Use of high-pressure sodium lights in preference to treatment kidney cancer cheap epivir-hbv 100 mg otc mercury vapor lamps for lighting ware houses and outdoor security systems to medicine 2000 purchase 100 mg epivir-hbv free shipping avoid attracting night-flying insects [34 medicine used to induce labor discount epivir-hbv 150 mg mastercard,46] medicine ball discount epivir-hbv 100mg otc. Landscaping sites can reduce the amount of dust blown into the factory; entrances into the plant and areas surrounding it should be well paved to reduce the amount of mud and dirt brought in by workers and clients . Buildings should be oriented such that prevailing winds do not blow directly into manufactur ing areas; doors and windows of the plants should be screened tightly to prevent the entry of flies and other insects . There should be a proper layout of vehicular routes around the factory site to avoid soil being blown into buildings . Plant premises and areas surrounding it should be kept completely free of all decomposing materials and pools of stagnant water that generate foul odors and are ideal for breeding flies and other insects . The air circulating within the factory needs to be controlled since pests, insects, rodents, and birds carry pathogens. The main characteristics required are strength; fastness; abrasion, corrosion, and skid resistance. A bacteriostat in the formulation is integral to the flooring and gives the exposed surface strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms . The slip resistance of the floor is another safety aspect in the prevention of injury-causing slips, trips, and falls. As the problem of floor surface slip performance is relatively complex, there are many other factors involved rather than simply the flooring material. Thus, a broad range of polymeric shoe-sole materials are used today in addition to flooring materials. These include safety floors with studded or formulated with hard mineral additives (fine grain chemicals. Studded tiles are not recommended because of greater diffi culty in cleaning such surfaces. However, the final choice should reflect a balance among ease of cleaning, slip resistance, and other factors. Epoxy resins have limited resistance to very high concentrations of sodium hypochloride and soften at temperatures above 80?C. Polyester and furan Hygienic Design and Sanitation 959 resins are more resistant to chemical attack. The choice of flooring surfaces can be broadly grouped into three categories: (i) concretes, (ii) fully vitrified ceramic tiles, and (iii) seamless resin screeds. Concrete flooring, including the high strength granolite finishes, may be suitable in different parts of the factory. However, this is not recom mended for high-care production areas due to its ability to absorb water and nutrients and hence allow microbial growth below the surface, where it is extremely difficult to apply effective cleaning . Pressed or extruded ceramic tiles have been used by the food industry for many years and are still exten sively used in processing areas. In recent years, they have been partially replaced by various seamless resin floors due to cost and wide availability. The waterproof membrane of floor should be extended up walls to a height above the normal spillage level . All floors in the factory should be cleaned regularly and must be properly constructed with good drainage. Water should not be allowed to remain stagnant on the factory floor or drain because this breeds unwanted insects and flies . Ideally, the layout and situation of production equipment should be final ized before the floor is designed to ensure that discharges can be fed directly into drains. In reality, this may not be possible for the food industry since the layout of lines may be frequently changed. Drainage should be at the middle of the factory and equipment should be placed on both sides of the drain. Equipment should not be located directly over drainage channels as this may restrict access for cleaning . A U-shaped channel at the floor and wall junc tion should be used for easily cleanable and watertight junction. The walls must be constructed of impervious, nonabsorbant, washable, nontoxic materials and have smooth crack-free surfaces . Windows must have nets to prevent insects from entering the production areas and automatic doors should be used. Areas where cleaning, sorting, picking, and product inspection are done should be provided with suffi cient nonglazing light to enhance work performance . All equipment must be designed and constructed so that all internal contact points and external surfaces can be cleaned. Each piece of equipment has its own peculiar areas where microorganisms might proliferate, and hazard analysis of any weak points should ensure their removal, and indicate control and monitoring . Legislation on the hygienic design of food-processing equipment or the hygienic maintenance of these equipments is rather vague . National standards and directives applicable to the hygienic design of food machinery are available, but only a few international standards exist, directed mainly at the dairy industry . Care should be taken in the location of adjoining equipment to prevent inefficient discharge of product from one unit to the next. Valves are essential components