This learning in early childhood enables their healthy toddlers in groups: Necessary considerations for emotional spasms everywhere order 2mg tizanidine overnight delivery, social muscle relaxant jaw purchase tizanidine with a mastercard, participation in a democratic pluralistic society (peaceful and cognitive development muscle relaxant half-life purchase cheap tizanidine online. To encourage the development of language spasms paraplegic 2 mg tizanidine mastercard, the Materials, displays, and learning activities must represent caregiver/teacher should demonstrate skillful verbal com the cultural heritage of the children and the staff to instill a munication and interaction with the child. In order to enroll a diverse responses to, and encouragement of, soft infant group, the facility should market its services in a culturally sounds, as well as identifying objects, feelings, and sensitive way and should make sincere efforts to employ desires by the caregiver/teacher. Children need to see members of their of objects, feelings, listening to the child and own community in positions of infuence in the services they responding, along with actions and supporting, but use. Scholarships and tuition assistance can be used to not forcing, the child to do the same. Diversity in early care and education: f) Profanity should not be used at any time. Closing the gap: Culture and speaking to children teaches the children facts and relays promotion of inclusion in child care. Promoting tolerance and respect for diversity the atmosphere of the exchange are equally important. Dis cussing the impact of actions on feelings for the child and others helps to develop empathy. Children learning language: How this diffculty occurs even if each of the many adults is very adults can help. Creating child-centered programs breaks at least every four hours and in accordance with U. Teachers interactions with children are expressions of wholesome love that should be children: Why are they so important? Molding to the children: Primary caregiving that promotes consistency and continuity of caregivers/ and continuity of care. Children learning language: How number of caregivers/teachers who interact with any one adults can help. Infants have their own curriculum: A responsive c) Be play partners as well as protectors; approach to curriculum planning for infants and toddlers. Adults speech is one of the main chan specting, thinking, feeling, and loving person (3,6). The facility Infants and toddlers learn through meaningful relationships should provide opportunities for play that: and interaction with consistent adults and peers. Richness of language increases natural world; as it is nurtured by verbal interactions of the child with c) Help the child practice resolving conficts; adults and peers. For example, caregivers/teachers family and a cultural community; naming objects in the indoor and outdoor learning/play envi j) Promote sensory exploration. Learning to resolve conficts constructively in childhood is Advances Applied Dev Psychol 20:248. Children learning language: How and social environment that offers opportunities for active adults can help. The importance of play for developing cognitive for infants and toddlers, birth to 3 year olds, step by step: A skills, for maintaining an affective and intellectual equilib Program for children and families. The acoustic controls Building a peaceable classroom, A preschool-grade 3 violence prevention and confict resolution guide. Play and games in the peer of infants, separation is important for reasons of disease cultures of preschool and preadolescent children: An interpretative prevention. Child Family the frst year of life, indicating that respiratory tract illness 17:7-8. Early Childhood News 8 reducing the opportunity for routine and predictability (2), (March-April): 12-17. Infants and toddlers younger than three years of age should be cared for in a closed room(s) that separates them from Separation of groups of children by low partitions that divide older children, except in small family child care homes with a single common space is not acceptable. Scholastic Parent Child (August/ e) Increases the number of adults caring for infants and September). The child care health consultant provide outdoor diapering and toileting that meets all sanita should be considered a resource to assist is supporting tion requirements. Children who are recovering strates: from gastrointestinal illness might temporarily lose conti a) An understanding of the concept of cause and effect; nence, especially if they are recently toilet trained, and may b) An ability to communicate, including sign language; need to revert to diapers or training pants for a short period c) the physical ability to remain dry for up to two hours; of time. Toilet training problems: Underachievers, and to feel/understand the sense of elimination. The family may not be prepared, at the time, to extend this learning/training into the home environment (2). Holding back stool or urine can lead to constipa Chapter 2: Program Activities 60 Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards 2. The learning environment that supports individual differences, learning styles, abili Teacher Relationships for Three to Five-Year ties, and cultural values fosters confdence and curiosity in Olds learners (1,2). Relationships are fragmented by rapid staff dren to be physically active include pathways, trails, lawns, turnover, staffng