Such of appropriately sized needles antibiotic resistance kanamycin cheap myambutol line, and the incidents usually cause nothing more serious steady administration of pressure can help than some pain or tingling at the injection prevent needles from accidentally popping site treatment for dogs eating cane toads myambutol 400mg lowest price. Nevertheless virus 2014 adults purchase myambutol master card, always seek immediate of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in dogs purchase myambutol now, and using clean needles every time medical attention whenever accidental injec can help avoid blockage. Nevertheless, tion of even small amounts of drug occurs, the only way to defnitively avoid any risk since the possibility of an allergic or other of accidental eye injury is by requiring staf reaction exists. They enter the feld of sheltering because of their love for animals and their desire to care for those that fnd themselves victims of homelessness, or worse. Yet the work of caring for animal victims exposes them to a phenomenon called “compassion fatigue, ” a form of secondary post-traumatic stress dis order in which caretakers begin to internalize and sufer the efects of the trauma experi enced by the victims they care for. And while most suferers of traumatic stress experience a trauma and are able to move through the stages of grief to eventually heal, for caretak ers the grief process begins anew with every new animal victim that comes through the door—there is never any fnal resolution or For worker safety, a euthanasia room should ideally contain an eye wash station psychological healing. To complicate matters further, euthana sia technicians must sufer the additional General Hazards psychological burden of being the only Most environmental injuries are the result of caretakers who often are called upon to end inadequate safety measures, vague proce the lives of the very victims for whom they dures, or human error. This dilemma has been from the frst two causes may be reduced by referred to as “caring-killing paradox, ” and it providing proper training, solid procedures, dramatically afects the lives of every eutha nasia technician. Because euthanasia-related stress describe symptoms of the nature of the work, the euthanasia that can include: disruption of daily activities, area is the site of many potential work haz lack of concentration, sleep problems, feel ards, like slippery fuids or hair clippings on ings of inadequacy and lack of self-worth, the foor, cage doors left open, and the like. The sources is to provide staf with adequate stresses of the job are typically manifested in time to accomplish their tasks efectively one of two ways—internalizing (exhibiting and thoroughly. Organizations can also take pleasure and personal satisfaction) or exter internal policy measures intended to combat nalizing (sudden outbursts of anger, open compassion fatigue and euthanasia-related hostility toward others, etc. While both stress, including rotating euthanasia respon are normal, neither is productive. Instead, sibilities among a number of staf members, employees must be supported in fnding ways allowing technicians to transfer the task to of managing their grief without harming another technician if a day is going particu themselves or others. It is also critical that employees and volunteers must be made shelter leadership create a culture that views aware of the signs and symptoms so that euthanasia decisions as an operational neces they can better understand and actively sity of the organization as a whole, rather support one another and help build coping than as decisions made by a few individuals; skills. Many organizations have taken steps a culture that allows just a few individuals to to provide support for staf and volunteers, bear full responsibility is likely to generate with internal support groups or professional high amounts of staf dissatisfaction, burn counselors to help build coping skills, and still out, and turnover. They may take advantage of a state law other controlled substances must adhere to that enables direct licensing of shel ters, allowing them to obtain and use the strictures of the Controlled Substance drugs without the direct oversight of a Act (part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse veterinarian. Assuming that the shel Prevention and Control Act), passed in 1970 ter’s euthanasia technicians have been and enforced by the U. This law classifes drugs for shelters without a staf veterinarian, into fve major categories (called Schedules) (although it is highly recommended that according to their abuse potential, and strictly the agency still maintain a close working regulates their manufacture, distribution, and relationship with at least one expert in handling according to their potential risks and shelter medicine to assist in developing and overseeing euthanasia practices). Schedule I: drugs that have a high Most shelters obtain euthanasia drugs in potential for abuse and no currently one of three ways: acceptable medical use. They may team with an of-site veter medical use (Telazol, ketamine, sodium inarian willing to provide drugs to the pentobarbital mixes). This potential for abuse and have a currently collaboration works well for many organizations, although in some more acceptable medical use. Bear in mind that when should be stored in a cabinet that is either more than one legal requirement applies (for permanently constructed or attached to a instance, if there are both federal and state building structure to prevent physical removal. Requirements • Access to the drug