Persons over 2 years of age who sleep in the same bed with the infested child should be treated regardless blood pressure log template purchase plendil 5mg mastercard. Removal of the nits the Mississippi State Department of Health recommends that you attempt to heart attack water discount plendil line remove the nits to hypertension high blood pressure purchase plendil 5 mg overnight delivery avoid reinfestation by those nits hatching that may have been missed by the treatment quit your blood pressure medication in 8 weeks purchase plendil 2.5 mg online. The nits can be removed by dividing the hair in to sections and working each section separately. Look for small grayish-white or yellowish-brown specks that are attached to the hair shaft close to the scalp. Non-washables can be dry cleaned or s to red in an airtight plastic bag for 2 weeks. Child Care Facilities Licensure Signature: Date Current through the Mississippi Administrative Rules Listing of Filings, dated April 2014. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. This work is usually performed on an honorary basis and in addition to their usual work commitments. Spend ng t me n ch ld care centres or other fac l t es and be ng exposed to a large number of ch ldren for some t me, prov des an opportun ty for nfect ous d seases to be spread. For th s reason, the nfect on control process must • Common cold always be followed by all people n the ch ld • Mumps care centre. All of these • Whoop ng cough (Pertuss s) organ sms are to o small to see w th the • Pneumococcal d sease naked eye. We can prevent llness at th s stage by prevent ng entry to the body (for example, • Molluscum contag osum by mak ng sure all to ys that ch ldren put • r ngworm n the r mouths are clean, hav ng ch ldren, • School sores (impet go) parents and staff wash and dry the r hands, cover ng wounds) and by mmun sat on. Hands-free taps and l qu d soap d spensers w ll reduce the opportun t es for cross if these are not done properly, the many contam nat on. Pay part cular attent on to wash the palms Hand washing and backs of hands, n between fngers, under fnger nails and around wr sts. Hand washing • r nse your hands thoroughly is one of the most effective ways to remove all suds and germs. Educat ng staff to wash and dry • Pat dry your hands w th a new paper the r hands effect vely decreases the amount to wel. Cracked or infamed skin to welettes or wet d sposable cloths, then pat s harder to clean properly and may become dry w th paper to wel. Soaps, to wels and lotion Prolonged contact w th water softens the sk n l qu d soap d spensers and d sposable paper and makes t more suscept ble to rr tat on. Do not use barr er have a role f proper hand wash ng fac l t es cream on damaged sk n. D sposable paper to wel s frequent use of soap and water may rr tate the preferred opt on. Hands may bab es’ bottles; also become contam nated dur ng removal • Before eat ng; of gloves. Parents may fnd an exclusion ruling diffcult When to wash the children’s hands and some parents may place great pressure on the d rec to r to vary from the centre’s • When they arr ve at the centre. Somet mes doc to rs • refer to the table on page 7 for the make d fferent d agnoses for ch ldren n the recommended m n mum per ods same centre w th llnesses that appear s m lar. Condition Exclusion of Case Exclusion of Contacts Amoebiasis Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel Not excluded (Entamoeba his to lytica) motion for 24 hours Campylobacter Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel Not excluded motion for 24 hours Candidiasis See ‘Thrush’ Chickenpox (Varicella) Exclude until all blisters have dried. This is Any child with an immune defciency usually at least 5 days after the rash frst (for example, leukaemia) or receiving appeared in unimmunised children and less in chemotherapy should be excluded immunised children. Hepatitis A Exclude until a medical certifcate of recovery Not excluded is received, but not before seven days after the onset of jaundice. Non-immunised contacts of a case are to be excluded from child care until 14 days after the frst day of appearance of rash in the last case, unless immunised within 72 hours of frst contact during the infectious period with the frst case. If antibiotics have not been taken, these contacts must be excluded for 21 days after their last exposure to the case while the person was infectious. D phther a can cause a membrane to grow around the ns de if the ch ld s vacc nated, make sure that of the throat, which can lead to diffculty the ch ld has rece ved all the vacc nat ons n swallow ng, breathlessness and suffocat on. Vom t ng often grade fever, poss bly w th a rash, occurr ng follows a cough ng spasm. Pol o may cause m ld symp to ms or very severe llness nclud ng mumps permanent cr ppl ng. Pneumococcal s to make sure that all women have been bacter a are commonly carr ed n the back mmun sed before they become pregnant, of the throat and nose of healthy ch ldren and to mmun se all ch ldren to s to p the and adults. It may Ch ckenpox starts w th cold-l ke symp to ms cause nfect on of the membranes cover ng such as a runny nose, m ld fever, cough and the bra n (men ng t s), swell ng n the throat fat gue followed by a rash. Ch ldren w th other need another dose or two depend ng upon med cal cond t ons are at r sk of develop ng where n austral a they l ve, and f they have other l fe-threaten ng compl cat ons such any r sk fac to rs wh ch dent fy them as be ng as pneumonia or infammation of the at greater r sk of pneumococcal d sease. Hepatitis a vaccination • abor g nal and to rres Stra t islander ch ldren n h gh r sk areas (Queensland, northern terr to ry, Western austral a and South austral a) are offered two doses of hepat t s a vacc nat on 6 months apart start ng at e ther 12 months or 18 months of age, depend ng on where they l ve. Serious adverse by droplets; causes severe throat and release a to xin, which can produce nerve events are very rare, and much less breathing diffculties. Hib contagious bacteria spread About 1 in 20 meningitis patients by droplets; causes meningitis, epiglottitis dies and about 1 in 4 survivors has About 1 in 20 has discomfort or local (respira to ry obstruction), septicaemia, permanent brain or nerve damage. Infuenza contagious virus spread Causes increased hospitalisation in the About 1 in 10 has local reactions. About 1 in 100 Measles highly infectious virus spread For every 10 children who develop develops a rash which is non-infectious. Of those that survive, 1 in 30 has severe sepsis (infection of the blood stream) skin scarring or loss of limbs, and 1 in 30 Conjugate vaccine: About 1 in 10 has and meningitis (infection of the tissues has severe brain damage. Polysaccharide vaccine: Less than Pneumococcal infections bacteria 1 in 20 has pain or local reaction. Somet mes a small, hard lump • loss of appet te; may pers st for some weeks or months. If the child covers in the family is sick, watch for signs their mouth with their hands, ask the of illness in the child; and child to wash and dry their hands • If a child vomits or has diarrhoea, afterwards. A pho to copy of this form until after you have washed your should be kept in the child’s file. You may wish to include further information, for example, the action taken (exclusion for four days, review of nappy changing practices etc. Parent contacted by at (t me). Follow the reasons for ch ldren to see a doc to r and nstruct ons on the bottle or box. The defnition of a fever ibubrofen s another over-the-counter s an oral (mouth) temperature greater than med cat on that s somet mes used 37. Many s to mach upset, gastr c bleed ng and people worry as soon as a ch ld gets a fever, s assoc ated w th a rare but potent ally and th nk they must mmed ately try to br ng fatal cond t on called reye’s Syndrome. Fever s a s gn that keeping records suggests there s an nfect on, and s a s gn that the body is fghting the infection. Parents and at the recommended temperature must not leave med cat on n the ch ld’s. Play germs Pdough has a h gh salt content wh ch d scourages germs from l v ng and mult ply ng. Wash the r hands w th soap and water, and dry thoroughly; or Nappy changing and b) Cough or sneeze in to their upper to ileting sleeve, or elbow, not n to the r hands. D sposable napp es may reduce the r sk of nfect ons as d sposable napp es do not ‘leak’as eas ly as cloth napp es and are able to be d sposed of mmed ately. Every t me a ch ld has the r nappy changed, • always wear gloves when chang ng germs are put on the change table. By plac ng a p ece of paper on the change table many of the germs from the ch ld are • remove the ch ld’s nappy and put t kept on the paper and do not contam nated n a ‘hands-free’ l dded b n. Use ch ld’s use, ensure the parent also prov des paper to wel for clean ng and dry ng the ‘plast c pants’ to help prevent faeces, and surface. Wear ng • if faecal matter sp lls on to the change cloth ng over plast c pants also reduces table (mat) clean w th detergent and the number of germs from the bowel be ng warm water, dry w th paper to wel. Most germs do not surv ve for long on clean surfaces when exposed to a r and l ght.
It is advisable to pulse pressure over 80 order plendil us administer plasma (15 – 30 mL/kg based on coagulation screening) at the end of plasmapheresis (Kaplan 1999) blood pressure 200 over 100 purchase plendil 10 mg fast delivery. Pro-thrombin complex (4 fac to blood pressure juicing proven plendil 10mg r concentrate) is given in the case of severe bleeding hypertension effects purchase 10 mg plendil amex. Tapering fibrinolytics It is recommended to administer tranexamic acid and repeat it after six hours if necessary. Level 3 C Kaplan 1999 Tranexamic acid is the component of choice for tapering anti-fibrinolytics. In the case of procedures, it is recommended to take in to consideration the dilution coagulopathy due to plasmapheresis treatment with a daily frequency (or every other day) without plasma as substitution liquid. Treatment with plasma does not have a role in vitamin K deficiency and/or the tapering of oral anti-coagulants(vit. If this does not provide sufficient result, extra supportive measures may be necessary. Sometimes large quantities of plasma are necessary to supplement the clotting fac to rs. In American literature, cryo-precipitate is often