reassignment, or if the child is frequently loose parts, anchored playground equipment, and layouts moved from one room to another or one child care facility to that stimulate all forms of active play (3). A cur Programs should foster a cooperative rather than a com riculum created to match preschoolers needs and interests petitive indoor and outdoor learning/play environment. The changing face of the United States: the Development of Three to Five-Year-Olds infuence of culture on early child development. Facilities that accept school-age children directly from Education Facility Planner 33:15-17. Parents/guardians should be engaged and Family Child Care Home their work commitments should be honored when planning program activities. National Association of Elementary School Principals, National program, but also offer time for children to complete home AfterSchool Association. If parents/guardians give written permission for Family Child Care Home the school-age child to participate in off-premises activities, Chapter 2: Program Activities 64 Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards the facility would no longer be responsible for the child dur f) Focusing on the positive rather than the negative ing the off-premises activity and not need to provide staff for to teach a child what is safe for the child and other the off-premises activity. Additionally, they must be able to state how many children are in their care at all times. Primary caregiving systems, small group sizes, and low child:staff ratios unique to infant/toddler settings support Developmentally appropriate child:staff ratios should be met staff in properly supervising infants and toddlers. Ultimately, than two staff members if more than six children are in carefully planned environments; staffng that supports care, even if the group otherwise meets the child:staff ratio. The supervi sion policies of centers and large family child care homes Children are going to be more active in the outdoor learning/ should be written policies. Parents/ Supervision of the playground is a strategy of watching all guardians have a contract with caregivers/teachers to su the children within a specifc territory and not engaging in pervise their children. To be available for supervision or res prolonged dialog with any one child or group of children cue in an emergency, an adult must be able to hear and see (or other staff). In case of fre, a supervising adult should not may facilitate outdoor learning/play activities and engage need to climb stairs or use a ramp or an elevator to reach in conversations with children about their exploration and the children. Facilitated play is where the adult is engaged in stable because they can be pathways for fre and smoke. To protect from physical injury, but from harm that can occur from top children from maltreatment, including sexual abuse, the ics discussed by children or by teasing/bullying/inappropri environment layout should limit situations in which an adult ate behavior. It is the responsibility of caregivers/teachers to or older child is left alone with a child without another adult monitor what children are talking about and intervene when present (3,4). Many instances have been reported where a child has Children like to test their skills and abilities. This is particu hidden when the group was moving to another location, larly noticeable around playground equipment. Even if the or where the child wandered off when a door was opened highest safety standards for playground layout, design and for another purpose. Regular counting of children (name to surfacing are met, serious injuries can happen if children face) will alert the staff to begin a search before the child are left unsupervised. Adults who are involved, aware, and gets too far, into trouble, or slips into an unobserved loca appreciative of young childrens behaviors are in the best tion. Caregivers/teach b) Establishing clear and simple safety rules; ers should do the counts before the group leaves an area c) Being aware of and scanning for potential safety and when the group enters a new area. The facility should hazards; assign and reassign counting responsibility as needed to d) Placing yourself in a strategic position so you are maintain a counting routine. Facilities might consider count able to adapt to the needs of the child; ing systems such as using a reminder tone on a watch or e) Scanning play activities and circulating around the musical clock that sounds at timed intervals (about every area; ffteen minutes) to help the staff remember to count. Intl J Injury Control and Safety toilet, as well as monitor the bathroom to make sure that the Promotion 14:122-24. Public toilet facilities without direct visual observation but must playground safety handbook.
