control oral bio to flourish on a brush after 16 hours, or the United States government. Quirynen M, De Soete M, Pauwels M, Gizani S, Van effective in disinfection; however, in this Meerbeek B, van Steenberghe D. While there are and antimicrobial drug usage in the past those without the disease. Most of these complications patients, the literature is deficient regard were excluded from the study. It occurs when the patients were divided into a test group ate the oral hygiene status of the patients. The thickening of the basement membrane reflect the initial and advanced stages of scores of debris and calculus were added lead to incompetency of the vascular walls. Comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy using unpaired t-test. There were no test and control groups were found to be Discussion statistically significant differences between highly significant (P = 0. Comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters in diabetic patients relationship between periodontal disease with either proliferative or nonproliferative retinopathy using unpaired t-test. No statistically significant difference Mean duration of diabetes mellitus (years) 1 5. As all other factors were found to be similar in the test and control groups difficult to establish an unequivocal and patients in any of the parameters studied. This might be attributed to the tions of diabetes may occur early, and in our study ranged from 0 to 7, with small sample size (27 patients with prolif periodontal disease can place diabetic an average of 1 tooth. Loe observed in erative retinopathy and 24 patients with patients at an increased risk of developing his review that the frequency of edentu nonproliferative retinopathy). This makes it liferative and nonproliferative retinopathy without retinal changes. These can bleed and destroy the retina, cause retinal detachment, or neovascular glaucoma. There are various biochemical pathways that lead to vascular complica Mean duration of diabetes mellitus (years) 0. Hyperglycemia be a factor in insulin resistance and poor minimize confounding factors. The lack of oxygen due this is one of the mechanisms of hyper socioeconomic status of the patients, which to damaged blood vessels in the retina glycemia-induced diabetic complications. This is a of insulin resistance in the body leading treatment of periodontal disease. Grossi et al Periodontal disease can also lead to tudinal trials with a larger sample size are suggested that the upregulation of proin atherosclerosis, which may result in a recommended to evaluate the strength of flammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis lack of oxygen in the retina causing the the association of these 2 disease entities. Severity, duration, and mechanisms of insulin re & Research Centre, Indore, India, where 9. J Clin Endocrinol Raje, Singh, and Gupta are postgraduate status and complications in relation to periodontal dis Metab. Al-Mubarak S, Ciancio S, Aljada A, Mohanty P, Ross C, Gandhi Jila Chikitsalaya, Dewas, India.

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Instrumentation the purpose of this section is to pseudoarthrosis definition purchase cheapest medrol and medrol describe current plans to arthritis treatment ppt buy medrol with american express integrate the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders menopausal arthritis definition cheap 16mg medrol amex, 5th ed best pain relief arthritis buy cheap medrol on line. Instrument developers provided information about plans to update diagnostic interviews. Table 24 describes the major diagnostic instruments, including both structured and semistructured interviews. Interviewers are asked to review all problems or symptoms that emerged during the interview. Then, taking these one at a time, they must determine whether symptoms in that area caused incapacity. The interviewer is asked to distinguish two levels of disturbance or impaired functioning—partial and severe. If a person is still able to do things, but does them less well or more slowly, then it is coded as a partial incapacity. They inquire as to whether the symptoms present during the last year have resulted in any degree of impairment in six different social domains. Each set of questions has a two-part structure, the first determining whether impairment is present and the second measuring severity or frequency. Finally, with increasing evidence about the comparable validity and reliability between telephone and face-to-face administration of mental health interviews, psychiatric researchers have been conducting clinical interviews over the telephone for the past 20 years (Aneshensel, Frerichs, Clark, & Yokopenic, 1982; Reich & Earls, 1990; Rohde, Lewinsohn, & Seeley, 1997; Sobin et al. In fact, telephone administration has become widely accepted as a way to conduct clinical appraisals of both adults and adolescents (Kessler et al. However, most of the research conducted with telephone administrations of diagnostic mental health interviews has been done with adults. The published literature does indicate that reliability, validity, and epidemiological studies have been conducted by telephone with adolescents and children as young as 12 years of age (Merikangas, Avenevoli, Costello, Koretz, & Kessler, 2009; Reich & Earls, 1990; Rohde et al. Many, but not all, disorders within the neurodevelopmental disorders were previously excluded from the 1993 definition. Epidemiological studies, including an assessment of eating disorders among adolescents, may also see an increase in eating disorder-specific prevalence estimates. These changes would have no overarching impact on an estimate of "any mental disorder. Measuring depression in the community: A comparison of telephone and personal interviews. Social phobia and subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(9), 870-880. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(5), 538-549. A diagnostic classification approach to delineating pragmatic language impairment, high functioning autism and specific language impairment. Validation studies of mental health indices in the National Health Interview Survey (presented to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(4), 389-400. Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and short-lived episodes of mania-like symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(4), 368-383. Practitioner review: Social (pragmatic) communication disorder conceptualization, evidence and clinical implications. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(3), 210-216. Diagnostic interviewing for family studies: Comparing telephone and face-to-face methods for the diagnosis of lifetime psychiatric disorders. Links between co-occurring social-communication and hyperactive-inattentive trait trajectories. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(9), 892-902. Often, certain behaviors become more noticeable when comparing children of the same age. Even before their frst birthday, some babies become overly focused on certain objects, rarely make eye contact, and fail to engage in typical back-and-forth play and babbling with their parents. Other children may develop normally until the second or even third year of life, but then start to lose interest in others and become silent, withdrawn, or indifferent to social signals. Communication issues According to the American Academy of Pediatrics’ developmental milestones, by the frst birthday, typical toddlers can say one or two words, turn when they hear their name, and point when they want a toy. When offered something they do not want, toddlers make it clear with words, gestures, or facial expressions that the answer is “no. For example, some children with autism may: n Fail or be slow to respond to their name or other verbal attempts to gain their attention n Fail or be slow to develop gestures, such as pointing and showing things to others 2 National Institute of Mental Health • A Parent’s Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorder n Coo and babble in the frst year of life, but then stop doing so n Develop language at a delayed pace n Learn to communicate using pictures or their own sign language n Speak only in single words or repeat certain phrases over and over, seeming unable to combine words into meaningful sentences n Repeat words or phrases that they hear, a condition called echolalia n Use words that seem odd, out of place, or have a special meaning known only to those familiar with the child’s way of communicating. For example, because they fnd it diffcult to understand and react to social cues, children with Asperger syndrome often talk at length about a favorite subject, but they won’t allow anyone else a chance to respond or notice when others react indifferently. They might spend a long time lining up toys in a certain way, rather than playing with them. Repetitive behavior can also take the form of a persistent, intense preoccupation. They may insist on eating the same exact meals every day or taking the same exact route to school. Children with Rett syndrome may also have diffculties with coordination, movement, and speech. Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can help, but no specifc treatment for Rett syndrome is available yet. With funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, scientists have discovered that a mutation in the sequence of a single gene is linked to most cases of Rett syndrome. It may also improve doctors’ ability to diagnose and treat chil dren with Rett syndrome earlier, improving their overall quality of life. The frst stage involves general developmental screening during well-child checkups with a pediatrician or an early childhood health care provider. Children who show some developmental problems are referred for additional evalu ation. The second stage involves a thorough evaluation by a team of doctors and other health professionals with a wide range of specialities. Other screening instruments combine information from parents with the doc tor’s own observations of the child. Comprehensive diagnostic evaluation the second stage of diagnosis must be thorough in order to fnd whether other conditions may be causing your child’s symptoms. The evaluation may assess the child’s cognitive level (thinking skills), language level, and adaptive behavior (age appropriate skills needed to complete daily activities independently, for example eating, dress ing, and toileting). The outcome of the evaluation will help plan for treatment and interventions to help your child. Some children may sleep better using medications such as melatonin, which is a hormone that helps regulate the body’s sleep-wake cycle. In most cases, a doctor will use the lowest dose of medicine that works for the child. For more information on Fragile X, see the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development website at. Using developmental and relationship based approaches, this therapy can be delivered in natural settings such as the home or pre-school. For children younger than age 3, these interventions usually take place at home or in a child care center. For example, Children’s Friendship Training focuses on improving children’s conversation and interaction skills and teaches them how to make friends, be a good sport, and respond appropriately to teasing. Department of Education’s Offce for Civil Rights enforces Section 504 in programs and activities that receive Federal education funds.

