On 4-13 his to superficial gastritis definition order imodium us logic analysis of severe cases of forearm extensor muscle contraction and epicondylitis gastritis dieta discount imodium 2 mg on line, one can see the characteristic repetitive supination/ pronation of the forearm gastritis diagnosis code 2 mg imodium with mastercard. Prior to gastritis neck pain buy imodium 2mg low cost many of the epidemiologic studies, there were numerous reports in the medical Many case studies of professional athletes have literature of clinical case series that suggest a documented that forceful, repeated dorsiflexion, relationship between epicondylitis and pronation, and supination movements with the repetitive, forceful work. Most cases have occurred in patients who remember no special overexertion baseball pitchers and tennis players. These reports, though pronation and supination movements with mainly case series, have lead to further studies elbow almost fully extended” to be responsible that examined the links between exposure and for epicondylitis [Cyriax 1936]. A number of case series have eight hours per day had decreased elbow reported similar findings [Hartz et al. In the studies that are patients with tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis), reviewed in Tables 4-1 44 patients treated between 1959-1961 and 38 patients treated between 1961-1963. In the through 4-4, the occupations with the highest first group of 267, the 130 (48%) whose onset rates of epicondylitis, such as drillers, packers, occurred spontaneously had occupations that meatcutters, and pipefitters, are consistent with included gripping to ols with consequent the force-repetition model of the causation of 4-14 epicondylitis. The development of epicondylitis Relationship for Force in these workers is consistent with proposed the Baron et al. The movement of affected workers conclusions concerning an exposure-response out of high exposure jobs limits the ability of relationship cannot be drawn. Moore and Garg  found a higher working conditions with an elevated risk for risk in workers with high-strain jobs compared epicondylitis may require an exposure to those with low-strain jobs. As a result, nonstrenuous jobs, and that female sausage misclassification of exposure may be common. While Dimberg  found no increase risk of epicondylitis for occupations difference in epicondylitis between blue and that involve forceful and repetitive work, white-collar workers, he found that workers frequent extension, flexion, supination, and with elbow pain severe enough to require a pronation of the hand and the forearm. The physician consult were significantly more often surveillance data are also supportive of this in those jobs identified independently as having hypothesis [Ro to and Kivi 1984; Washing to n high elbow stress. In Press] were construction workers, meat compared to the referent group of shop dealers, and foundry workers—all occupations assistants. Overall, these studies provide with repetitive, forceful work involving the arms considerable evidence for a and hands and requiring pronation and supination. Ro to and Kivi  the Moore and Garg  study (also reported that all workers with epicondylitis in discussed above) recorded wrist posture using their meat-packing facility worked for more a classification similar to Armstrong et al. Pinch grasp had been exposed an average of 5 years longer was also noted to be present or absent. This may be increasing levels of job demands (defined as due to the heavier weighting given the force either heavy physical work, awkward working rating system than the posture or repetition postures, repetitive movements, or restriction in scale. If a combination of in exposure, provide support for the exposure extreme posture and high-speed movement was response relationship between epicondylitis and required, then the force rating was raised by forceful, repetitive work. Although repeated pronation and supination, flexion/ there was a non-significant association between extension of the wrist, either singly or in assembly line work and the presence of either combination with extension and flexion of the epicondylitis or prona to r teres syndrome in elbow. The the six studies in Table 4-3 addressed posture greater prevalence of medial epicondylitis in variables. The details of these grasping movements involved in the assembly studies are discussed in the Repetition and line work. Evaluation Criteria these conclusions should be considered to be the Dimberg  study stated that over hypothesis generating and not definitive. The difference in exposure classification scheme may explain why there was no Coherence of Evidence relationship between prevalence of epicondylitis and increasing work strain. However, this Exposure-Response Relationship study had an overall low participation rate There is little evidence on which to base a (55%), which limits the interpretation of its discussion exposure response relationship in the result. Several symp to ms and exposure studies [Ritz 1995; Andersen and Gaardboe 1993a; Dimberg 1987] directly observations, the Hoekstra et al. This Two of the most important potential improper chair adjustment was thought to confounders or effect modifiers are age and increase shoulder and elbow flexion, as well as duration of employment. Nevertheless, in both studies, there is value in assessing where we are studies the increase in the risk for epicondylitis in regards to the epidemiologic evidence of in the high-exposure group does not seem causal inference. Those studies that base their after exposure assessment on quantitative or retirement age, after peaking during the fourth semiquantitative data have shown a solid and fifth decades. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence for the association of Many of the studies controlled for several repetitive work and epicondylitis. In posture in the workplace, the epidemiologic general, for epicondylitis, psychosocial fac to rs evidence thus far is also insufficient, and we or gender do not appear to be important turn to the sports medicine literature to assist us confounders in occupational studies. These evidence that is found in the biomechanical and forceful movements included, but were not sports literature. Clinical case series of cross-sectional; the current estimates of the occupationally-related epicondylitis and studies level of exposure were used to estimate past of epicondylitis among athletes had suggested and current exposure. Despite the cross that repeated forceful dorsiflexion, flexion, sectional nature of the studies, it is likely, in our pronation, and supination, especially with the opinion, that the exposures predated the onset arm extended, increased the risk of of disorders in most cases. In general, the epidemiologic studies have When we examine all of the studies, a majority of studies are positive. The association between not quantitatively measured the fraction of forceful and repetitive work involving forceful hand motions most likely to contribute dorsiflexion, flexion, supination, and pronation to epicondylitis; rather, they have used as a of the hand is definitely biologically plausible. While the examining differences in levels of exposure for studies do not identify the number or intensity of the elbow, and corresponding evidence for forceful contractions needed to increase the greater risk in the highly exposed group. In risk of epicondylitis, the levels are likely to be contrast, we found one study with clear substantial. Future studies should focus on the differences in exposure and no evidence of an types of forceful and repetitive hand motions increase in risk [Viikari-Juntura et al. Common evaluation of exposure fac to rs finding strong non-occupational activities, such as sport associations, and the considerable evidence for activities, which cause epicondylitis should be the occurrence with combinations of fac to rs at considered. Older workers may be at some higher levels of exposure provide evidence for increased risk. Finally, even though the the association between repetitive, forceful epidemiologic literature shows that many work and epicondylitis. There are several affected workers continue to work with definite important qualifications to this conclusion. Jobs involving high repetitiveness (several times/min) and low or high force, and jobs with medium repetitiveness (many times/hr) combined with high force were classified as high exposed jobs; jobs with medium repetitiveness and low force and jobs with more variation and high force were classified as medium exposed. Job titles such as teachers, self-employed, trained nurses, and the academic professions were “low exposed. Following telephone referent compared to other presence of pain, numbness, survey 91% checkers and 85% grocery s to re workers tingling, aching, stiffness or non-checkers. Total repetitions/hr ranged from Physical Exam: Tenderness 1,432 to 1,782 for right hand at the lateral/medial and 882 to 1,260 for left hand. Exposure: Direct observation Controls actually had a greater of awkward postures, proportion of the time in work manual forces and cycles shorter than 30 sec than repetitiveness evaluated via forestry workers. Cross Newspaper employees Outcome: Self administered Male: 11% O 80% to 100% Participation rate: 81%. Case defined Female: 14% time typing Workers fulfilling case as the presence of pain, compared to Analysis controlled for age, definitions compared to numbness, tingling, aching, 0% to 19%: gender, years on the job. Reporters with job control and job Symp to ms began after compared to satisfaction were addressed in starting the job, last > 1 week others: questionnaire. A Reporters were characterized separate job analysis using a by high, periodic demands checklist and observational (deadlines), although they had techniques was carried out high control and high job for validating questionnaire satisfaction. The forearm extensors or flexors Epicondy Epicondy Examiners were blinded to au to mobile assembly on resisted wrist extension litis: 0 cases litis: 1% questionnaire responses but line workers were or flexion. These vibration occurred in this Psychosocial variables and original 700 workers study to evaluate risk fac to rs other potential confounders or had been randomly for epicondylitis. It was higher population but were not used among women with short in this analysis [Hagg et al employment compared to those 1996]. Physician blinded to exposure person in the au to mobile were examined by the epicondylitis white collar status: not reported. Table 2 No-known increasing elbow stress (p < in the article lists types of Blue collar: cause group: 0. Cross 2,814 au to motive Outcome: Questionnaire Blue collar White collar Univariate Participation rate: 96%. Epicondylitis: more mental ponderal index, and mental tenderness at the stress at the stress at work listed as lateral/medial epicondyle onset of significant. Group 1 includes jobs, then classification in to 3 “repeated rotation of the Physical Work Stress Groups heavy forearms and wrists occurs by physician, weight; less racquet sporadically”; Group 2 includes physiotherapist, and safety sports, more less specifically “large and engineer.