Lighting should be dimmable so that Spaces used by the staff muscle relaxant orphenadrine buy tizanidine 2mg with mastercard, particularly teachers spasms trapezius buy tizanidine 2mg visa, should be located to spasms of the heart generic tizanidine 2mg with amex video materials may be viewed muscle relaxant otc meds buy tizanidine with paypal. Typically, this type of storage in the the staff use this space not only as a retreat, but also as a workroom. The base of such They eat, relax, and converse here, plan curriculum, and prepare classroom securely anchored cabinets must be no lower than 1370 mm above the materials. Provide a counter with a microwave, a sink with plumbing connections, at least an under-counter refrigerator, and cabinets. Furnishings include a table with four chairs, a small sofa, and storage (some Classroom Design of which is lockable). It affords facilities for the workroom must have adequate space and power connections for care functions and opportunities for developmentally appropriate activities. Isolate these machines acoustically may visit during the day or help out as volunteers. Provide space at the counter for a butcher paper holder and an art waxer (a piece 7. It is appropriate to position tables and work surfaces adjacent from each at either end of the center, are recommended. Toilets should be accessible from one adult, although there should also be a group gathering area. Recommended finishes include there need to be ?get away areas (alcove like) so children can be by impervious flooring such as linoleum and painted walls above an impervious themselves or in smaller groups. One adult toilet should be located in or near the infant and young convenient bins for recycling, at the least, suitable waste paper. Adult Major classroom elements will remain fixed, such as those requiring toilets should be provided with toilet seat cover dispensers. The classroom should provide flexibility for storage of curriculum materials and supplies and for storage of resource these activities. Limited areas of mirrored ceiling tiles, especially about infant areas are desirable. Where low shelves and partitions are used to separate use areas, they must be secured against tipping. A mixed z Classroom and teacher storage age classroom typically provides all elements needed for each age group. Where this is not possible, the classroom must ?borrow the maximum amount of natural z Cot storage light from areas that are located along an exterior wall which has windows. Classrooms require direct access to the central circulation system and as School-Age Classroom: direct as possible to the play yards. Infants and young toddlers must have classrooms z Entrance separate from other age groups. If windows are used they should also be located to allow z Visual separation adult supervision of the areas. General design principles include: z Separate classrooms: Groups of children must be physically sepa z Discreet functional areas need to be planned in the design of the class rated from each other. Sound transmission between classrooms should room even though they will be created primarily with furniture. High noise levels from adjoining z the circulation from equipment such as slides needs to flow away from classroom spaces can disrupt class activities and raise tension levels. Some noise transmission is desirable to allow children to be aware of z Block play is an essential activity and areas must be provided where other groups. Small, strategically placed windows between classrooms blocks can remain in position for more than a day. This means it must is recommended, to allow children the opportunity to view other class be protected from main circulation paths and active play. Placement of windows should not interfer with potential z Do not encumber the space with more tables than necessary for meal placement of classroom furniture. In terms of using the not feasible, at least one window at child and adult level should be pro minimum amount of circulation space, rectilinear tables arranged with grammed. Door locks, light switches, fire alarm and toileting/diapering areas must be clearly separated to diminish the pull stations, and other functional elements should retain adult scale and chance that a caregiver could inadvertently go directly from diapering to be mounted at standard heights. Partitions with vision panels spaces, and other areas of the center used by adults should remain at can be used effectively for this purpose to separate these areas while standard scale. In placing electrical/telecommunication or security equipment, ensure that cords and wire are not placed in such a 7. While the architectural form of the classroom should be an appropriate setting areas of high ceilings in a classroom may be desirable, in spaces which for a child, conveying a definite sense of place while preserving optimal the child perceives as too high to have a residential character (85% of flexibility, with the great majority of the space free of constructed elements. Higher activity levels are often encouraged by hung at no lower than 2285 mm above the occupied floor area below. The probability of higher construction costs must be consid long as headroom is not required for passage. In addition, this provides the opportunity and use up valuable open floor space when they become too large. When used effectively, level changes add interest and create intimate areas Window sills and counters used by children should be child height, for children. Terraces and platforms provide areas for socio-dramatic depending upon the age of the child using the space. Lofts that can mm beneath widow sills (measured to the classroom finish floor) so that accommodate 3-5 children can offer children many possible activities, furniture and equipment can be placed easily along exterior walls. The designer must keep in mind that low level changes can sometimes be a tripping hazard. Furnishings and equipment for children should be child-scaled, such as z Vary wall configurations: Consider modulating partitions to create toilets, hand-washing sinks, and countertops. Countertop height and reach interest, soften a space, to create a more