of all food-processing plants, and the quality of the valves used strongly influences the microbiological safety of the food production process. Valves that may come in contact with food must therefore comply with strict hygienic requirements. The following are important conditions: (i) pits and crevices must always be avoided, (ii) sharp edges should be avoided, (iii) screw threads should not be used, and (iv) dead ends, which may trap product or prevent adequate cleaning, should be avoided. If dead ends are unavoidable, they must be as short as possible and be installed in a drainable and cleanable position; and there should be as few seals in a valve as possi ble; and during processing, the compressibility of the sealing should not be exceeded. More details are given in the European Hygienic Equipment Design Group Report . This type of valve prevents intermixing of ingredients or clean ing fluids during normal use. The design criteria for han dling dry materials must consider (i) the eventuality of disassembly/accessibility for cleaning and inspection, (ii) the moisture content of the product, and (iii) safety aspects including the formation of dust and exposure to it. Mechanical seals are commonly in use for pumps, agitators, mixers, and other types of rotary equip ment. Dynamic sealing takes place at the interface between a stationary seal ring and a rotating ring. It is accomplished by using perfectly flat surfaces, and using the product pressure along with spring force to press the components together. The appropriate design of mechanical seals can cause con tamination of a food product by microorganisms and residues, which may be toxic or allergenic. Materials used for components in mechanical seals must be nontoxic, anti corrosive, crevice-free, and nonabsorbent; should not transfer undesirable odors, colors, or taints to the product; should neither contribute to the contamination of food nor have any adverse effects on the food; should have surfaces and coatings that are durable, cleanable, capable of being disinfected, with out breaks, resistant to cracking, chipping, flaking, and abrasion; and prevent penetration by unwanted matter. All equipment must be rinsed and sanitized on a daily basis and, in some instances, whenever there is a change in shift (if this is applicable) . All surfaces in contact with food and outside surfaces of equip ment must be cleanable. From food hygiene point of view, the quality of the working environment depends on the facilities or equipment provided, which include toilets and protective clothing. The quality of staff depends upon their health, hygiene, habits, attitude, beliefs, and education or knowledge level on hygiene . Giese  mentioned that good sanitation is much more than just good common sense; sanitation also entails getting the message across to all plant personnel and not just those involved with handling food. Cleaning means the removal of residue of food, dirt, dust, foreign material, or other soiling ingredients or materials. Sanitizing means the effective bactericidal treatment of clean surfaces of equipment and utensils [2,53]. Ideally, disinfectants should have the widest possible spectrum of activity against microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and spores) in a time relevant to application contact times . There is an increasing trend in food production toward products with a short shelf life. Good cleaning com pounds must be economical, nontoxic, noncorrosive, noncaking, nondusting, easy to measure or meter, stable during storage, and easily and completely dissolvable. The selection of these compounds depends on the area and equipment to be cleaned, soil types, and their attachment characteristics .
Occasionally medications made from plasma discount epivir-hbv 100mg on line, there may be obliteration of the ducts by fibrous tissue and varying amount of inflammation and Granulomatous Mastitis is termed obliterative mastitis symptoms 5th disease discount 150mg epivir-hbv fast delivery. Although chronic non-specific mastitis is uncommon 72210 treatment epivir-hbv 150mg fast delivery, chronic granulomatous inflammation in the breast may occur as a Fat Necrosis result of the following: Focal fat necrosis of an obese and pendulous breast followed 1 treatment trends purchase epivir-hbv cheap. Pathologically, typical caseating tubercles with of lipocytes with formation of lipid-filled spaces discharging sinuses through the surface of the breast are surrounded by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells found. Fungal and histiocytes having foamy cytoplasm and frequent infection of the breast may occur in immunocompromised foreign body giant cell formation. Silicone breast implants implanted on breast cancer patients after mastectomy or as breast augmentation cosmetic surgery Galactocele may rupture or silicone may slowly leak into surrounding A galactocele is cystic dilatation of one or more ducts breast tissue. The mammary duct is obstruc lymphocytes, macrophages and foreign body giant cells. Rarely, the wall of galactocele may get secondarily long period it may even be calcified. Exact pathogenesis is not known but probably it is a form of hypersensitivity reaction to luminal Fibrocystic change is the most common benign breast secretion of the breast