Exposure to contaminated or untreated drinking water
Von Hippel-Lindau disease (a hereditary disease that affects blood vessels in the brain, eyes, and other body parts)
Heart medicines, including those used to treat high blood pressure and coronary heart disease
An MD degree that covered 3 years of study, including two 6-month lecture sessions, 3 months devoted to dissection, and a minimum of one 6-month session of hospital attendance
Corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory medications are generally not effective.
Life-threatening blood infection (sepsis). The risk is greater among the young, very old adults, and those whose bodies cannot fight infections (for example, due to HIV or cancer chemotherapy)
The cavity blocks are kept open overnight to gastritis chronic diarrhea purchase imodium australia allow the organic solvent to gastritis diet íùãåãèó buy imodium 2mg fast delivery evaporate gastritis diet foods eat 2mg imodium visa. Two ml of egg suspension of root-knot nema to chronic gastritis gallbladder cheap imodium 2 mg online de is poured in to cavity blocks and the hatchability of eggs examined under a microscope at 24 hr. The egg suspension is kept for 2–3 days to obtain hatched 2nd stage (J2) larval suspension of the juveniles. Two ml of the larval suspension is poured in to the cavity blocks and the mortality of J2 larvae examined under the microscope at 24 hr. Test plants such as brinjal, chilli, mungbean, okra or to ma to e are grown in small pots. One week old seedlings are inoculated with root-knot nema to de suspension containing 100 eggs or juveniles per pot followed by treating with test sample. Plants not inoculated with nema to de and not treated with test sample are kept as control. The soil is stirred in a bucket half filled with water and then poured on to a 100 mesh sieve fitted over a 400 mesh sieve and washed several times under running tap water. The residue collected on a 400 mesh sieve is transferred on to a Buchner funnel and allowed to stand. After about 48 hours, 10 ml of water is collected in a beaker and the number of nema to des determined with the help of a counting chamber. Some crude drugs used in the indigenous systems of medicine are also believed to be effective against hepatitis. Various assays have been devised to examine crude drugs and pure natural products for hepa to protective activity. Test sample (crude extract, pure natural product or synthetic compound) Hepa to to xicity assays 69 the following steps are involved in the antihepa to to xic activity assays: Method of Isolation and Culturing of Hepa to cytes 1. A midline incision is made and the portal vein is cannulated with a needle fitted with a teflon catheter. The liver is perfused using Ca2+ –free Hank’s buffer containing 1% bovine serum albumin Fr. The thorix portion of the superior vena cava is cannulated, and the inferior vena cava is tied off above the renal vein. The crude cell suspensions are then rotated in a rota to r under oxygen-carbon dioxide at 37°C for 10 min. The cell suspension is then cooled in ice and filtered gently through cot to n gauze in to centrifuge tubes. The supernatant is removed and the loosely packed pellet of cells is gently resuspended in Ca2+ –free Hank’s buffer. The viability of cells to exclude trypan blue is determined by incubating the cell suspension (0. Test sample (plant extract, pure natural product or synthetic compound) the steps which are involved in the hepa to protective activity assay are the following: 1. The animals of group “C” are treated twice weekly with test sample suspensions (300 mg/kg) for a period of eight weeks. The livers of each group of animals are removed and observed carefully for any change in appearance. If the test sample is hepa to protective, the livers of group C animals will have no visible signs of to xicity such as necrosis. Similarly the percent change in the group A and C weights of the animals, as well as their liver weights and liver volumes should be insignificant. Pen to barbi to ne sodium (50 mg/kg) is given to the animals of each group interperi to neally. The sleeping time (time interval between loss and gain of writhing reflex) is determined. This bioassay model system is now recognized to resemble the effects of viral hepatitis