nurturing impression, or to depth should provide children with the opportunities to use them unassisted. The designer z Provide visibility to the staff: Teachers must have an unrestricted must keep in mind that visibility of all areas within the classroom is a key view of the children at all times, both within the classroom and in the factor, so avoid creating ?blind areas that would make teacher supervi play yards. Any interior doors, with the exception of adult and z Locate plumbing fixtures in one area: Elements with plumbing con school-age toilet areas, must have visibility panels. Dutch doors are not nections, such as toilet areas and art sinks, should be grouped together recommended as they pose a hazard for finger pinching. Food preparation must and interior glazing allow visual supervision and allow children to be be separated from diapering and toilet areas, though it can be placed on aware of others in the center. Partitioning at the sides of toileting areas the opposite side of partitions with plumbing. Include devices for display of artwork that do not involve tacks There must be gates with view panels in infant and toddler classrooms to (because they are dangerous around young children) and tape (because prevent children from accessing kitchen and diaper areas. Zone high-activity areas, such as the features such as low partitions in back of cubbies to create the nurturing entrance, eating/table areas, and the exit to the play yard, away from corner spaces. Likewise ?messy ar z Provide natural light: the successful use of natural light benefits cen eas and ?clean areas should be considered by the designer and zoned ters by reducing total energy use for lighting while improving the indoor to provide appropriate separation. Data from two studies on school en vironments, which have similar characteristics to child care centers, Figure 7. Views to atria and planters, common spaces, other classrooms, and circulating pathways also are of benefit. These purchased cubbies are typically approximately 305 mm wide, 305 mm deep, and 455 mm high. The Parents may wish to leave collapsible umbrella strollers or other child entrance must meet all emergency egress requirements. Rods for this purpose classroom entrance, either to the main circulation path or to the play yards, should be provided here or near the reception area, but screened to avoid should be considered and may be required for egress, depending on center the appearence of clutter. Place the entrance along a wall, leaving valuable corners every five children and install at approximately 1370 mm to 1525 mm above available for activity areas. If a double storage rod is needed, install the top rod at about main circulation area to classrooms. Near the classroom door, there must 2130 mm and the bottom rod at about 1065 mm above the floor. Provide a be a sign-in counter (with storage below) at approximately 845 mm above retaining rail to keep the lower ends of the strollers in place. They may again need their outdoor backpacks used by children to carry personal items. Satchels and clothing at times during the day to go to the play yard or on excursions and backpacks may be stored on hooks.
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By contrast muscle relaxant reversal drugs buy cheap tizanidine, estimates of both incidence and mortality rates in 2007 (132) suggest that the disease may be on the verge of a downswing muscle relaxant 2 buy tizanidine 2 mg mastercard. The inability to muscle relaxant on cns discount tizanidine online visa control this disease has been called ?a colossal failure of public health (1) spasms in legs cheap tizanidine online amex. Tuberculous meningitis and disseminated (miliary) tuberculosis the two most common and most severe forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis occur in about 25% of children with tuberculosis and are rapidly fatal without treatment (1). The problem is that tuberculosis in children is very diffcult to diagnose and often remains undetected. The disease is so rapidly fatal, that diagnosis can only 149 Part 2: Diseases and their vaccines be attempted in the earliest stages of the disease. But at that stage, the symptoms are not specifc, x-rays show no evidence of disease, and tuberculin skin tests are negative in about 40% of cases (1). Under-reporting and poor record-keeping compound the diffculty of gathering incidence or mortality data. Given to more than 100 million infants in 194 countries in 2002, the vaccine would have prevented more than 40 000 cases of tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis in children under fve years of age. This has, in fact, long been the strategy adopted by several countries, including the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. To most tuberculosis experts, it is clear that a new, more consistently effective vaccine is needed that protects not only against the disease in childhood but against pulmonary tuberculosis in adults. Several candidate vaccines are in early-stage clinical trials and are being tested for safety, immunogenicity, and early indicators of effcacy (134, 135). Typhoid fever vaccines ready and waiting Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, is caused by one of the most virulent bacteria to attack the human gut. Commonly spread via contaminated water and food, the causative bacterium, Salmonella typhi, thrives in unsanitary conditions, particularly where clean water is lacking. Through the gut, the