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Full details of review methods including search strategy rheumatoid arthritis diet list generic 4 mg medrol, review synthesis and the process of revising recommendations are presented in Appendix 1 arthritis in dogs coconut oil purchase medrol 16 mg free shipping. Numerous studies have reported little qualitative difference between autism disorder and Asperger Disorder subtypes [42] arthritis in one knee symptoms purchase 16 mg medrol overnight delivery. It found a lack of substantial differences in prognosis in terms of rates of disability pension award arthritis relief for dogs order medrol once a day, marital status, criminality and mortality [46]. Asperger syndrome is a pervasive developmental disorder characterised by social impairments and focused, circumscribed interests and activities in the absence of significant language impairment and cognitive delay. Asperger syndrome has remained a controversial diagnosis, being difficult to distinguish clinically from autism with normal intelligence, known as “high-functioning autism”. However research suggests that these groups do not differ significantly, with very similar outcomes in adolescence and adulthood [49]. Further, there has been no evidence of differential treatment response or aetiology, and claims for a distinct neurocognitive profile in Asperger syndrome have received mixed results. Taken together there is little evidence to support a diagnostic distinction between Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism [39]. In addition, the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome was intended to be applied only when criteria for autistic disorder were not met. It is far more commonly given than autistic disorder, creating a situation where atypical presentations are more common than typical ones [51]. Removal of Childhood Disintegrative Disorder the reasons for removal of this group as a distinct disorder include that the condition rarely occurs, the defining behaviours after onset fall well within the spectrum of autism, and that the group can still be separately monitored through specifier codes of age and type of onset [51]. For example, behaviours indicative of “poor socio-emotional reciprocity” are covered in three criteria poor emotional reciprocity (social domain), lack of sharing enjoyment and interests (social domain), and poor reciprocal conversation (communication domain) [57]. In the new manual, each criteria includes several examples of behaviours from across the lifespan that may indicate the presence of that symptom. These developmentally specific examples of behaviours provide flexibility for clinicians in identifying an individual’s symptoms which may manifest differently across the lifespan from toddlerhood to adulthood. As requirements for social abilities increase with age, social impairments become more apparent [61]. For these reasons, the requirement for symptom onset before 3 years has been changed to “the early developmental period”. This process needs to be reliable (gives the same diagnosis is given for the same presenting symptoms) and valid (indicates which individuals have the condition and which don’t). Test-retest reliability A diagnostic test is considered reliable to the extent that it can be understood and used by different clinicians in a consistent, replicable manner to lead to the same diagnosis for the same presentation of symptoms. Intra-rater reliability which requires that the same rater be asked to “blindly” review the same patient material two or more times. Inter-rater reliability which requires that two or more different raters review the same patient material. Test-retest reliability which requires that the same patients be observed separately by two or more raters within an interval during which the clinical conditions of the patients are unlikely to have changed. Patients were randomly assigned to two clinicians for a diagnostic interview, each prompted by a computerised checklist, and blind to any previous diagnosis. Two independent clinicians performed the diagnostic evaluations for each child, and the evaluations were performed within two weeks of each other. However, the trials did not include children under 6 years old or adults [4] and sample size of participants from the two sites was very small (n=64). Convergent and discriminant validity Convergent and discriminant validity are both considered subcategories or subtypes of construct validity. Convergent validity refers to the degree to which a test/measure correlates with (or is related to) scores on other tests that are designed to assess the same construct. Whereas discriminant validity is the degree to which scores on a test do not correlate with scores from other tests that are not designed to assess the same construct (that is, the test can discriminate between dissimilar constructs). Diagnostic accuracy A key goal in developing diagnostic criteria for classifying a disorder is to make the criteria sensitive enough to diagnose those who have a disorder and specific enough to exclude those who don’t [67]. Comparisons with (ideally) an independent “gold