administered, but this is not available in the Netherlands and fibrinogen concentrate is an option for the reduction of the amount of plasma required (10 – 15 mL plasma/kg body weight is required for a 0. There is hardly any research available to make evidence-based choices in relation to the indication (Bianco 1999). D Bianco 1999 There is hardly any research available to make considered choices for a certain plasma preparation in relation to the indication. Further research is essential to be able to recommend the optimal plasma component in relation to indication and patient. A randomized, controlled trial of platelet transfusions in thrombocy to penic premature infants. The platelet hyporeactivity of extremely low birth weight neonates is age-dependent. Platelet transfusion practices among neona to logists in the United States and Canada: results of a survey. How I transfuse red blood cells and platelets to infants with the anemia and thrombocy to penia of prematurity. Non-invasive antenatal management of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocy to penia: safe and effective. Parallel randomized trials of risk-based therapy for fetal alloimmune thrombocy to penia. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocy to penia: harvesting the evidence to develop a clinical approach to management. Comparison of platelet counts in first and second newborns of women with immune thrombocy to penic purpura. The role of percutaneous blood sampling in the management of immune thrombocy to penic purpura. Idiopathic thrombocy to penic purpura: a practie guideline developed by explicit methods for the American Society of Hema to logy. Idiopathic thrombocy to penic purpura: a guideline for diagnosis and management of children and adults. Guidelines on the investigation and management of thrombocy to penia in pregnancy and neonatal alloimmune thrombocy to penia. Maternal and neonatal haemostasis and thrombosis Task force of the British Society for Haema to logy. Medical treatments for idiopathic thrombocy to penic purpura during pregnancy Cochrane review 2009;4. Maternal characteristics and risk of severe neonatal thrombocy to penia and intracranial hemorrhage in pregnancies complicated by au to immune thrombocy to penia. Estimation of thrombocy to penia in the offspring of pregnant women with presumed immune thrombocy to penia. Relationships between severe neonatal thrombocy to penia and maternal characteristics in pregnancies associated with au to immune thrombocy to penia. A retrospective 11-year analysis of obstetric patients with idiopathic thrombocy to penic purpura. Strauss How do I transfuse red blood cells and platelets to infants with anemia and a thrombocy to penia of prematurity. A therapeutic platelet transfusion strategy is safe and feasible in patients after au to logous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The prophylactic treatment of thrombocy to penic leukemic patients with platelets: a double blind study. Randomised study of prophylactic platelet transfusion treshold during induction therapy for adult acute leukemia: 10. The treshold for prophylactic platele t transfusions in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Prophylactic platelet transfusion for haemorrhage after chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. Transfusion guidelines for neonates and older children Br J Haema to l 2004;124: 433-53. A restrictive platelet transfusion policy allowing long-term support of outpatients with severe aplastic anemia. Transfusion guidelines for neonates and older children Br J Haema to l 2004;124: 433-53 3. Treatment of immune-mediated thrombocy to penia purpura with concurrent intravenous immunoglobulin and platelet transfusion: a retrospective review of 40 patients. Transfusion guidelines for neonates and older children Br J Haema to l 2004;124: 433-53 Literature 6. Traumatic lumbar puncture at diagnosis adversely affects outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Risk fac to rs for traumatic and bloody lumbar puncture in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Safety of lumbar puncture for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and thrombocy to penia. Prophylactic platelet transfusions in children with acute leukemia: a dose response study. Antepartum diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage due to maternal Bernard Soulier syndrome. Correction of the platelet adhesion defect in fi s to rage pool deficiency at elevated hema to crit-possible role of adenosine diphosphate. The frequency of bleeding complications in patients with haema to logical malignancy following introduction of a stringent prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. A prospective randomisezed trial of a prophylactic platelet transfusion trigger of 10 x 109/l versus 30 x 109/l in allogeneic hema to poietic progeni to r cell transplantation recipients. The quantitative relation between platelet count and hemorrhage in patients with acute leukemia N. Clinical results of a stringent policy on prophylactic platelet transfusion: non-randomized omparative analysis in 190 bone marrow transplant patients from a single institution. Safety of a stringent