epithelium during lactation. B, Non-proliferative fibrocystic changes?fibrosis, cyst formation, adenosis and apocrine metaplasia. Its incidence has been reported usual large cyst is rounded, translucent with bluish colour to range from 10-20% in adult women, most often between prior to opening (blue-dome cyst). On opening, the cyst 3rd and 5th decades of life, with dramatic decline in its contains thin serous to haemorrhagic fluid. Occasionally, there is simultaneous As such, fibrocystic change of the female breast is a epithelial hyperplasia (discussed below) forming tiny histologic entity characterised by following features: intracystic papillary projections of piled up epithelium. Fibrosis: There is increased fibrous stroma surround ii) Relative increase in inter and intralobular fibrous tissue. Presently, Proliferative fibrocystic change in the breasts includes 2 the spectrum of histologic changes are divided into two entities: epithelial hyperplasia and sclerosing adenosis. The latter condition, lobular Simple Fibrocystic Change hyperplasia, must be distinguished from adenosis Simple fibrocystic change most commonly includes (discussed separately) in which there is increase in the 2 features?formation of cysts of varying size, and increase number of ductules or acini without any change in the in fibrous stroma. Epithelial hyperplasia obstructed collecting ducts, obstruction being caused by may be totally benign or may have atypical features. It is periductal fibrosis following inflammation or fibrous the latter type of hyperplasia which is precancerous and is overgrowth from oestrogen stimulation. Grossly, the cysts are Microscopically, epithelial hyperplasia is characterised by rarely solitary but are usually multifocal and bilateral. In general, ductal hyperplasia is termed as epithelial hyperplasia of usual type and may show various grades of risk to develop invasive breast cancer later. This risk is further 757 epithelial proliferations (mild, moderate and atypical) as more if there is a history of breast cancer in the family. Mild hyperplasia of ductal epithelium consists of at Unilateral or bilateral enlargement of the male breast is least three layers of cells above the basement membrane, known as gynaecomastia. Moderate and florid hyperplasia of ductal type is proliferation of ducts and increased periductal stroma. Such excessive oestrogenic activity in the lumina of ducts may be focal, forming papillary males is seen in young boys between 13 and 17 years of age epithelial projections called ductal papillomatosis, or may (pubertal gynaecomastia), in men over 50 years (senescent be more extensive, termed florid papillomatosis, or may fill gynaecomastia), in endocrine diseases associated with the ductal lumen leaving only small fenestrations in it. Of all the ductal hyperplasias, atypical ductal hyper in hepatic cirrhosis, testicular tumours, pituitary tumours, plasia is more ominous and has to be distinguished from carcinoma of the lung, exogenous oestrogen therapy as in intraductal carcinoma (page 760). Atypical lobular hyperplasia is closely related to male breasts are enlarged having smooth glistening white lobular carcinoma in situ (page 761) but differs from the tissue. Tumours of the female breast are common and clinically Grossly, the lesion may be coexistent with other significant but are rare in men. Among the important benign components of fibrocystic disease, or may form an isolated breast tumours are fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumour mass which has hard cartilage-like consistency, (cystosarcoma phyllodes) and intraductal papilloma. Carcinoma of the breast is an important malignant tumour Microscopically, there is proliferation of ductules or acini which occurs as non-invasive (carcinoma in situ) and invasive and fibrous stromal overgrowth. Though it can occur at any age Prognostic Significance during reproductive life, most patients are between 15 to 30 Since there is a variable degree of involvement of epithelial years of age. Clinically, fibroadenoma generally appears as and mesenchymal elements in fibrocystic change, following a solitary, discrete, freely mobile nodule within the breast. Simple fibrocystic change or nonproliferative fibrocystic changes or ductal carcinoma, or the carcinoma may invade the of fibrosis and cyst formation do not carry any increased risk fibroadenoma from the adjacent primary breast cancer. Identification of general proliferative fibrocystic changes are adenoma is a small (2-4 cm diameter), solitary, well associated with 1. Multifocal and bilateral proliferative changes in the breast pose like spaces formed by compressed ducts. Within the group of proliferative fibrocystic changes, disease and is termed fibroadenomatosis. Less commonly, atypical hyperplasia in particular, carries 4 to 5 times increased 758 Figure 25. Local recurrences are much more frequent than histologic features of cystosarcoma phyllodes (see below). The arrangements between fibrous generally large, 10-15 cm in diameter, round to oval, overgrowth and ducts may produce two types of patterns bosselated, and less fully encapsulated than a fibro which may coexist in the same tumour. The cut surface is grey-white with cystic Intracanalicular pattern is one in which the stroma cavities, areas