supply should be A detailed log recording the exact use of limited to supervisors, veterinarians, and properly trained and certifed controlled substances for euthanizing individ euthanasia technicians. These records should be kept in a • For high-volume shelters with a large bound logbook with numbered pages rather supply of controlled substances kept on hand, a security alarm or than in anything with detachable pages, like a surveillance system should be installed loose-leaf binder. The log should include: in each drug bottle after use (this record a) the drug’s shipment lot number and should demonstrate that 100 percent of manufacturer/distributor name. When more than one controlled substance is used at a facility, each controlled substance must have its own section within the logbook. Training of Euthanasia this constant close monitoring helps keep the inventory process simple, and it helps Technicians to promptly account for any discrepancies There are no specifc federal regulations between the records and the shelter supply of regarding the training of shelter personnel controlled substances. For specifcs about minimum of two years, and these must be kept certifcation requirements for your state separately from ordinary business records. Penalties for failing to comply with state and federal drug laws can range from minor fnes to possible criminal charges, depending on the nature of the infraction. In efect, with these • Any combination of sodium pentobarbital drugs the animal is rendered completely with a neuromuscular blocking agent. Ensuring that this process is as humane as possible for each animal, regardless of species, is just as critical as it is for dogs and cats. Euthanasia technicians should not try to handle species with which they are not familiar and comfortable. A squeeze cage is useful for securing wildlife for injection of pre-euthanasia drugs Small Mammals of their high metabolism they require fully All small mammals have sharp teeth and may twice the amount of drugs. Both PreMix ensure that each individual is handled and euth and Telazol are acceptable pre-euthanasia anized humanely. Rabbits should never be animals for euthanasia, the technician should euthanized using a gas chamber or another try to make them feel as physically secure and inhalant agent. Gloves can be useful to help avoid the veins of most small rodents like mice, rats, bites that break the skin, but they are not a gerbils, and hamsters, the most efective mode substitute for calm, careful handling. Gently grasp the animal’s back and Rabbits neck from the top—for some small animals the Although rabbits should be euthanized with technician can gently “scruf” the nape of the sodium pentobarbital in the same manner neck while holding the animal in the palm—and described earlier for cats and dogs, because inject into the midline. If the animal cannot 76 the Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual be gently and securely handled, or if handling bird, then grasp gently from behind, placing would cause the animal undue stress, the the bird’s head between the frst and second technician should either administer a pre-eu fngers and cupping the bird’s body in the palm thanasia anesthetic (Telazol or PreMix) or use an of the hand. Gloves and eye goggles are highly recommended when Guinea Pigs working with any of the larger bird species, like fsh-eating birds or raptors, as both their sharp Guinea pigs should be euthanized with sodium beaks and their talons may infict serious injury, pentobarbital in the same manner described and it is very common for a bird in distress to previously for cats and dogs, typically using stab out at a person’s eyes. Both PreMix and Telazol are acceptable pre-euthana sia drugs (guinea pigs can actually pass out from Extra caution must be taken when han fear or stress, so administration of pre-euthana dling birds used for fghting, as they may sia drugs may be advisable). Guinea pigs should have sharpened spurs or razor attachments never be euthanized using a gas chamber or that could easily injure or even kill a person. Ferrets Small birds can be anesthetized before Like cats, ferrets react quickly in their attempts euthanasia using an inhalant anesthetic like at escape from unfamiliar handling, and cau halothane; larger birds should be administered tion should be used when handling even tame an injection of PreMix or Telazol into the ferrets. Ferrets can be restrained for euthanasia muscle mass overlying the breastbone or at either by wrapping them securely in a towel or the back of the thigh. Even though birds do not have a true administration of sodium pentobarbital is the peritoneal cavity like mammals, sodium pen most efective means of euthanasia. If not, tobarbital can be injected into the body cavity either PreMix or Telazol are acceptable pre directly below the keel, or breastbone, perpen euthanasia anesthetics. Regardless of the bird’s type or size, be careful to ensure that stress levels are reduced as much as possible both for the animal’s comfort and human safety. Small birds can generally be handled using a soft washcloth or towel; gently cover the Proper site for injection of bird the Humane Society of the United States Euthanasia Reference Manual 77 running along the wings. For technicians expe is to leave the body at room temperature rienced with feeding birds, oral administration overnight (whenever relying on rigor mortis of sodium pentobarbital may be yet another to verify death it is best to cover the animal option (assuming oral administration is per with a towel). Within 12 hours, the eyes should