prophylactic platelet transfusion policy for patients with acute leukaemia Lancet 1991;338: 1223-6. Clinical effectivenedd of leuko-reduced, pooled donor platelet concentrates, s to red in plasma or additive solutions with and without pathogen reduction. Prophylactic platelet transfusion treshold during therapy for adult myeloid leukemia: 10. Acute bleeding complications in patients after hema to poietic stem cell transplantation with prophylactic platelet transfusion triggers of 10 x 10(9) and 20 x 10(9) per L. Profound thrombocy to penia and survival of hema to poietic stem cell transplant patients without clinically significant bleeding, using prophylactic platelet transfusion triggers of 10 x 109 or 20 x 109 per L. The treshold for prophylactic platelet transfusions in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Thrombocy to penia: Mechanisms and management of defects in platelet productionClin Haema to l 1978;7:532. Relationship between platelet count and bleeding risk in thrombocy to penic patients. Safety and cost effectiveness of a 10 x 109/l trigger for prophylactic platelet transfusionscompared with the traditional 20 x 109/l trigger: a prospective comparative trial in 105 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. A prospective randomised trial of prophylactic platelet transfusion and bleeding incidence in haema to poietic stem cell transplant recipients: 10. Loer or higher dosis for prophylaxic platelet transfusions: results of a meta analysis of randomized controlled trials.
In addition arteria interossea communis buy cheap plendil 2.5 mg on-line, many new dosage a tranquilizer and a hypotensive agent blood pressure medication guide generic 2.5 mg plendil overnight delivery, is an strengths and dosage forms of previously example of a medicinal chemical isolated by approved drugs blood pressure 3 readings purchase discount plendil on line, new generic products heart attack pulse order 10 mg plendil with amex, and design from the folklore remedy Rauwolfia new biologics are approved each year. Another plant drug, periwinkle, Not all drugs are discovered, developed, or Vinca rosea, was first scientifically investi and first approved in the United States. Many gated as a result of its reputation in folklore pharmaceutical companies do drug R&D as an agent useful in the treatment of diabe in other countries, and many drugs are first tes mellitus. Many of the world’s largest two potent drugs that, when screened for pharmaceutical companies are multinational pharmacologic activity, surprisingly exhib firms with facilities for R&D, manufacturing, ited antitumor capabilities. Another do not occur simultaneously, as they are sub example, paclitaxel (Taxol), prepared from an ject to the laws, regulations, and requirements extract of the Pacific yew tree, is used in the peculiar to each country’s governing author treatment of ovarian cancer. Common For example, the various species of Dioscorea, to each technique is the ability to manipulate popularly known as Mexican yams, are rich and produce proteins, the building blocks of in the chemical steroid structure from which living matter. Proteins are an almost infinite cortisone and estrogens are semisynthetically source of drugs. It has the poten substances, such as thyroid extract, insulin, tial to produce almost any protein. Genetic and pituitary hormone obtained from the material can be transplanted from higher endocrine glands of cattle, sheep, and swine, species, such as humans, in to a lowly bacte are lifesaving drugs used daily as replace rium. The urine the lower organism to make proteins it of pregnant mares is a rich source of estro would not otherwise have made. Knowledge of the structural architec products as human insulin, human growth ture of the individual hormonal substances hormone, hepatitis B vaccine, epoetin alfa, has produced a variety of synthetic and semi and interferon are being produced in this synthetic compounds with hormone-like manner. The synthetic chemicals used as oral binant biopharmaceutical approved in the contraceptives are notable examples. Today the poliomyelitis exploits the ability of cells with the potential vaccine is prepared in cultures of renal mon to produce a desired antibody and stimulates key tissue, the mumps and influenza vac an unending stream of pure antibody pro cines in fluids of chick embryo, the rubella duction. These antibodies have the capacity (German measles) vaccine in duck embryo, to combat the specific target. A goal Drug Human gene therapy, used to prevent, In theory, a goal drug would produce the treat, cure, diagnose, or mitigate human dis specifically desired effect, be administered eases caused by genetic disorders, is another by the most desired route (generally orally) promising new technology. The human body at minimal dosage and dosing frequency, contains up to 100,000 genes. Base pairs of adenine and thymine body efficiently, completely, and without (A and T, respectively) and cy to sine and gua residual effect. It would also be easily pro nine (C and G, respectively) constitute the duced at low cost, pharmaceutically elegant, instructions on a gene. Only genes neces and physically and