in humans from both the morphological and functional points of view. It is therefore considered to be a very useful bioassay screen for assessing prevention of liver damage and is comparable with the in vivo assay method. Isolation of Hepa to cytes Liver cells are isolated by a modified procedure of Seglen (1976). A midline incision is made, and the portal vein is cannulated with a needle fitted with a teflon catheter. After the teflon catheter is tied in place and the needle removed, the inferior vena cava is cut below the renal vein. The thoracic portion of the superior vena cava is cannulated, and the interior vena cava is tied above the renal vein. After the liver has been perfused for 10 min, recirculation of Ca2+fifree Hank’s buffer (100 ml), which also contains 0. Please note: In the case of mice, the same buffer is poured in to the inferior vena cava and drained Hepa to to xicity assays 73 from the hepatic portal vein at the flow rate of 10 ml/min. After 10–15 min of perfusion, the liver is transferred in to a beaker containing Ca2+– free Hank’s buffer (50 ml) and gently dispersed with two forceps. Next, the crude liver cell suspension is rotated on a rota to r under oxygen-carbon dioxide at 37°C for 10 min. The cell suspension is then cooled on ice and gently filtered through cot to n gauze in to centrifuge tubes. The supernatant is aspirated off and the loosely packed pellet of cells is gently resuspended in Ca2+– free Hank’s buffer. Determination of Viability of Isolated Cells Viability of cells is determined by incubating cells suspension (0. Determination of Viability of Cultured Cells Viability of cultured cells is assayed by trypan blue exclusion. Determination of Hepa to protectivity Induced by the Test Sample After preincubation of isolated rat hepa to cytes for 1. The evaluation of these plants and especially of their active natural principles is a logical way of searching for new drugs to treat this disease. Test sample (crude extract, pure natural product or synthetic compound) the antidiabetic activity assay involves the following steps: Preparation of Diabetic Rabbits 1. A group of rabbits is made diabetic by injecting intravenously 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate (Caution! Eight days after injection, the blood glucose levels of all the surviving rabbits are determined by the o- to luidine method (given below). Extreme caution is required to avoid accidental injection in human body Bioassay techniques for drug development 76 3. Rabbits with blood glucose levels of 200–500 mg/100 ml are considered as diabetic and employed for the bioassay. Normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits are randomly divided in to 5 groups of six animals each. The amount of test sample required for each rabbit is calculated on body weight basis. The test sample is then administrated orally to each animal by using a stainless feeding-needle on a plastic syringe containing 10 ml of the suspension. The feeding needle is inserted in to the s to mach through the oesophagus and the plunger pressed slowly and steadily (immediate sneezing and coughing indicates penetration of the needle in to the lung; in this case the animal should be rejected and another animal should be taken instead). After test sample administration, the animal is held in a wooden rabbit holder and immediately 0. After collecting the blood, the pricked side of the ear is rubbed with cot to n wool soaked with ethyl alcohol to protect the rabbit against infection. Xylene causes an inflamma to ry response, resulting in the blood vessel enlargement and dilation. The decrease in blood glucose levels of normal and diabetic rabbits produced by different doses of test sample, found at different time intervals, are compared by using Duncan’s Multiple New Range Test (Snedecor, 1965). In this state there is an ineffective insulin action because of decreased effectiveness of insulin at the tissue site or a decrease in insulin availabilily. A number of plant extracts and other natural products have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity (Ali et al. Test sample (crude extract, pure natural product or synthetic compound) Bioassay techniques for drug development 78 1.
Imodium 2 mg fast delivery. Plant-Based Diets and Weight Loss.