mitted by law); using a curved dosing needle be dull and sunken, and the limbs, head, and the drug can be simply squirted into the bird’s neck should be limp (or extremely stif, if the mouth, but care must be taken to ensure that cycle of rigor mortis is incomplete); if this isn’t the drug is not accidentally introduced into the the case, the animal may not actually be dead, trachea where it will cause sufocation. Very large birds like raptors and ratites (ostriches and emus) are dangerous, and All reptiles can be euthanized using a two euthanasia should not be attempted without step process: 1) administer PreMix or Telazol skilled assistance. Moreover, many of these animals can appear Be sure to always wear gloves when han to be lifeless while just lying dormant, making dling reptiles and wash hands thoroughly verifcation of death extremely difcult. For after, as they can be carriers of salmonella these reasons, it is particularly important that and other pathogens. Snakes Technically speaking, most reptiles’ breathing and heart rates can be monitored in much the Although most snakes are harmless, any snake same way as one would monitor a mammal that cannot readily be identifed should be or bird. Some and abdomen move in and out, and the heart snakes can injure or kill people with their may be seen beating if the animal (particularly venom or constricting ability, so only an expert lizards and snakes) is examined from the bot and experienced handler should handle large tom. A plastic or heavy-wire extremely low heart rate and respiratory rate, screen barrier may be used to approach and especially if the body is chilled. Mistakes can capture nonpoisonous snakes, and specifcally be made, therefore, if the technician relies on designed snake-handling tools (hooks and visual observation alone to make a conclusion gloves) should be used to increase handler about death. Appropriate restraint involves control technically possible, they can be very difcult of the head (grasp immediately behind head) to perform on reptiles, particularly when the plus adequate support of the body (as a general animal has a plastron (shell) that blocks access rule there should be one handler for every fve to the heart. If using Telazol or PreMix as a pre-euthanasia anesthetic, inject into the muscle along the backbone. Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins Crocodilians (Alligators and Crocodiles) All turtles, tortoises, and terrapins (all collec tively referred to in this section as turtles) can the jaws, feet, and tail of crocodilians are bite and strike with surprising speed, and some extremely dangerous. Only experienced species, like snapping turtles, are dangerous handlers should try to restrain a crocodilian and can infict serious injury. Turtles can also be that has not been chemically restrained, so difcult to restrain because of their strength professional expertise from qualifed zoo or and protective shell.
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Therapeutic delay as verapamil is up-titrated can be avoided Expected daytime attacks may be prevented by a dose by early short-term concomitant use of prednisolone antibiotics cipro order myambutol amex. This at least one hour before they are due antimicrobial over the counter purchase myambutol overnight, but are sometimes is an option when rapid control is a high priority because of only delayed antibiotic resistance vertical horizontal myambutol 800mg for sale. Treatment should be omitted from time to bacteria klebsiella infections 800 mg myambutol time (every 7th day is common practice) to establish continued need. In these cases, combinations can be resistant to the toxic effects of ergotamine that limit its 194 recommended. Nevertheless, because of its systemic to which ergotamine, or methysergide is added. Lithium can vasoconstrictor action, this treatment is contra-indicated in be combined with verapamil but with caution because there those with any vascular disease or signicant hypertension, is increased risk of toxicity without increase in the plasma and in the presence of multiple risk factors for vascular concentration of lithium. In severe chronic cases, all of disease (most cluster headache patients are smokers). Beta verapamil, lithium and ergotamine may be required, but the blockers or methysergide should not be used concomitantly, potential for toxicity is obviously high. This is probably valproate*, gabapentin* and carbamazepine* are all of little or sufficient to minimise the risk of relapse, although no formal no value. Melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of cluster headache: a double-blind pilot study with parallel groups. It was effective in a placebo-controlled medication may need to be continued indenitely. It is the uncontrolled hypertension or the presence of risk factors only proven highly-effective acute treatment. Sumatriptan is contra-indicated in uncontrolled hypertension or the presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease or 8. Ergotamine Oxygen* 100% at 10-15 l/min for 10-20 min helps some tartrate, and all orally-administered triptans are of no people. All cylinders (1, 360 litre, and 460 litre portable) therapy using occipital nerve blockade is often used but come with integral high regulators allowing up to 15 litres without good evidence of efficacy. The oxygen supplier will also provide non include implantation of occipital nerve or deep brain rebreathing masks. Intranasal sumatriptan in cluster headache: cluster headache attacks with less than 6 mg subcutaneous sumatriptan. High-ow oxygen for treatment of cluster