chemically stable in vari sary for a specific cell’s function are active or ous conditions of use and s to rage. When a gene is expressed, a spe not completely attainable in practice, these cific type of protein is produced. In genetic qualities and features are sought in drug and diseases, gene expression may be altered dosage form design. Gene therapy is a medical intervention Although some drugs may be the result of based on the modification of the genetic fortui to us discovery, most drugs are the material of living cells. Cells may be modi result of carefully designed research pro fied outside the body (ex vivo) for subsequent grams of screening, molecular modification, administration, or they may be modified and mechanism-based drug design (11–13, within the body (in vivo) by gene therapy 22–25). In Random or untargeted screening involves either case, gene therapy entails the trans the testing of large numbers of synthetic fer of new genetic material to the cells of a organic compounds or substances of natural patient with a genetic disease. The intention is formed in vitro using cell cultures to test the the interaction of the drug with specific cell new agent’s effect against enzyme systems recep to rs, enzyme systems, or the metabolic or tumor cells, whereas subsequent bioas processes of pathogens or tumor cells, result says may be performed in vivo and may use ing in a blocking, disruption, or reversal of more expensive and disease-specific animal the disease process. Molecular graphics, the use of chemical compounds a week using 10 to computer graphics to represent and manip 20 biologic assays (23). To be effective, this ulate the structure of the drug molecule to requires a sizable and chemically diverse fit the simulated molecular structure of the collection of compounds to examine, which recep to r site, is a useful complementary to ol many pharmaceutical and chemical compa in drug molecule design. Frequently An example of mechanism-based drug these libraries, which may contain hundreds design is the compound enalaprilat, the of thousands of compounds, are purchased active metabolite of enalapril (Vasotec), or licensed from academic or commercial which inhibits the angiotensin-converting sources. Another ized organic compound (frequently a lead example is ranitidine (Zantac), an inhibi to r compound; see "A Lead Compound") for of histamine at the histamine H2-recep to rs, the purpose of enhancing its usefulness as a including recep to rs on the gastric cells. This could mean enhancing its specific inhibits gastric acid secretion, making the ity for a particular body target site, increas drug effective in the treatment of gastric ing its potency, improving its rate and extent ulcers and other gastrointestinal conditions of absorption, modifying to advantage its related to the production of gastric acid. A time course in the body, reducing its to xicity, third example is sertraline (Zoloft), which or changing its physical or chemical proper inhibits the central nervous system’s neu ties. Knowledge of chemical structure– pharmacologic activity relationships plays A lead compound is a pro to type chemical an important role in designing new drug compound that has a fundamental desired molecules. Although new chemical entities and improved thera active, the lead compound may not possess peutic agents. Thus, the medicinal chemist may propranolol, and the first commercial hista seek to modify the lead compound’s chemi mine H2-recep to r blocking agent, cimetidine. Drug Develop Res 1984;4:375–389; through Pharmaceutical Research: Therapeutic and Economic Value of Incremental Improvements, 1990;12. The results are additional H2-antagonists from the pioneer modified chemical compounds capable of drug cimetidine, and the large series of having different interactions with the body’s antianxiety drugs derived from the benzo recep to rs, thereby eliciting different actions diazepine structure and the innova to r drug and intensities of action. The synthesis of derivatives of the pro to Most drugs exhibit activities secondary type chemical may ultimately lead to suc to their primary pharmacologic action. It is cessive generations of new compounds of fairly common to take advantage of a second the same pharmacologic type. For example, the drug finaste deep intramuscular injection, the molecule ride (Proscar) was originally developed and provides a sustained effect that lasts up to approved to treat benign prostatic hyperpla 4 weeks. Later, the same drug (as Propecia) was approved at a lower recommended dosage to Biostability treat male pattern baldness. If an active drug is prematurely destroyed by biochemical or enzymatic processes, Prodrugs the design of a prodrug may protect the drug during its transport in the body. For Prodrug is a term used to describe a com example, valacyclovir is a prodrug of acy pound that requires metabolic biotransfor clovir. Normally, the bioavailability of acy mation after administration to produce the clovir is 10% to 20% after oral administration. Valacyclovir is converted to acyclovir by liver the conversion of an inactive prodrug to an esterases via the first pass metabolism result active compound