organism infects the bloodstream, altering brain function in some cases, and often resulting in death. Before the advent of antibiotics, the symptoms of typhoid fever typically, persistent high fever, abdominal pain, malaise, and headache usually lasted several weeks and in many cases culminated in death. Today, in industrialized countries, typhoid fever has ceased to be a problem, thanks to improved hygiene and a clean water supply. In a comprehensive study relating to the incidence of typhoid fever in fve countries in Asia, it was reported that incidence in highly-endemic countries is similar in children 2?5 years of age as in school-aged children 5?15 years of age and adolescents (137). At that time, its hold on industrialized countries had begun to slacken in the face of improved sanitation. Cases still occurred though, often in outbreak situations, and among high-risk population groups, such as migrant groups. The continued occurrence of the disease and the fear engendered by its high mortality rate 10?20% of infections resulted in death (1) combined to fuel the search for a cure and a means of prevention. A cure came in the form of antimicrobial drugs; prevention in the form of vaccines. However, the frequency and severity of the adverse effects they caused dissuaded many countries from using them. These shortcomings, combined with drug treatment failures, which had escalated in previous years as a result of increasingly widespread resistance to antibiotic therapy, intensifed the quest for a more effective vaccine. Before the end of the 20th century, two new-generation typhoid vaccines had entered the scene. One, named ?Ty21a and frst licensed in 1983, is given in three to four oral doses (136) and consists of a live but genetically modifed S. The second, named ?Vi and licensed in 1994, is given by injection and consists of a sugar molecule (polysaccharide) located on the surface of the bacterium (138). In clinical trials and early feld use, the duration of effcacy of both vaccines varied to some degree. Moreover, no evidence of effcacy has been reported in children under two years of age. On a positive note, both vaccines are licensed, internationally available, and safe, and both are effective enough not only to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever in endemic areas but also to control outbreaks. Price was initially thought to be a barrier to adoption of the vaccines by developing countries. In most of these countries, vaccination will be confned to high-risk population groups, such as school-age and preschool-age children, particularly in areas where antibiotic-resistant strains of S. Which of the two vaccines a country chooses depends on the capacity, logistics, and cultural context of its immunization programme. One is a Vi conjugate vaccine that protects about 85% of recipients, according to late-stage clinical trials, and appears to be effective in children under two years of age. A second candidate vaccine, further back in the R&D pipeline, is, like Ty21a, a live attenuated vaccine but, unlike Ty21a, can be given in a single oral dose. Vaccine scientists point out, though, that these newer typhoid vaccines have still several years to go before reaching the market. Action against the daily toll of disease and death from typhoid fever in endemic populations is needed now and, although current new generation vaccines may not be perfect, they are available to meet that need. Varicella and herpes zoster a single virus that can linger for a lifetime Varicella, commonly known as chickenpox, is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (a member of the herpesvirus family), which was frst identifed in 1952 (139). The same virus, when reactivated from a latent state in nerve cells causes another disease herpes zoster, or shingles. In most populations, varicella is a disease of children, and herpes zoster a disease of elderly people. However, the epidemiology of disease can vary, especially in tropical countries where infection and varicella may occur more often in older age groups. The hallmark symptom of varicella is an itchy rash, consisting of blister-like vesicles. Seventeenth century medical documents describe chickenpox as a mild form of smallpox (139) but in 1767 the English physician William Heberden showed that the two diseases are distinct (1). It spreads from person-to-person through direct contact, or from the virus being sneezed or coughed into the air or released from the vesicles on the skin. The most common, and sometimes life-threatening, complications of varicella are bacterial infections of the skin, which can occasionally become severe through spread to contiguous or distant parts of the body (1). Other bacterial infections (pneumonia, or infection of the bones or bloodstream), neurological conditions (uncontrollable muscle movement or brain infammation), and infammatory conditions (of the liver, kidneys, heart, or testicles) are prominent on the list of complications from varicella (139, 1). In pregnant women, the infection can cause congenital limb foetal abnormalities, brain damage, and death. Varicella infection itself induces lifelong immunity to chickenpox in virtually everyone whose immune system is working normally (139). In the United States alone, 43 million people are believed to be at risk of herpes zoster (1). Herpes zoster is characterized by a painful blistering rash along the distribution of the infected nerve cells (139). In many elderly