of haemorrhages, necrosis and degenerative compresses the ducts so that they are reduced to slit-like changes (Fig. Thus, phyllodes Pericanalicular pattern is characterised by encircling tumour resembles fibroadenoma except for enhanced masses of fibrous stroma around the patent or dilated stromal cellularity. Occasionally, the fibrous tissue cellular atypia; element in the tumour is scanty, and the tumour is instead cellularity; and predominantly composed of closely-packed ductular or infiltrative margins. If an adenoma is composed of acini with secretory activity, it is called lactating adenoma seen during pregnancy or lactation. Juvenile fibroadenoma is an uncommon variant of fibroadenoma which is larger and rapidly growing mass seen in adolescent girls but fortunately does not recur after excision. Grossly, the tumour resembles a giant fibroadenoma but is distinguished histologically from the latter by more cellular connective tissue. Simple mastectomy specimen shows classification of breast tumours has proposed the term replacement of almost whole breast with a large circumscribed, grey phyllodes tumour? in place of misleading term of cysto white, firm, nodular mass having slit-like, compressed cystic areas (arrow) sarcoma phyllodes. The incidence of breast cancer is about six 759 malignant and less than half of them may metastasise. It is most common in 3rd and 4th decades the influence of family history and inherited mutations in of life. Grossly, intraductal papil i) Family history: First-degree relatives (mother, sister, loma is usually solitary, small, less than 1 cm in diameter, daughter) of women with breast cancer have 2 to 6-fold commonly located in the major mammary ducts close to higher risk of development of breast cancer. Less commonly, there are multiple proportionate to a few factors: papillomatosis which are more frequently related to a Number of blood relatives with breast cancer. Mutation in p53 tumour suppressor gene on chromosome Clinically, the breast cancer usually presents as a solitary, 17 as an acquired defect accounts for 40% cases of sporadic breast cancer in women but rarely in women with family painless, palpable lump which is detected quite often by self history of breast cancer. Higher the age, more are the chances of breast Fraumeni syndrome having multiple cancers including lump turning out to be malignant. Thus, all breast lumps, breast cancer in young women; others are tumours of the irrespective of the age of the patient must be removed brain, sarcomas, and adrenal cortical tumours. Currently, emphasis is on early diagnosis by Other mutations seen less frequently in breast cancer mammography, xero-radiography and thermography. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that excess endogenous oestrogen or exogenously administered oestrogen for prolonged duration is an Etiology important factor in the development of breast cancer. Though extensive clinical and experimental research as well Evidences in support of increased risk with oestrogen excess as epidemiologic studies have been carried out in the field are as follows: of breast cancer, its exact etiology remains elusive. However, i) Women with prolonged reproductive life, with menar based on current status of our knowledge, the following risk che setting in at an early age and menopause relatively late factors are considered significant in its etiology: have greater risk. The breast cancer cells secrete many histological patterns of invasive carcinoma breast which have growth factors which are oestrogen-dependent. These include a host of following environmental influences and dietary factors associated with A. Carcinoma in situ confined within the larger mammary ducts vi) Identification of a transmissible retrovirus in early 20th is called intraductal carcinoma.
The ozonated water is also used for washing the carcasses to medications kidney infection cheap epivir-hbv online visa eliminate bacterial counts on the product  symptoms leukemia discount 100 mg epivir-hbv with amex. Ozonated water can be used to xerostomia medications side effects buy epivir-hbv 150mg low price decontaminate carcasses without visual defects or sensory off-flavors symptoms your period is coming order epivir-hbv paypal, although bacterial count reduction is poor (1-log cycle) and there is no increase in shelf life . Spraying beef carcass with water followed by spraying with ozonated water is an effective bacteriological sanitation method . Its bactericidal activity decreases in alkaline conditions and at high levels of organic matter. Furthermore, potentially toxic muta genic reaction products, including trihalomethanes, are formed during chlorine treatment of food com ponents [138,251]. Chlorine dioxide has received much attention due to its advantages over aqueous chlorine: (i) it is seven times more potent than aqueous chlorine in killing bacteria in poultry processing chill water , (ii) its bactericidal activity is not affected by alkaline conditions and the presence of high levels of organic matter [40,254], (iii) it is less reactive than aqueous chlorine in interacting with organic compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, their methyl esters , and tryptophan and their derivatives . The Food and Drug Administration of the United