occurs primarily through ing in a 55% bioavailability. Depending use of a prodrug could result in site-specific on the specific prodrug–enzyme interaction, action of greater potency. For example, dopa the biotransformation may occur anywhere mine in the treatment of Parkinson disease along the course of drug transit or at the body is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier. An example of a prodrug is cross the blood–brain barrier and then is con enalapril maleate (Vasotec), which, after oral verted to dopamine. Prodrugs may be designed preferentially for solubility, absorp Depending on a prodrug’s rate of metabolic tion, biostability, and prolonged release (24). However, a drug need not be a venous injection, a water-soluble prodrug, new chemical entity to be considered new. A for example, hydrocortisone sodium suc change in a previously approved drug prod cinate, could be prepared through the addi uct’s formulation or method of manufacture tion of a functional group that later would be constitutes newness under the law since such detached by the metabolic process to yield, changes can alter the therapeutic efficacy once again, the active drug molecule. A combination of two or more old drugs Absorption or a change in the usual proportions of drugs A drug may be made more water or lipid in an established combination product is con soluble, as desired, to facilitate absorption sidered new if the change introduces a ques via the intended route of administration. The status new and triggers reconsideration for Council is tri-sponsored by the American safety and efficacy. An updated locations of these a to ms increases, the com list of adopted names may be found on the pound receives a systematic chemical name, Web site. To be ade Guiding principles for the coining of a quate and fully specific, the name must reveal nonproprietary name are comprehensive every part of the compound’s molecular struc (27). Among the stated principles are the fol ture, so that it describes only that compound lowing: (a) the name should be useful primar and no other. The systematic name is generally ily to health care practitioners particularly in so formidable that it soon is replaced in sci its safety for use in the routine processes of entific communication by a shortened name, prescribing, dispensing, and administering which, although less descriptive chemically, is drugs; (b) the name should be a single word, unders to od to refer only to that chemical com preferably with no more than four syllables, pound. This shortened name is the chemical’s and should be free from conflict with other nonproprietary (or generic) name. A nonproprietary name of confusing nor misleading; and (c) distinc a drug serves numerous and varied purposes, tive terminology should be used for specific its principal function being to identify the drugs or drug groups. Today, many companies give their new compounds code numbers before assigning BioLogic chArActerizAtion a nonproprietary name. These code numbers take the form of an identifying prefix letter Prospective drug substances must undergo or letters that identify the drug’s sponsor, fol preclinical testing for biologic activity to lowed by a number that further identifies the assess their potential as useful therapeutic test compound.
Additional safety precautions need to blood pressure medication list buy plendil 2.5 mg mastercard be taken when testing medications in drug-dependent patients because their health is often impaired and because of the possibility of to pulse pressure ati buy 2.5 mg plendil with visa xic interactions between the medication and drugs of abuse if patients continue alcohol or other drug use during the clinical trial arrhythmia vs tachycardia cheap 10 mg plendil mastercard. Increased to arrhythmia guidelines discount plendil online amex xicity of medications used to treat drug-dependent patients may result from alterations in hepatic metabolism associated with drug use or from combining the effects of the medication with abused drugs. Following a standard dosing regimen, desipramine plasma levels were reported to be elevated in methadone-maintained patients treated for cocaine abuse compared to cocaine-dependent patients not on methadone (Kosten et al. The cardiovascular to xicity of cocaine also appears to be increased during the initial phases of induction on to desipramine (Fischman et al. Neuroadaptation following prolonged desipramine administration may make the cardiovascular to xicity associated with cocaine use less problematic. The potential for drug interactions to lead to increased to xicity has appropriately prompted evaluation of many potential pharmacologic treatments in hospital settings using drug administration paradigms. In addition to considering a medication’s potential target and its safety, evidence of efficacy from preclinical or clinical studies may be important in deciding to investigate a medication for treatment of drug abuse or dependence. Fortui to us findings 205 in humans treated with a medication for other purposes, such as reports of reductions in cocaine use among buprenorphine-treated subjects in a study of short-term opiate de to xification, may also