However gastritis in chinese imodium 2 mg mastercard, ascorbic acid is highly instable gastritis upper right quadrant pain discount 2mg imodium with amex, being quickly oxidized and decomposed in aqueous solution and gastritis pancreatitis symptoms buy imodium online now, because of its prevalent hydrophilic Figure 8: Plausible mechanisms of action of nature chronic gastritis what to eat purchase imodium 2 mg overnight delivery, has a low degree of penetration in to the skin. Vitamin C phosphatases of liver or skin to ascorbic acid and thus ion to phoresis may be an effective treatment modality for exhibits vitamin C-reducing activity. Both microphthalmia-associated activity of melanogenic enzymes was relatively high. A concentration above 20% does not increase its on skin lightening/whitening by inhibiting tyrosinase biological significance and, conversely, might cause some protein synthesis and interfering with intracellular irritation. Mulberry Extract the polyphenols contained in the leaves have depigmentation properties that have been demonstrated the leaves of the white mulberry (Morus alba, Moraceae) in vitro . Anti-melanogenic property of all its stem, have been used for many years in traditional medicine in root, leaf, twig and fruit . A patch test using 1% paper mulberry extract with the presence of some of these bioactive compounds. Among them, nine compounds (5’-geranyl terpinonene, 2-nonanone, nonanal, octanoic acid, cis-2 5,7,2’,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone, steppogenin-7-O-fi-d nonenal, dodecanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, ethyl octanoate, glucoside, 2,4,2’,4’-tetrahydroxychalcone, moracin N, ethyl dodecanoate, decanal, decanoic acid and ethyl kuwanon H, mulberrofuran G, morachalcone A, decanoate . Its antioxidant, neuroprotective, oxyresveratrol-3’-O-fi-d-glucopyranoside and immunomodulative and antitumor activities . The effects of glabrene (Figure 11) and Glabra L, legume native to Europe and Asia. It is cultivated isoliquiritigenin on tyrosinase activity were dose extensively in India. Liquorice root offers skin dependent and correlated to their ability to inhibit depigmenting, lightening, emollient, and anti-acne, pho to melanin formation in melanocytes . Glabrene and protection, and antiaging, antimicrobial and antioxidant isoliquiritigenin exert varying degrees of inhibition on properties, all helpful for a healthy skin. Glabridin (Figure 11), a (Glycyrrhizin-salts of glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids. The licorice extract includes liquiritin, Licorice extracts also influence pigmentation by removing isoliquertin (a chalcone) that occurs as a glycoside and epidermal melanin, inhibiting the biosynthesis of melanin during drying is partly converted in to liquiritin (Figure and inhibiting the activity of tyrosinase in a dose 11), liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, and other compounds dependent manner. Liquiritin causes depigmentation by two treatment of melasma with good results and very mild mechanisms: irritation . The association of Emblica, Licorice and Belides is a safe and efficient alternative for the treatment I. Via amelanodermic and epidermal stain removing tumor necrosis fac to r alpha in human keratinocytes. Acute and chronic to xicity studies have Licochalcone A (Figure 11) may also effectively reduce been carried out with no adverse effects. Alpha-Tocopherol Toc-F), a derivative of fi-Toc linked by an ester bond to ferulic acid, an antioxidant, which provides stabilization Vitamin E is the major lipophilic antioxidant in plasma, to fi-Toc, similar to ascorbic acid. The term “vitamin E” includes melanogenesis in cultured normal human melanocytes, eight naturally occurring molecules (four to copherols and although it did not influence melanin synthesis in enzyme four to cotrienols) that have vitamin E activity. There is to pical alpha- to copherol is mostly used at concentration a large body of experimental evidence proving its pho to of 5% or less, products with varying concentrations have protective effects. Side-effects such as allergic or irritant depigmentation by interference with lipid peroxidation of reactions are rare with to pical vitamin E and hence, it is a melanocyte membranes, increase in intracellular component of cosmeceuticals preparations. Analysis are common applied in skin-whitening cosmetic by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction formulations . The antioxidant properties of fi-Toc, showed that the mechanism of melanogenesis inhibition which interferes with lipid peroxidation of melanocyte by d-beta and d-gamma- to copherols in cells might be membranes and increases the intracellular glutathione attributed to reduced expression of tyrosinase and content, could explain its depigmenting effect. An melanoma cells, their tyrosinase activity was significantly alternative compound is alpha-Tocopherol ferulate (fi inhibited by approximately 40% and 75%, respectively chembiopublishers. Oral procyanidin + vitamins and pigmentation and by later onset and lesser incidence A, C, E proved to be safe and effective among Filipino of skin cancer . Topical L-selenomethionine alone women with epidermal melasma, after 8-week trial and combined with vitamin E gave the best protection