headache: a with a mixture of rapid and long-acting steroids in cluster headache: a double-blind placebo randomized trial. British Association for the Study of Headache 46 stimulators, and are under clinical investigation at 9. The third is to review and reassess the underlying primary headache disorder (migraine or tension 9. The fourth is to prevent relapse, which has a rate of around 40% within ve years and is most likely to occur within the rst year after withdrawal. Patients with primary headaches should be educated about the risk of medication overuse and be encouraged to keep a diary to monitor headache frequency and drug use. The long-term prognosis depends on the type of primary headache and the type of overused medication. Long-term outcome of patients with headache and drug abuse after inpatient withdrawal: ve-year follow-up. Medication overuse headache: rates and predictors for relapse in a 4-year prospective study. Clinical features of withdrawal headache following overuse of triptans and other headache drugs. Some specialists recommend a course of 3-4 usually good, whereas the alternative to withdrawal is ever weeks, and not repeated; others suggest a six week course worsening headache. There are no studies to support or aggravates symptoms, so should be planned in advance refute these strategies. Outpatient and inpatient settings can provide the Recovery continues slowly for weeks to months. Most patients revert to their original can lead to withdrawal headache usually lasting from 2 to headache type (migraine or tension-type headache) within 10 days (average 3. Overused medications (if appropriate) may be by nausea, vomiting, arterial hypotension, tachycardia, reintroduced after 2 months, with explicit restrictions on sleep disturbances, restlessness, anxiety and nervousness. The type of drug overused also affects the response to Relapse is common, and many patients require extended withdrawal. Patients overusing triptans or ergots generally show improvement more rapidly (within 7-10 days) than patients taking simple analgesics (2-3 weeks) or narcotics 206 Katsarava Z et al. Rates and predictors for relapse in medication overuse headache: a 1-year prospective study. Abrupt outpatient withdrawal of medication in analgesic-abusing Neurol 2004; 3: 475–483. Evidence of psychological dependence may require referral for cognitive behavioural therapy. Sometimes withdrawal of overused medication (which is necessary anyway) does not lead to recovery. This situation, in which chronic daily headache persists more or less unabated, requires a new diagnosis to be made and is an indication for specialist referral. In all cases, enquiry should conrm, as far as possible, that medication overuse is not continuing. Once medication overuse has been eliminated, preventative drugs may become effective. Drug-induced headache: long-term results of stationary versus ambulatory withdrawal therapy. Management of multiple coexistent headache disorders Symptomatic medication should be restricted to no more than 2 days per week. Where migraine coexists with episodic tension-type headache and prophylaxis is considered, amitriptyline 10-150mg daily is the drug of choice (see 6. Where migraine occurs in association with other, more troublesome headache (usually chronic tension-type headache or medication overuse headache), that headache should be treated rst. Management costs these guidelines may rise overall, but there is no good nancial argument for treating headache disorders suboptimally. In the case It is predicted that fully implementing these guidelines will: of migraine, evidence is accruing that under-treatment is a) improve diagnosis, reducing the rate of not cost-effective, although gures are not yet available to inappropriate treatment; show the levels of savings overall that better management can achieve. Whilst not all cases can be treated effectively, to nd the best treatment for each individual; there is considerable potential for making things worse by c) increase the number of patients with migraine inappropriate management. Again, it is not known what using triptans; savings might result from better care. It should be a priority d) reduce misuse of medication, including triptans, to nd out. Inadequately treated cluster headache causes and reduce iatrogenic illness; considerable disability. Indirect costs per individual are likely to be high, although they have not yet been well estimated. British Association for the Study of Headache 51 and those who do not can probably safely be discounted. Audit In addition, audit should measure direct treatment costs: Audit should aim to measure headache burden in the target consultations, referrals and prescriptions. Measurements may be made in random samples of patients large enough to represent the target population and to show change. It is not sufficient to assess outcome only in those with known headache: this will not measure success or failure in identifying and diagnosing those not complaining of headache, who are likely to be numerous and in whom burden may nevertheless be signicant. Of these, about 150 will have migraine, more will have tension-type headache and 20-30 will have chronic daily headache. These self administered questionnaires, which can be mailed, measure limitations on work, other chores and social activity attributable to headache over the preceding 1-3 months. Patterns of health care utilization for migraine in England and in the United States. Ketamine sedation may be appropriate for a procedure that is painful, or frightening after all other options have been considered. Ketamine should not be used for sedation in the Emergency Department for children under the age of 1 year. Ketamine should be only be used by clinicians with significant relevant experience in the use of ketamine when performing procedural sedation in children aged between 2-5 years. Ketamine sedation should take place in an area with full resuscitation facilities immediately available.