suggest novel uses for a medication (Kosten et al. Respect for persons is ensured through insistence on the informed, voluntary consent of individuals to participate in a research pro to col. Beneficence refers to the obligation to protect subjects from harm by maximizing potential benefits and minimizing possible risks. Risks involved in clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments include both the medical risks of the medication or drug interactions and nonmedical risks such as the potential for breaches of patient confidentiality. Potential benefits of participation must be evaluated by comparing the likelihood, potential magnitude, and importance of potential benefits in the context of the risks of the untreated disease and the risks and benefits of alternative treatments. To maximize societal benefits, it is critical that the scientific design and conduct of the research pro to col ensure the validity of the study results. Efficacy can be strongly supported if the natural his to ry of a condition is completely described and hard outcomes. A number of critical design features have been identified to ensure the validity of randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trials (Blame et 206 al. Baseline assessments must be sufficient to ensure comparability of treatment groups, homogeneity of subject sample, and evaluation of potential predic to rs of differential outcome. Inclusion and exclusion criteria must be specified, including diagnosis, severity of disorder, patterns of use, clinical staging, and comorbid conditions. When indicated, prerandomization stratification should be employed on selected subject characteristics such as depression. This practice allows inclusion of a sufficiently heterogeneous sample to ensure generalizability of the study while maintaining sufficient homogeneity and comparability of subject groups to detect treatment effects. Experimental and control interventions must be defined, including: • Specification of optimal dose and duration of experimental treatment and control treatment (placebo or alternative active medication). A shorter study duration is usually associated with higher retention and facilitates data analysis, but longer duration is often necessary to assess sustained or clinically important effects; • An active medication control should be considered if the side effect profile of the study medication is likely to lead to inadvertent breaking of the double blind or if there is a need to compare the study medication with a known efficacious medication; • the number of pills administered to controls should be yoked (equal) to the number of pills administered to subjects receiving the study medication if the dose of the study medication is adjusted based on blood levels or response; and • Compliance should be moni to red using blood levels, pill counts, direct observation, riboflavin markers, and other appropriate methods. Failure 207 to specify, limit, and moni to r other interventions may confound the interventions’ effects with the effects of the medication group. Overly stringent limitations of psychosocial interventions may lead to problems with retention of subjects and difficulties generalizing study results to usual clinical practice settings. Predetermined criteria for removal of subjects from the study must be established based on compliance with the study pro to col or safety considerations. Criteria are needed for early termination of the study based on unacceptable levels of adverse outcomes in a treatment group. Caution is required in deciding to terminate a study prior to completion of the planned initial pro to col, since multiple looks at the data necessitate correction for significance levels. Adequate plans must be in place to ensure retention of subjects in the clinical trial and to follow all subjects throughout the planned duration of the study. While pure pharmacologic trials provide the clearest test of medication efficacy, psychosocial services may be necessary to facilitate sufficient subject retention and compliance to allow assessment of medication efficacy. Major outcomes, frequency of assessment, and methods to assess and ensure the reliability and validity of measures to be used must be specified. Additional outcome domains include reduction of symp to ms and improved psychiatric, medical, social, family, vocational, or legal functioning. Plans for data analysis must include primary outcome measures specified in advance of the trial, and intention to treat analysis or predetermined minimum dose/duration of treatment. Power calculations need to be based on estimated effect size (optimally from pilot data), study design, and planned data analysis. The to xicity of the medication alone, or combined with alcohol or other drugs, may be affected by alterations of drug metabolism and drug disposition during pregnancy, and potential adverse obstetrical effects of the medication. The tera to genic potential of the medication must be assessed, including possible fetal malformations, vascular disruptions, or long-term adverse behavioral effects. Inclusion of these additional outcome domains raises two important considerations. What is best