reference standard” permit reports of diagnostic accuracy in the form of “sensitivity” and “specificity”. See Table 2 for a summary of comparative studies, ordered alphabetically by first author. Sensitivity and specificity did not vary significantly as a function of age or gender. The reported results and conclusion garnered significant media attention, raising alarm about the potential for reduced access to services. In such retrospective approaches, unless very comprehensive assessments are accessed, there may be insufficient information to determine details such as the history of restrictive and repetitive behaviours, which can lead to some individuals being seemingly missed in the comparison of diagnostic criteria [35]. According to a report by working party chair Susan Skuse, “roughly 95%” of the children did [40]. The study is limited by having a sample that is small (n=64), included no adults, was predominantly Causacian, and was drawn from academic or specialist clinics that may not generalise to diagnosis among a broader population. Notably, there were high sensitivity rates in subgroups such as girls, children under 4 years, and children with language impairments. This judgement was based on parent interview, clinical observations, a teacher/caregiver report, and a validated assessment tool (the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder). Further, the unidentified children had significant autism symptoms on an autism severity measure compared to controls, replicating findings of several other studies [72, 76, 84]. For example, reducing the number of criteria needed to be met from the social communication and interaction domain from all three to two, and from the restrictive and repetitive behaviour domain from two to one (of 4) [60]. All studies found that sensitivity could be significantly increased with minimal loss of specificity [31, 53, 57, 69, 70, 73, 83-85]. It has been suggested that such an adjustment might be important to consider for those people whose early life symptoms are not easily obtained or accurately recalled [60]. Huerta and colleagues conducted a very large study including more than 5000 children and adolescents aged 2 to 17 years identified retrospectively using data from three existing datasets and using best-estimate clinical diagnosis as the reference standard. The use of arguably more stringent and reliable diagnostic criteria may allow for improved confidence in prevalence information in the future [38]. People who already have an established diagnosis There have been widespread reports of family anxiety about the removal of subtypes such as Asperger syndrome and the possible need for re-diagnosis. Understandably, some families are concerned about the idea of revisiting or reopening the diagnostic process [27]. This addition has been criticised as a “bizarre twist from the perspective of diagnostic logic” by “grandfathering in” people currently being treated regardless of whether they satisfy the current criteria [89]. This particularly applies to Asperger syndrome, where the term may continue to be used in society as an identifying label regardless of whether it is retained as a clinical diagnosis. The concept of neurodiversity considers atypical neurological development to be normal human difference that should be accepted and respected, just as other differences such as those defined by class, gender or race are (or should be). From this perspective, autism is considered not something to be cured, but rather a way of being with both disadvantages needing accommodation, and advantages that can make a unique and positive contribution to society. It has been suggested that this independent culture relies upon a restrictive view of high functioning autism as being distinct from others on the spectrum. Conversely, some in the autistic community have an abhorrence of being classified as either ‘high functioning’ or ‘low functioning’ [91, 93]. Rather, those diagnosed or self-identifying anywhere on the spectrum are welcomed and accommodated [93]. Frequently, individuals who are diagnosed in adolescence or adulthood report that receiving a diagnosis results in a conceptual framework that helps explain past experiences, creates greater self-understanding and leads to informal support and an awareness of additional service options [95]. Disclosing the diagnosis can have pitfalls however, and is best approached with care [94]. For some diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, being labeled “autistic” and associated with people at the “lower end of the autism spectrum” is problematic and potentially stigmatising [11, 90]. The negative stereotypes placed on autism may stem from a lack of understanding among the general public of the variability in symptoms among people on the autism spectrum. It is suggested that instead of being labelled using “deficit-based language,” such people should be considered as having a “particular vulnerability”. Tony Attwood, a psychologist specialising in working with people with Asperger syndrome, believes the new criteria may create further social confusion.

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