Rahe-Meyer N virus quarantine meaning best buy for myambutol, solomon C antibiotic resistance animation ks4 discount myambutol american express, hanke A antibiotic qualities of honey order myambutol 400mg with mastercard, schmidt Ds formula 429 antimicrobial purchase myambutol 800 mg on-line, Knoerzer 2007; 33:435–40 D, hochleitner G, sorensen B, hagl C, Pichlmaier M: effects 272. Anomalies can include, but are not limited to do, lactic acidosis or acute alteration in mental status. Hypotension A systolic blood pressure of less than 19 mmHg, or a reduction of > 40 mmHg from baseline in the absence of other causes of hypotension. Multiple organ dysfunction Presence of altered organ function in acutely ill patients. Casaer, Michael Hiesmayr, Konstantin Mayer, j k l m Juan Carlos Montejo, Claude Pichard, Jean-Charles Preiser, Arthur R. When to Keywords: start and how to progress in the administration of adequate provision of nutrients is also described. The Intensive care best determination of amount and nature of carbohydrates, fat and protein are suggested. Particular conditions frequently observed in Enteral Parenteral intensive care such as patients with dysphagia, frail patients, multiple trauma patients, abdominal sur Guidelines gery, sepsis, and obesity are discussed to guide the practitioner toward the best evidence based therapy. For now, a gap exists between and later conduct of studies does not necessarily guarantee higher nutritional practices and the previous guidelines  and many quality, we chose this approach for the reason that major relevant available studies address only one or at most some of the specic changes were implemented after new scienticdatabecameavail aspects of nutritional therapy. In the current guidelines, the able around the start of the new millennium regarding timing, route, dose and composition of nutrition will be discussed and recommendations will be made recognizing that acute Composition of medical feeds metabolic changes as well as calorie and protein decits play a Determination of energy demands major role in patient outcome. Outcome e are requested if possible, a systematic literature search has to be performed, including evaluation of recent other relevant 2. Methodology guidelines, specic keywords have to be addressed (intensive care, critical care, nutrition, enteral, parenteral, oral, tube feeding, pro the guideline is a basic framework of evidence and expert tein, calories, nutrients, macronutrients), as well as specic (not opinions aggregated into a structured consensus process. While dening an exact cut-off is impossible, group raised during the guideline work. High quality case control or cohort studies with a very low risk of confounding or bias and a high probability that the relationship is causal 2 Well-conducted case control or cohort studies with a low risk of confounding or bias and a moderate probability that the relationship is causal 2 Case control or cohort studies with a high risk of confounding or bias and a signicant risk that the relationship is not causal 3 Non-analytic studies. The updated rec contain information on study design, detailed assessment of the ommendations and the rst voting were intensively discussed in a quality of evidence, relative effects of the intervention compared to consensus conference in 2018 and accepted after revision by voting the control, absolute treatment effect, and the quality of evidence consent on the same day. Evidence levels, grades of recommendation and consensus studies and systematic reviews published between 2000 and June process 2017 using a broad lter with the keywords (Table 1b). Onlyarticles published in English or with an English abstract, and studies in the grading system relies primarily on studies of high quality, human adults were considered. Evidence levels were then translated into and systematic reviews were hand-searched for studies that were recommendations, taking into account study design and quality as missing in the initial database search. The search for literature was well as consistency and clinical relevance (Tables 2 and 3). The updated several times during the working process for the last time highest grade (A) is assigned to recommendations that are based on in August 2017. Meta-analysis strategy possible within the context of the available data and expert clinical experience. Some of the recommendations of these guidelines are When applicable, we used meta-analytic techniques to generate based on expert opinion because randomized studies are not pooled estimates across eligible studies. Recommendations are formulated in terms of a “strong” statisticalheterogeneitybetweenstudiesusingthec2andI2statistics (“Shall”)or“(conditional” (“should or” can”) and for or against the . The intervention based on the balance of desirable and undesirable meta-analysis are available online as Supplemental Materials. Quality of evidence only based on the evidence levels of the studies but also on the judgment of the working group taking consistency, clinical rele We dened quality of evidence as our condence in the estimate vance and validity of the evidence into account [11, 12]. The quality of evidence ommendations were classied according to the strength