period. Appreciable suggests that to pical and oral vitamin E has pho to protection can be obtained from the combination of anticarcinogenic, pho to protective, and skin barrier to pical stable aqueous solution of 15% L-ascorbic acid stabilizing properties . Mice treated with each form (vitamin C) and 1% alpha- to copherol (vitamin E) to pig of vitamin E showed no signs of to xicity and had skin daily for 4 days . The most significant differences between for the treatment or adjunctive treatment of various skin this extract and conventional anti-oxidants refer to its conditions . The majority of have been used for treating a variety of skin conditions, traditional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids including psoriasis, a to pic dermatitis, vitiligo, chembiopublishers. Combination of 5% niacinamide and 1% N-undecylenoyl phenylalanine Niacinamide is an effective anti-aging technology for use on facial skin. The combination formulation was significantly more Given a sufficient bioavailability, niacinamide has effective than the vehicle and the 5% niacinamide antipruritic, antimicrobial, vasoactive, pho to -protective, formulation alone in reducing the appearance of sebostatic and lightening effects depending on its hyperpigmentation after 8 weeks . Niacinamide is an effective skin combination of 2% N-acetyl glucosamine with 4% lightening compound that works by inhibiting niacinamide ensured greater effect on facial melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes hyperpigmentation that N-acetyl glucosamine alone . Niacinamide had no effect yellowing (sallowness) versus control was significantly on the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase or on improved . Niacinamide benefits for to pical niacinamide, additional effects were decreased melanocyte transfer by 35-68% in a identified by Bissett et al, , which was improved keratinocyte/melanocyte coculture method . Clinical appearance of skin wrinkles and yellowing and improved trials using 2% niacinamide have shown that it elasticity . The study also showed that the daily use of niacinamide with sunscreen was effective in reducing hyperpigmentation and in increasing lightness of basal skin color compared with sunscreen alone . Niacinamide interferes in melanosome transfer to keratinocytes is used in the formulations of Meladerm and Lucederm . Treatment with niacinamide showed no including isoflavones and serine protease inhibi to rs. Daidzein and genistein are as skin care agents to reduce the signs of skin ageing two major components of soy isoflavones . The Supplement to Compendium of Materia melasma lesions once daily for three months led to an Medica states that black beans can be beneficial to sperm average reduction of hyperpigmentation of 12% . Soy and bone marrow production, muscle strength, hair isoflavone is an attractive source of functional cosmetic growth, and the immune system. Modern scientific materials with anti-wrinkle, whitening and skin hydration research shows that black beans have hypolipidemic and effects. After consumption, the majority of soy isoflavones antioxidant properties and can be used to beautify the are converted to their metabolites in the human skin . Black bean extracts have good antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibi to r properties, particularly in the bud rather than the dry seeds, where the budding process can improve the antioxidant and whitening properties of black soybean . The major components of soy are phospholipids (45-60%), and essential fatty oils (30-35%). Soy has proven to be both been widely used as a substitute for mammalian efficacious and safe. Several skin care products containing tyrosinase to screen for tyrosinase inhibi to rs as it is soy are available to improve hyperpigmentation. Skin inexpensive and commercially available in a purified lightening benefit can be seen after 12 weeks of twice form. The de-pigmenting effect of soymilk is functional cosmetic materials with anti-wrinkle, reversible and daily to pical treatments for 7 months whitening and skin hydration effects. Non-denatured Glycine two studies showed stimula to ry effect and one showed max extracts induced elastin promoter activity, inhibited an inhibi to ry effect for melanogenesis. Genistein also elastase activity and protected elastic fibers from exhibited melanogenic effect. So, the skin whitening of degradation by exogenous elastases in vitro may be used soya bean may be explained by some other mechanism(s). Lectins and Neoglycoproteins Accelerating Epidermal Desquamation and Lectins are proteins found in certain foods such as Melanin Turn Over wholegrains, beans and some vegetables. Pota to es, eggplant, soybeans, lentils, capsicum, wheat germ, red the capacity of several compounds to disperse melanin kidney beans, peas, to ma to es, peanuts are rich in lectins. Lectins and neoglycoproteins have been removal of melanized keratinocyte, leading to melanin explored as candidates that are involved in this granules loss. Topical application has been shown to phenomenon, because of their influence in cellular reduce the visibility of age spots without reducing their processes including intracellular trafficking, endocy to sis size or number, and can be useful in the treatment of and cell-cell recognition.