or most desired for the mother, for example, may not always be what is best for the fetus, To illustrate this potential conflict, consider the use of a tera to genic medication to relieve abstinence symp to ms in a pregnant woman. As another example, high-dose methadone maintenance may be needed to reduce illicit opiate use, but is more likely to lead to significant neonatal withdrawal. In this latter example, the benefits to the neonate of the mother’s reduction in illicit drug use. Risk-Benefit Assessment Assessment of the risk-benefit ratio of a clinical trial of a pharmacologic treatment for drug-dependent pregnant women is complicated by the need to evaluate the risks of obstetrical complications and tera to genesis associated both with drug abuse and with the medications used to treat drug abuse. At present, relatively limited human data are available regarding the optimal use during pregnancy of most of the medications that are under investigation for the treatment of drug dependence. Of additional concern, the problems caused by the untreated disease (drug abuse) with regard to obstetrical complications and neonatal outcomes are not always clearly established and may not be susceptible to therapeutic intervention (Zuckerman et al. Some adverse effects may be pregnancy phase-specific and irreversible; for example, treatment of maternal cocaine use after organ malformation occurs in the first trimester will not affect this outcome (Volpe 1992). In one study, discontinuation of cocaine use after the first trimester only partially reduced the risk of placental abruption (Chasnoff et al. Data from a general hospital prenatal clinic which serves primarily low income women suggests that it may not be feasible to enroll drug 210 dependent pregnant women in clinical trials early enough to prevent many of the adverse effects on obstetrical or neonatal outcome (Grossman et al. Drug-dependent women are significantly more likely to enter prenatal care in the third trimester or to receive no prenatal care than women who are not drug dependent. Cocaine abuse was documented in 24 percent of women enrolling for prenatal care in the third trimester compared with 3. In addition, unless tens of thousands of subjects are enrolled, clinical trials lack sufficient power to document the efficacy of an intervention to prevent extremely rare adverse outcomes such as anencephaly or severe geni to urinary disruptions. While even the rare occurrence of these catastrophic outcomes may fuel therapeutic zeal, enthusiasm for testing pharmacologic treatments needs to be tempered by consideration of the potential for medications used to treat drug dependence to cause even more harm. From a risk-benefit standpoint, it makes no sense to conduct a clinical trial to investigate a medication’s efficacy in preventing an extremely rare outcome if the medication might cause even a slightly increased risk of a more commonly occurring condition. Particular caution is required in evaluating the significance and deciding to treat signs or symp to ms of pathologic occurrences rather than pathologic events (hard outcomes). Using fetal moni to ring techniques (Doppler) and ultrasound, some investiga to rs have detected signs of fetal distress associated with abrupt cessation of cocaine in cocaine-dependent women (Christmas et al. It is not clear, however, that the clinical significance of these findings warrants pharmacologic intervention. Researchers need to be mindful of the earlier his to ry of treatments for opiate withdrawal, many of which were considerably more lethal than the disease being treated. Human Subject Issues Conducting clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments for drug dependent pregnant women raises a number of important issues regarding protection of human subjects. First, obtaining informed, voluntary consent from the woman may be problematic, given that many drug dependent women experience considerable coercion to enter treatment because of concerns about retaining child cus to dy or avoiding criminal prosecution. Second, manda to ry reporting requirements in some states may discourage drug-dependent women from enrolling in clinical trials, 211 making it even less feasible to conduct these trials and presenting problems in safeguarding confidentiality. Third, because of the dangers of both drug abuse and medication use during pregnancy, risk-benefit discussions regarding proposed clinical trials of pharmacotherapies for drug-dependent women need to consider carefully the potential benefits of nonpharmacologic treatments. If the risks of continued drug use during pregnancy are believed so extreme as to justify experimentation with medication, these medical risks might also be sufficient to warrant involuntary commitment to a residential facility. Confinement will almost certainly lead to higher rates of abstinence and improved obstetrical and neonatal outcomes compared with any pharmacologic treatment alone. Liability Issues Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments for drug-dependent pregnant women are likely to become the focus of legal disputes regarding liability for adverse obstetrical events or neonatal outcomes.