States approved a 3 ppm residue of chlorine dioxide for controlling microbial populations in poultry processing water . The most frequently used and cheap antibiotics are chlorotetracycline and oxytetracycline. However, generally, application of antibiotics to meat faces wide criticism and protest. Many people do not agree with antibiotic application to meat on legal and hygienic grounds as many antibiotics may cause toxic and allergic reactions as well as bacterial resistance with cumulative effects in the human body. In addition to the treatments, packaging is also used in preventing contamination, controlling evaporation of water from the surface, and reabsorbing the drip. The absorbent and refrigerant pads benefit by absorbing and retaining unwanted fluids, and improving the shelf life and helping to maintain humidity levels. Development of rigor mortis has been determined by several methods, including (1) loss of extensibility , (2) muscle shortening , (3) tension development , (4) resistance to strain , and (5) a combination of muscle tension and shortening . The rate of postmortem glycolysis and the extent to which it occurs have significant implications on meat quality. As anaerobic glycolysis proceeds from the point of slaughter to rigor mortis, various changes occur in the muscle. The production of H leads to a more acidic condition, which, in turn, is measured as a decrease in meat pH. Fast glycolyzing muscles yield higher tenderness scores compared with slow glycolyzing muscle [170,201]. Preslaughter stress causes depletion of muscle glycogen and therefore limits postmortem glycolysis resulting in meat with an increased ultimate pH . The rate of biochemical reactions in the muscle is strongly affected by temperature. Interactions between pH and temperature during the onset of rigor directly influence meat quality through effects on proteolysis, protein denaturation, and myofibrillar shrinkage [104,201,243,247]. The calpain system is the most likely cause for myofibril-related tenderization and proteolytic activity and autolytic activity of -calpain is largely a function of the interaction between pH and temperature [35,101,193]. A rule of thumb for chemical reactions in general is that an increase of 10?C results in a doubling of the reaction rate. At death, livestock muscle temperature is at the normal physiological level (38?C?40?C). Once the animal carcass has been processed, it is placed into a cooler at 4?C or less. Temperature has a greater influence on the degree to which glycolytic reactions are slowed and the time course of rigor onset. Carcass subcutaneous fat will act as insulator and can signifi cantly slow the rate of postmortem temperature decline in the carcass. In turn, a faster rate of postmortem glycolysis may be expected because of the higher temperature of the carcass. It is important to note that, within a given carcass, various muscles will display different cooling rates based on their location. These properties can be maintained if prerigor meat is frozen quickly to temperatures below 20?C. However, when the frozen meat is thawed, it thaw shortens and loses its water-holding capacity. A rapid chilling may have a detrimental effect via cold short ening, which results in a drastic decrease in tenderness . The degree of overlap between myosin and actin filaments primarily contributed to meat toughening . In another study, there was no relationship between the strength of actin?myosin overlap and meat tenderness. Changes in angles of crisscross connective tissue lattice and crimp length are responsible in part for the relationship between sarcomere length and meat tenderness [98,203]. The toughness of cold-shortened meat was largely affected by an endogenous enzymatic tenderization mechanism rather than shortened sarcomere length . However, sarcomere shortening alone does not cause meat toughness, since heat-shortened sarcomeres have a limited effect on shear force [92,218]. This suggests that the effect of sarcomere length on meat tenderness is dependent on the cause of muscle shortening. There may be a possibility of a more direct cold shortening/toughening relationship in lean carcasses exposed to rapid chilling early postmortem, a relationship that would seem reasonable for lean carcasses with localized subcuta neous fat deposition [126,141]. The effect of shortening sarcomeres on shear force is significantly detrimental when proteolysis is relatively slow. The cold? refers to the rapid cooling that must occur to observe the effect  (Figure 7. If meat is frozen prior to rigor onset and subsequently thawed, it will shorten dramatically and be extremely tough. It has been shown that calcium-reserving organelles lose their function at abnormal cellular temperature . During thawing, all components necessary for muscle contraction are still present, but controls of the reactions are lost. As a result, anaerobic metabolism is processed at a very rapid rate and is con 50 comitant with severe contraction. Two general systems of electrical stimula 10 tion?high (300?500) and low (70?90) voltages?are currently used [21,45,121, 0 149,186,197,225,244,256]. Postharvest Handling of Red Meat 183 of short pulses, each of which causes the muscles to contract violently, but between pulses, the mus cles return to their normal