people the rash and pain subside and resolve completely in a few weeks. In about 15% of patients, though, pain and numbness in the area of the rash can last for weeks or months. In addition, 8?15% of people suffer permanent neurological damage, impaired vision, or problems of bowel or bladder function (1, 139). Elderly people and immunocompromised people run the highest risk of developing herpes zoster. Since the same virus causes varicella, people with herpes zoster constitute a source of varicella outbreaks among unvaccinated children and other non-immune population groups. Treatment with antiviral drugs is effective if started soon after the onset of herpes zoster. However, accurate diagnosis at that stage of the infection is diffcult and in most cases antiviral treatment is begun too late to be of optimal beneft (1). In 2005, a vaccine against herpes zoster was licensed for use in people over 60 years of age. Some herpes zoster experts believe younger age groups such as people in their 50s, who account for almost 20% of herpes zoster cases could beneft from the vaccine (1). However, in 2006, an estimate based on the incidence of varicella in industrialized countries gave a total worldwide estimate of 90 million cases a year (1).
Psychological Evaluation of the Patient with Chronic Pain 93 Claudia Schulz-Gibbins Management of Acute Pain 14 muscle relaxant examples tizanidine 2mg free shipping. Pharmacological Management of Pain in Obstetrics 123 Katarina Jankovic iii iv Contents Management of Cancer Pain 18 muscle relaxant bodybuilding discount tizanidine 2mg mastercard. Hematologic Cancer with Nausea and Vomiting 169 Justin Baker spasms sphincter of oddi best tizanidine 2mg, Paul Ribeiro spasms with broken ribs purchase tizanidine 2mg with amex, and Javier Kane Management of Neuropathic Pain 23. Pain Management Considerations in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding 235 Michael Paech 32. Breakthrough Pain, the Pain Emergency, and Incident Pain 277 Gona Ali and Andreas Kopf 37. The Role of Acupuncture in Pain Management 307 Natalia Samoilova and Andreas Kopf Planning and Organizing Pain Management 42. Setting up Guidelines for Local Requirements 329 Uriah Guevara-Lopez and and Alfredo Covarrubias-Gomez Pearls of Wisdom 45. Unfortunately, however, a large government priorities for pain management as the sec number of those who su? Almost as people of developing countries, do not receive treat many reported that a fear of addiction to opioids among ment for acute and, more especially, chronic pain. It also pro workforce in developing countries?not only doctors vides background knowledge and advice on the man and nurses, but district o? Professor Sir Michael Bond Glasgow, Scotland August 2009 vii Introduction Pain is widely undertreated, causing su? All health care workers will see patients suf forts by health care professionals to control pain, and fering from pain. Pain is the main reason for seeking the development of programs to generate experts in medical help. Additionally, clinical and basic sci cal worker needs to have basic knowledge about the ence research is to be encouraged to provide better pathophysiology of pain and should be able to use at care in the future. Unlike ?special pain that pain control receives high priority in the health management, which should be reserved for specialist care system. In low-resource settings, many health care The main focus of the Guide is to address the follow workers have little or no access to basic, practical in ing four pain syndromes: acute post-traumatic post formation. Indeed, many have come to rely on obser operative pain, cancer pain, neuropathic pain, and vation, on advice from colleagues, and on building chronic noncancer pain. Tese barriers practical availability of information is due to several include lack of pain education and a lack of emphasis factors, including unequal distribution of Internet ac on pain management and pain research. In addition, cess, and also a failure of international development when pain management does feature in government policies and initiatives, which have tended to focus health priorities, there are fears of opioid addiction, on innovative approaches for higher-level health pro the high cost of certain drugs, and in some cases, poor fessionals and researchers while ignoring, relatively patient compliance. In developing countries, the avail speaking, other approaches that remain essential for able resources for health care understandably focus on the vast majority of primary and district health work the prevention and treatment of ?killer diseases. The information poverty of health workers in most such disease conditions are accompanied by un low-resource settings is exacerbating what is clearly a relieved pain, which is why pain control matters in the public health emergency. The availability of health information may the world, the majority of cancer patients present with ix x Introduction advanced disease the only realistic treatment option concise and up-to-date-information in a novel curricu is pain relief and palliative care. It will also serve in the future, palliative instead of curative approaches to medical faculties by suggesting core curriculum topics treatment should be encouraged. It is believed that However, it is a sad reality that the medicines the project will encourage medical colleges to integrate that are essential for relieving pain often are not avail these educational objectives