of can be high, moderate, low, or very low (see Table 2). We completed consensus within the working group in April 2018 according to this process in two steps: 1) initially by assessing the quality of ev Table 4 (from strong consensus to no consensus). Denitions and terminologies methodologists assigned the overall quality of the body of evidence. Majority agreement Agreement of >50e75% of the participants Ebb phase and Flow phase. The different phases of critical No consensus Agreement of <50% of the participants illness are generally described as ‘ebb’ and ‘ow’ phase. B: Diagnosis tree of malnutrition; from at risk for malnutrition, basic denition of malnutrition to etiology-based diagnoses. Recommendation 2 Hypocaloric or underfeeding is an energy administration below 70% of the dened target. Numerous studies suggest the use of a tool to assess malnutri Who should be considered for medical nutrition therapy The concept of critical illness associated frailty Commentary has been suggested : frailty is strongly correlated with age and disability status as well as the burden of comorbid disease . There are no studies directly addressing the effect of duration of Amongst critically ill patients, decrease in muscle mass, strength starvation on outcome in critically ill patients. Such studies could and endurance, as well as mobility make these patients very be considered unethical as energy intake is a mainstay of survival analogous to the typically frail, geriatric patient. Since previous recommendations [1, 2], a malnutrition is suggested by clinical observations or by comple cut-off of 48 h for the initiation of early nutrition and contraindi mentary examinations . A and isolated pre-albumin levels are not good markers of nutritional careful and progressive re-introduction of nutrition may limit the status, lowvalues being a response to inammation (negative acute risk of refeeding syndrome, mainly in patients who are severely phase proteins). Albumin is a marker of severity of the condition malnourished or have been in a starved state before admission and reects the inammatory status. Acute Late Phase Scores: Most of the tools described below have been used in the Phase intensive care setting. Clinical question 3: How to screen for the risk of malnutrition and men, respectively. Some of them are obviously malnourished due to bioelectric impedance  or even stable isotopes  might be a severe previous loss of appetite, weight loss inducing variable performed to evaluate this loss. This loss of muscle may be reduction of lean body mass and/or multiple comorbidities and considered as frailty . Such loss in muscle is associated with a theywill usually receive nutritional support. That is why nutritional prolonged hospital stay and interferes with quality of life and intervention needs to be planned carefully and considered at the functional capacity . A very admission, and including or not inammation assessed by the level recent study showed that patients with low muscle mass found at of interleukin 6. A denition of acute critical illness-associated failed to conrm its value in a post hoc analysis showing that malnutrition still needs to be developed. Functional assessments like hand-grip strength may be used as a supportive measure. For example malignant disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease or any disease with chronic or recurrent Inammation. For patients However, due tothe lack of prospective validation of their utility for able to eat, this route should be preferred if the patient is able to daily clinical practice and nutrition management, only expert cover 70% of his needs from day three to seven, without risks of opinion can be expressed. This amount (above 70% of the needs) is While waiting for a validated screening tool, a pragmatic considered as adequate. Clinical question 4: When should nutrition therapy be initiated ences in other outcomes. Clinical question 5: In adult critically ill patients, does and high-output stula without distal feeding access. Commentary Taken together, timing, route and caloric/protein target should no longer be considered as three different issues, but should rather Five studies [74e78] were identied and our Meta-analysis be integrated into a more comprehensive approach considering all found a signicant reduction in diarrhea with continuous versus these aspects. Despite the fact that bolus dered according to a local protocol preventing sharp and too rapid administration is signicantly different from continuous feeding in increases. Key points should be aiming for 1) oral these differences are not always translated into clinical advantages. Studies integrating all these parameters gastrointestinal symptoms was observed between the groups. We systematic review  did not detect an advantage of one tech should avoid the provision of excessive amounts of nutrients byany nique but bolus administration was associated with a lower aspi route in the early phase of critical illness, which is associated with ration rate and better calorie achievement. The issue of intentional of the studies decreased the strength of the recommendation. A recent Cochrane analysis  sug umes, insulin requirements, time to goal therapy or calorie intake gested placing a postpyloric tube in patients according to the local . Finally, bolus feeding could this benet did not translate into decreases in length of ventilation, provide a greater stimulus for protein synthesis . Importantly, various postpyloric locations (duodenal and jejunal) were not differenti ated, despite the known different effects on gastrointestinal and 3.