relaxed state . Low-voltage electrical stimulation is less effective for tenderness improvement when compared to high-voltage electrical stimulation. However, low voltage electrical stimulation application is safer for users and hence offers a more attractive option . The proposed mechanism of electrical stimulation is the prevention of cold shortening by accel eration of rigor mortis onset, while internal muscle temperature remains outside the cold shortening risk zone . Additionally, electrical stimulation causes muscular contraction sufficient to cause physical disruption of tissue . Acceleration of proteolysis could be classified as a secondary effect mediated through time/temperature?pH interaction, affecting factors such as enzyme stability and activity . Because of its simpler mechanism, low-voltage electrical stimulation is most effective where cold shortening is an actual risk due to low chilling temperatures applied in the early postmortem period and where carcasses are sufficiently lean to result in rapid heat dissipation. With the acceleration of postmortem glycolysis, a rapid build-up of lactic acid occurs, and in some cases, the pH of electrically stimulated muscle can reach a pH of 6. The high energy of activation means that any cooling of the muscles will markedly increase the time for attainment of rigor mortis with a larger effect in stimulated muscle. The physical application of an electric current stimulation mimics this system and results in accelerated muscle metabolism, and serves to hasten the onset of rigor mortis. With the hastening of rigor mortis in the muscle, electrical stimulation can effectively prevent cold-shortening toughness  and allow hot boning of carcasses without the need to condition for many hours and with out causing detrimental problems with tenderness [92,172]. Thus, for a given time, postmortem anaero bic glycolysis will progress to a more advanced stage? in carcasses that have experienced electrical stimulation than in those which have not. This allows rigor onset to occur before the musculature reaches low temperatures at which cold shortening take effect. However, most beef packers do not have the required facilities to hold carcasses for that length of time before they were graded or shipped. There are three theories on the mechanism by which electrical stimulation tenderizes meat. First, because the onset of rigor mortis is hastened by electrical stimulation, muscle fibers do not shorten to the same extent as those from unstimulated carcasses when exposed to cold-shortening temperatures [31,42].
Injuries can also lead to treatment 101 order epivir-hbv with a mastercard formation of stress metabolites through linoleic/linolenic acid cascade producing traumatin and jasmonic acid medications used to treat depression buy generic epivir-hbv on-line, which have a role in forming a defense system against insects and microorganisms  medications 126 buy generic epivir-hbv on line. Degradation of lipids by lipase and lipoxygenase enzymes can lead to medications you can give dogs generic epivir-hbv 100 mg amex the formation of off flavors in fruits and vegetables. Shelf life of mature green tomatoes stored in controlled atmosphere and high humidity. Fruit maturity, carbohydrate and mineral content relationships with water core in Fuji? apples. In Raw Ingredient Quality in Processed Foods?The Influence of Agricultural Principles and Practices (M. Influence of temperature level on respiratory intensity in the main vegetable varieties, Proceedings of the Symposium on Postharvest Handling of Vegetables. Postharvest Technology Information Centre, University of California, Davis, updated in June 2002, 2002 postharvest. Relationship between fruit respiration, bruising sus ceptibility, and temperature in sweet cherries. Fruit development, maturation, ripening, and senescence: Biochemical basis for horticultural terminology. Uptake and transport of calcium and the possible caused of blossom end rot in tomato. Biochemical and physiological basis for effects of controlled and modified atmospheres on fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, University of California, Publication 3311, 1992. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, University of California, Davis, 1985. Unraveling senescence: new opportunities for delaying the inevitable in harvested fruit and vegetables. Washington State University?Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, September 2002 postharvest. Study of factors affecting temperature relative humidity and moisture loss in fresh fruit and vegetable storage. Implications and chem ical testing of two rhizopus fungi in softening of canned apricots. Postharvest Physiology, Handling, and Utilization of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits and Vegetables (E. Physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of ethylene biosynthesis and action. Introduction of fruit aroma and quality by post-harvest application of natural metabolites or anaerobic conditions: 1. Correlation between sensory and gas chromatographic measurements on grapefruit juice volatiles. Handbook of Analysis and Quality Control for Fruit and Vegetable Products, 2nd ed. Transpiration rates of stored perishable commodities: mathematical model and experiments on tomatoes. A Color Atlas of Post-Harvest Diseases and Disorders of Fruits and Vegetables, Vol. Raw Ingredient Quality in Processed Foods?The Influence of Agricultural Principles and Practices, Aspen Publishers Inc. Mechanical and temperature effects on shelf life stability of fruits and vegetables. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables. Non-ethylene, non-respiratory volatiles in harvested fruits and vegetables: their occurrence, biological activity and control. Postharvest: An Introduction to the Physiology and Handling of Fruit Vegetables and Ornamentals, New South Wales University Press, Sydney, 1998. Normally, quality at harvest can only be maintained and not improved down the value chain except for climacteric fruits, which can be ripened after harvest to achieve ideal eating quality. Both quantitative (reduction in weight and wastage due to biotic factors) and qualitative (reduction in color, flavor, and texture) losses anywhere along the chain occur in field, dur ing packaging, storage, distribution, and transportation. Postharvest management practices facilitate continuous supply of fruits and vegetables to fresh, minimally processed, and processed markets. Given the distance between the sites of production and consumption these perishable commodities need to travel, 49 50 Handbook of Food Preservation, Second Edition the maintenance of quality over the entire value chain is an onerous task. Generally, fruits and vegetables processing is very seasonal in nature, and the harvested produce must be quickly processed to avoid losses. Processor must assure that all the quality attributes at the time of harvest are maintained before processing. A good-quality processed product can only be possible when good-quality raw materials are used in their manufacture. Only those cultivars that are suitable for a particular process application are procured. Cultivars suitable for table-fresh markets are very different from those that are suited for processing. Generally, the produce is harvested at the stage when the eating quality is at its peak as this commands maximum market revenue. Quality specifications vary according to the raw material required for a given processing application and often include optimum color, texture, and flavor; free dom from pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, including their metabolic products; freedom from toxic residues such as pesticides; reasonable storage life; high nutritive value; and extended availabil ity. These are generally an important part of field or packinghouse operations and help in reducing cross contamination of healthy stock destined for storage, transport, distribution, Farm marketing, and processing. Immediately after harvest, the produce is sorted according to Farm storage size, shape, color, and appearance. The damaged and immature fruits must be Transportation removed, as these might become sources of ethylene gas, which will increase the rate of Processing shed Sorting & Packaging respiration, ripening, and senescence of healthy produce. Many products are sorted according to color, mass, profile, and size after Storage Storage passing the minimum requirements of quality. Grade standards vary between and within countries, and local authorities should be consulted for updates. Minimum requirements for sale of apples in Australia for purposes other than processing specify that the product must be intact, sound, mature (except for green varieties marked Cooker), and clean and free from foreign taste or smell for all three classes of apples marketed . Optimal maturity, color, sugar, solids, moisture content, size, and absence of defects are some of the factors considered for various fresh market products. Traditionally, sorting and grading are done by hand, which is extremely labor-intensive. Labor short ages and a lack of overall consistency have driven the search for automation of this operation. Color is a key sorting parameter used in the implementation of many automated vision systems that involve image acquisition and processing. Optical sorting is currently being used for apples destined for canning in Australia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, acoustic response, and impact response are being investigated for their utility in automated sorting and grading of produce. Equipment used in dumping, conveying, and grasping during sorting and grading should have smooth and properly cushioned surface to avoid injury. Large-sized containers are used for trans port and wholesale, and small-sized packagers for retail trade. Proper packaging can protect fresh produce from the environment, such as sunshine, moisture, and light. The container must be strong enough to withstand stacking and impact of loading and unloading, without bruising or scarring the produce. Thus, containers may require use of liners, pads, trays, or tissue wraps to prevent damage from contact with rough surfaces or adjacent produce. The produce can be packed in a box (wooden or paper) with absorbent, lining, or padding materials or in bags. The choice of packaging material is based on the requirements of stacking height, duration of storage, pretreatments, cooling, and cost. Pallet boxes are used for bulk handling, which saves loading and unloading time and manual labor .