into their local student and able or accessible. It will provide the non-pain spe them published in major medical and science journals, cialist with basic relevant information?in a form that about the de? Terefore, non-pain specialist and other health care providers, in this book will encourage the management of patients cluding nurses and clinical sta? They have (now the Developing Countries Working Group) was tried to project their thoughts into particular situations founded to encourage ongoing medical education and and settings: ?Can I cope with what is expected of me, clinical training in low-resource countries and is sup working as a doctor or nurse or health care provider in porting local e? The ed a developing country and facing a wide range of pain ucational grant program, the ?Initiative for Improving problems? The pur cation about pain and its treatment in developing coun pose is to provide the reader with various approaches to tries by providing educational support grants. Tese the management of some common pain management grants are intended to improve the scope and availabil problems. Follow on the review of available literature and experience in ing a joint proposal by the University of Nairobi (N. Terefore, knowledge about the local charac ports, as well as valuable literature suggestions for fur teristics of pain and treatment-related modalities is ther reading, will, we hope, make the Guide a helpful scarce, which has made it di? All readers the relevance of some of the topics but will, we hope, are invited to contribute to the improvement of further not limit the usefulness of the Guide. The authors, editions by sending their comments and suggestions to with their wide international background, have tried the editors. Refresher the general terms and requirements of good pain man courses, workshops, medical schools, conferences, agement, and possibly revised editions as well as edi and schools of anesthesia usually have not actively tions in other common languages. Andreas Kopf, Berlin, Germany Nilesh Patel, Nairobi, Kenya September 2009 The guide is dedicated to Professor Mohammed Omar Taw? Contributing Authors Comments and questions to the editors and authors via email are welcomed. University Medicine Department of Anesthesiology Gottingen, Germany Charite University Hospitals michael. In the New Testa history of pain, ?supernatural powers played an equally ment, Jesus Christ? On the other hand, a purely medi say about pain, an approach based only on a physiologi cal theory based on natural phenomena independent of cal concept does not take into account the religious or divine powers developed very early on. Pain was perceived in the heart?an assumption from the French philosopher Rene Descartes (1596 familiar to ancient Egyptians. In his concept, the former assumption that pain in pharaonic times believed that the composition of was represented in the heart was relinquished. The intro The question of how pain should be treated has duction of ancient medical knowledge into medieval led to di? If supernatural pow Europe was mainly mediated through Arabic medicine, ers had to be pleased to get rid of pain, certain magi which also added its own contributions. For a long time, opium was used in various prep trophes and pain in the story of Job. This material may be used for educational 3 and training purposes with proper citation of the source. During the can Civil War (1861?1865), when cases of morphine late 18th to the mid-19th century, the natural sciences dependence and abuse appeared. Terefore, at the a cornerstone of modern medicine because it allowed beginning of the 20th century, societal anxiety regard improvements in medical treatment. It was modern an ing the use of morphine became strong and developed esthesia in particular that promoted the development of into opiophobia. General anesthesia using ether was introduced was a major step backwards for pain management in successfully in Boston on October 16, 1846, by the phy the following decades. The im Wars stimulated pain research because soldiers portance of this discovery, not only for surgery but for returned home with complex pain syndromes, which the scienti? Following his experience after 1915 and Revealer of Inhalation Anesthesia: Before Whom, in during the First World War, the French surgeon Rene All Time, Surgery was Agony; By Whom, Pain in Sur Leriche (1879?1955) began to concentrate on ?pain gery was Averted and Annulled; Since Whom, Science surgery, mainly addressing the autonomic nervous has Control of Pain. Leriche applied methods of regional anesthe would vanish from mankind just by applying anesthe sia (in? Surgery itself changed to procedures that were not blockade) as well as surgery, particularly periarterial necessarily connected with a high level of pain. Surgeons had more time to as a necessary evil but also criticized the reductionist perform operations, and patients were no longer forced scienti? One year later, as a disease in its own right (?douleur-maladie), not in 1847, chloroform was used for the? In Vienna, the physi therapy applied by the French surgeon Victor Pauchet cian Carl Koller (1857?1944) discovered the anesthetic (1869?1936). Trough Louis Gas neurologist James Leonard Corning (1855?1923) and ton Labat (1876?1934), a physician from Paris who the German surgeon August Bier (1861?1949) carried later practiced in the United States, his wisdom be out trials of spinal anesthesia with cocaine solutions.